(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Publications"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/publicationsOOimmi 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION 
RESTRICTION LEAGUE 



published by 

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION 
LEAGUE 



Boston, Mass 
1894-1920 




rtl 



zn Apr)} tfi&J 



* CONTENTS * 



Publications of the Imm. Restriction League 

No. ] Present Aspect of Immigration 
Problems 

No. 2 Recent Changes in the Nationality 
of Immigrants 

No, 3 Necessity of Restricting Immigration 

No. A Missing 

No. 5 Missing 

No. 6 Missing 

No. 7 Missing 

No. 3 Missing 

No. 9 Latest Figures About Immigration 

No. 10 What Does the American Press Say About 
Further Restrictions on Immigration 1 

No. 11 Distribution of Illiterate Immigrants 

No . 1 2 Mi sing 

No.ir* Missing 

No. 14 The Present Italian In -lux 

No. 15 Immigration Figures for 1896 

No. IB IMMIGRATION. Its Effect upon the U.S. 

No. 17 Bibliography on p ecrnt Literature on 

Immigration 

No. 18 Text on Immigration Rills 

No. 19 Missing 

No. 20 Missing 

No. 21 Missing 

No. 22 Missing 

No . 23 Missing 

No . 24 Missing 



No. 26 Immigration Figures for 1899 

No. 27 Immigration Figures for 1900 

*n.28 Bibliography of Fecent Literature ©n 

Immigration 

\o.29 Immigration Fi urr s for 1901 

No . 30 Digest ©f Immigration Statistics 

No.31 Adoption of the Education al Test 

No. 32 Effect of the Ed. Test on Germans 

No. 33 Restriction of Immigration 

No. 34 Whence Our Immigrants Come, Where 
They Go 

No. 35 Missing 

No. 36 Immigration Figures for 1902 

No. 37 Present State of the Immigration Problem 

No. 38 Immigration Figures for 1903 

No. 39 Missing 

No. 40 Burdens ©f Fecent Immigration 

N©.41 I'estriction o f , Immigration 

No. 42 Immigration Figures for 1904 

No. 43 Underground Immigration 

\o.44 Imnio-rp tion Figures for 1905 

No . 4 BSyn o ; >si s of Certain Immigration Bills in 
The 59th Congress 

No. 46 Alien Dependents and Delinquents 

No. 47 Brief in Favor of Senate Bill 4403 

N©.48 General Immigration Statistics 

No. 49 Immigration Figures for 1907 

N© . 50 Missing 

No. 51 Eugenics, Ethics and Immigration 

No. 52 Immigration Figures for 1908 

No. 5 3 Missing 



Ne.54 Immigration Figures for 1909 

No. 55 Missing 

No. 56 Missing 

No. 57 Missing 

No. 58 The Future ©f American Ideals 

No. 59 Immigration Figures for 1911 

No. 60 Immigration Figures for 1912 

No.61 Missing 

No. 62 Immigration Figures for 1913 

No. 63 The Reading Test 

No. 64 Immigration Figures for 1914 

No. 65 Immigration Figures for 1915 

Mo. 66 The Case £or the Literacy Test 

No. 67 Immigration Figures for 1916 

No. 6 8 Immigration Figures for 1917 

No. 69 League's Numerical Limitation Bill 

No. 70 Immigration Figures for 1918 

No. 71 Immigration Restriction and World 
Eugenics 

No. 72 Immigration Figures for 1919 

No. 73 Brief in Favor of Numerical Limitation 
Bill 

No. 74 Immigration Restriction Essential to 
Americanization 

No. 75 Immigration ^Figures for 1920 

No. T6 Immigration and the World War 



PUBLICAT IONS Of THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE. NO. I 

XLhc (present aspect 

. ot tbe \ 

♦ Immigration Ipcobiem . 

~t - 

Kobcrt Be C. tdati). 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

Immigration TRestn'ctfon 
Xeaoue 



THE PRESENT ASPECT 



OF THE — 

IMMIGRATION PROBLEM.* 

There is no subject of national importance about which 
so much has been written and of which so little is generally 
known as the immigration question. In view of the fact 
that attention has again been turned to this subject by 
reason of the formation of the "Immigration Restriction 
League" of Boston, an account of our immigration laws, of 
their working, and of the changes that should be made in 
them, seems particularly opportune at the present time. 
Statistics of Immigration. 

It is an essential to the intelligent consideration of this 
subject, that we should have some idea of the numbers of 
immigrants who have come and who are coming to this 
country, and the effects of this immigration. Before 1820 
no record of immigration was kept, but probably about 
350,000 person* came to the United States between the 
close of the Revolution and that time. From 1820*0 1892, 
inclusive, the number of immigrants was 16,497,096, the 
bulk of them being from Great Britain and Ireland, Ger- 
many and Scandinavia. It should be distinctly noted that 
the quality of this immigration has, until within the last 
few years, been high, and that the people who have come 
in the greatest numbers have been akin to the American 
race in language or in origin, and have, therefore, been 
capable of ready assimilation. 

The number of immigrants we have received during the 
past four years are as follows — 

•This 'article is re-printed with some afcfftt changes, from 
The Charities Review, for Jun< '^1. It onftaauy appeared, in 
asomewhat different form an : mdei another title, in the Boston 
Commonwealth for Ju'y 15th, 1X93. 



3 



Austria- 1 1 utigary, 
Russia and l*oiarw 
Italy, 

Austria- Hungary, 
Russia and Poianc 
Italy, . 



1831 



!89? 



1893. 



71,042 
74 923 

-8.055 

76,937 
122,047 
81,631 



Austria Hungary, 
Russia and Poland, 
Italy, 

The decrease in irn 
been stated above, pnnc 



57,420 

• • ■ 58,684 
. 72,145 

gration for 1893 was due, as has 
dly to the quarantine regulations. 
It was not the result of more stringent immigration laws. 

The general financial depression which has existed dur- 
ing 1893 and 1894 has had a marked effect in decreasing 
the numbers o! .« ■ . < .?»• ^ince-June 30, 1893. There 
are two ways in rhft h h 1 time of depression acts to 
cause a slacking of tne tide of immigration. In the first 
place, many of those immigrants who are already in our 
country find themselves unable to pay the passage of their 
relatives or friends to the United States, and so many who 
would otherwise come ar< obliged to stay at home. In the 
second place, the news gets abroad that it is difficult to ob- 
tain work in this country, and many are thus deterred from 
leaving home. Vet in spite of this strong check which is 
acting at present, immigraiion has by no tneans 4 ♦practi- 
cally come to a standstill," as a recent writer (Dr. J. H. 
Senncr, "How we restrict Immigration/ 1 JVb. Am. Rev. 
Afiril, 1S94, 494-499,) would have us believe. Between 
June 30 and December 31, I&93, there landed at New York 
alone over 150,000 immigrants, the numbers who came dur- 
ing October, November and Decembei bein£ as follows: 



1890 * 
1891* 

1892 * 

1893 * 



455.302 
560.319 
579.663 
440.793 



•Kor the f • yeai ending June jcth. 
It wil! be n« red that :he immigration for 1S93 fell b^loij 
that for the preceding yea> by about 14 >. >o. The leason 
for this decrease is manifest, for during u.e winter months 
of 1892-93 immigration w.is practically suspended, owing to 
the strict quarantine regulations. 

Nationalities of Recent Immigrants. 

These figures serve to give some idea of the extent to 
which this country ha? been populated from the outside, 
and it must be plain to every one that it would be a stupen- 
dous task for this mass of people to i* assimilated and 
Americanized even if they were ail of a related stock, such 
as the English, the Irish, the Germans or the Scandinavians. 
When, however, we come to look at the races which have 
been contributing largely and in increasing proportion to 
our immigration during the la&t few years, we see how much 
more difficult the problem becomes. < Kir immigration has, 
until lately, been chiefly made up of the most intelligent 
and of the most desirable races of Europe, but recently the 
numbers have greatly increased of those who are without 
question the most illiterate and the most depraved people 
of that continent. A few figures will make this plain. 

The number- .f immigrants from # Austria-Hungary, 
Russia and Poland snd Italy in 1890, 1891, 1892 and 1893 
are as follow* 



Austria-Hungary, 56,199 



1890. 



Russia and Poland, 
Italy, • 



46,671 
52,003 



4 



October. ... 15,466* 

November, ... 12,345* 

December 11,415* 

♦Dr. Senner i figures. 

This is at the rate of over 400 per daj " n t!:p average 
for the three months. 

The arrivals during the first three months of [894 were in 
round numbers, 40,000. 

It has been seen, from the fort-going figures that the 
percentage of increase of the worst elements in our immi- 
gration is very great, and indeed it is much greater than 
that of the better classes, although immigration of all kinds 
has been increasing, except for the present temporary 
check, at an alarming rate. In this recent and most pro- 
nounced change in the race lines of our immigration lies a 
very great danger to this Republic, and at the present rate 
of this increase the bulk of our immigration will very soon 
no longer be made up of peoples which can be readily as* 
similated with us. 

Immigrants and Crime. 
Having spoken briefly ef the members and nationalities 
<>f our immigrants, we must mention some of their in- 
fluences. We do not speak of the millions of thrifty immi- 
grants who have settled here, have built up our country arid 
have become patriotic American citizens. It is with tne 
lower and criminal classes that we have to deal. The evils 
resulting from this kind of immigration are very numerous. 
One of the greatest is the enormous increase in the number 
of criminals in this country, which can be traced directly 
to the growth of the low^er foreign elements in our midst. 
According to the census of if*8o, the foreign-born element, 
although constituting less than one-seventh of the popula- 
tion, furnished more than one-third of the paupe/s. 

The census of 1890 shows that persons of foreign birth 
and parentage make up 38 per cent, or somewhat over cine- 



third of our total white population. THIS ONE-THJRD 
KURXISHKS MORE THAN ONE HALF OF OUR 1 

INALS, NEARLY TWO-THIRDS OF THE 
INMATES Oh OUR REFORMATORIES, AND NEAR- 
LY TWO THIRDS OF THF PALTERS IN OCR 
ALMSHOUSES. 

Illiteracy of Immigrants. \ 
The illiteracy of the immigrants we are now receiving in 
great numbers is a source of imminent danger to the coun- 
try. In every hundred foreigners over sixteen years of age, 
who came hen frwn F«r*ruary I to October 31, 1892, there 
were the folio**** 3«*i.*r •# Illiterate*, according to the 
countries from »tn b ih« iiaatiay ) • tflto England, ten; j 
Ireland, ei^ht, Wales, six; Germany, two; Scandinavian , 
countries and Denmark, less than one : Poland, fifty-six ; j 
Italy, sixty-six; Hungary, twenty-eight; Russia proper, ( 

twenty. -*mzz^EZZZ~p* 

Of the 440,793 tmnugram wiio came to this country in 1 
the year ending June 30, 1893, S7J87 OVER 16 YEARS 
OF Adt COULD NOT READ ; 68,582 COULD NOT 
WRITE, AND 61,088 COULD NEITHER READ NOR 
WRITE. 

danger from illiteracy it still fai th— aggravated 

by the fact that many of our recent immigrants do not try 
to assimilate with as or become Americanized, but live in 
colonies by themselves, speaking their own language and 
keeping all their own customs, unaffected by the higher 
civilization around them. The safety of this country de- \ 
pends upon our assimilating and Americanizing all these » 
heterogeneous elements, but the process of assimilation 
must become slower and more difficult as the foreign ele- 
ment increases, and as it thus tends to keep more and more 
by itself. Time faih to do more than mention the harm 



done by the foreign ideas and customs, imported into thief 
countr. from the slums of Europe, in the morals and in the 
sanitary condition of our larger cities, an i in such- distinctly 
::n- American and in •V- * ; ^*-.esr di^ree < lange rous ocrm* 
r<-nrr« .us the Hay market massa 1 Chicago, and the 
incident at New Orleans, 
rhe serious riois thai have taken place among the 
miners in Pennsylvania during the pasl winter were insti- 
gated and carried out by foreigner? pr.nci d!v Slavs, Huns, 
Italians and Poles. In snch x an* * -s - these the 
Anglo-Saxon element n almost unanimously on the 

side of law and order ach evils may be dirt ti) traced to 
the influence of the lower rh<?<^«: of : * "-ioTanLs. 

Imraigrmuc/t * tfa employed. 
The evils of unrrs- ire perhaps best 

seen and most fully reai^ca ai »uen a period of financial 
depression as that through which we have been passing. 
It seems almost unnecessary to point out the connection 
that this immigration problem has with the question of the 
"unemployed " Although w« have far more unemployed 
here than wp *.an lafcr c*r* of, our gates are still wide open, 
and the stream of immigration, partly checked, it is true, 
by the temporary financial depression, but stiil of no mean 
size, has continued to ho* on There can be no need ot 
stating, what everyone must see at once, that every ship- 
load of immigrants landed on our shore.s from day to day 
increases the number of the unemployed, the competition 
for work anc the burden which our philanthropic citizens 
have to l>ear. 

Our Immigration Laws. 

Having now seen something of the vast numbers of our 
immigrants and of the increasing proportion of the lowest 

8 




and most harmful classes, we shall turn next to an examina- 
tion of our existing immigration laws, in order to see 
whether or not they are sufficiently stringent. The main 
law, which is now in force, was approved March 3, 1891. 
The first and chief section of this law debars from landing 
"All idiots, insane persons, paupers, or persons likely to 
become a public charge, persons suffering from a loathsome 
or a dangerous contagious disease, persons who have been 
convicted of a felony or other infamous crime or misde- 
meanor involving moral turpitude, polygamists, and also 
any person whose ticket or passage is paid for with the 
money of anQthcr. <>* who tt assisted by others to come, 
unless it is affirmatives tad satis fauorily shown on special 
inquiry that such person does not belong to one of the fate- 
going excluded classes, or to the class of contract laborers. 

. .* This section does not exclude persons in the 
United States from ^eathag for a relative or friend who it 
not of the excluded classes. This law also provides that 
an alien who shall become a public charge within one year 
after his arrival shall be returned to the country from which 
he came.- In addition to these classes of persons, contract 
laborers are debarred under the Contract Labor law of Fnb, 
6, 1885. The new law, of March, 3, 1893, names no ad- 
tional classes of persons to be excluded, although the 
eneral impression is to the contrary. It simply provides 
for the making out of manifests at the port of embarkation, 
containing answers to a number of questions to be put to 
each intending emigrant, as to name, age, sex, occupation, 
etc. These manifests are to be signed or sworn to by the 
masters or officers of the steamers bringing the immigrants, 
the officers having to swear that, so far as they know, none 
of their passengers are of the excluded classes. These < 
oaths are taken before the American consul at the port of 



9 



departure, the object of the law being to prevent the cm- 
barkation of any persons who ought to be debarred here. 

This new law adds a little more -Ted tape," but as it 
does not increase the number of the excluded classes it can- 
not be expected to sensibly diminish the quantity or greatly 
to improve rhe quality of our immigration. 

Tnese .ire. in a few words, the present immigration 
!a as. Now the question arises : How have these laws done 
th( ir work 5 During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, 
2,801 persons were returned as having come to this country 
in violation of the law. When we consider that the total 
number who came was nearly 600,000, we see at once that 
the number of persons debarred was absurdly small, and 
cannot have begun to ioctade jJ tfente who really came in 
violation of the law. ttf tfe-, . were sent back, 

; 52 were contract laborers, whom n*u»t cases are skilled 
workmen, are well educated, and would without question 
make desirable citizens and be a distinct gain to the country* 
This leaves the number of 1,869 persons who were returned 
because they^ere idiots, paupers, insane persons, persons 
liable to become a public charge, 'assisted ' emigrants, etc* 
1 ,869 out of nearly 600,000 ! Can any one, in the light of 
these figures, think that we have sufficient restriction? O 
the 440,793 who came in 1893 but 1063 were debarred 
speuaJ^causes, .'nd 577 were returned to the countries fro 
whi( h they came by reason of their having become publi 
charges within a year after their arrival. In all, therefore* 
only 1640 vere debarred. Is it to be supposed that these 
few. out oi all the hundreds of thousands who came, in- 
cluded all the persons who were undesirable for this coun- 
try in accordance with the provision? law? Can 
for one single instant believe that the quality of our immi 
pr ints was so high that we only had to turn back these 

to - '{( 



out of that whole va** army: Tl t an • irom every one 
must be. No. 

How the Laws Should be Changed. 
It is. therefore. (.Icit that, under our present immigra- 
tion laws, while we art- receiving an enormous number of 
immigrants, we can only keep out a very few of the thou- 
sands of undesirable persons who mu coming to us 
this great stream. Even with the additi ■ of the new law 
of March 3, 1893, it will not he possible to keep out nearly 
all those persons who are debarred by law, for no such cur- 
sory examination, as is given by the steamship people in 
Europe, or by the insyv ctors here, can determine in every 
case whether or not a maii i> a criminal, or a polygamist, 
or an assisted emigrant The question then naturally arises. 
What changes are expedient in these laws ? That we have 
now to consider. Among the various suggestions that have 
been made regarding rther legislation on the matter of 
restricted immigratio? . there are three plans which commend 
themselves especially. these we shall briefly review 

here. The first proposition is that • very ^rant shall 1 
be obliged to pay a certain sum of money on landing; the 
second, that we shall require an educati< - ».-• ■ the third, 
that every immigrant sh . pi *urc 1 msulas certificate at 
his port of embarkation. These are commonly known as 
he head-tax, the educational qualification, and the consu- 
certificate plans. Let us examine each one ->tparately, 
ginning with the head- tax. 

The Head Tax. 
Under the present law every immigrant is supposed to 
y a tax of fifty cents, but this is paid by the steamship 
pontes and is, of course, no check to immigration, 
suggestion that we shall levy a substantial tax of $2$ 
|$#a head on every- immigrant has much to commend it. 



In the first place, it would make the expense of coming to 
this country from Europe as great as, or greater than that 
which would be incurred in goin^ from Europe to South 
America, Australia, or Africa. At present, with the low 
rates of steerage passage to the United States, this country 
is the cheapest place for the emigrant from Europe to get 
to. Secondly, if the immigrant were able to pay such a 
.sum it would be an evidence of his industrious and frugal 
habits, and, therefore, of his probable ^ fulness as a resi- 
dent of this country. Thirdly, it is not t.>o much to ask 
that, for the great advantages which this country has over 
every other, the bona JicU settler in it should be obliged to 
oav something substantial. This tax would taJl on every 
nationality alike 3 it would be a simple provision to enforce; 
and would, without doubt, debt* mat of the worst immi- 
grants. It may be urged tits* it would aUo keep oat 
highly desirable persons who have the misfortune to tt. 
very poor. This would doubtless be true in some cases, 
:bot the answer may be made, let those honest and industri- 
ous persons remain a little longer in their own or in some 
European country, until they have earned enough money to 
pay the tax, and thorn let diem come to us. 

The Educational Test. 
The second plan is the educational test. It has bee 
suggested that we should require of every immigrant 
knowledge of the English language : but this is eviden 
unjust. By this plan many thousands of honest and I: 
dustrious persons would be kept out who might mtv*>r^ 
no chance to learn English, and yet who would, after a t 
years in this country, make good American citizens. Tb 
other suggestion under this plan is to have the issfiWH 
tested as to his ability to read and write his own UnflpsjM 
TM« is much more just than the first suggestion and hai 



much to commend it. We have already seen to what an 
extent Hungarians, Poles. Italians and Russians are coming 
to this country, and we know that they are most undesirable 
immigrants. Now if the educational test were to be applied 
and it could easily be enforced, we should exclude about 
half of the immigrants of these nationalities, leaving only 
those who, having some knowledge of letters, might be ex- 
pected to develop into intelligent citizens in the course of 
time. The objection to the educational test alone is that 
the fact that a man can read and write is no evidence that 
he is honest, or that he can support himself, or that he will 
make a desirable addition to the country. This Govern- 
ment, which depends directly upon the people, must have 
education and intelligence on the part of its citizens if it is 
to be preserved. We insist on the careful education of our 
children ; our public schools are the admiration of the 
world ; and is it not reasonable that we should require of 
all who come to live among us at least the ability to read 
and write their own language, if not ours ? Newspapers 
printed in almost every known tongue are published in the 
United States, and the> all contain more or less information 
about the country and it* government, so that no immigrant 
who can read need remain in entire ignorance of us and of 
our institutions. 

The educational test is the most American of the pro- 
posed restrictions, for as our schools are distinctly American, 
so also would our educational requirement for admission to 
this country be a distinctly American measure. 

Consular Certificates. 
Lastly, we come to the proposition that every immigrant 
•haft, some time before embarking, apply to the nearest 
( 'nited States consul for a certificate, to be delivered when 
a 9 lands on our shores. This certificate is to show that the 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, NO. 2. 



1 



Study These Figures 



■AND- 



Draw Your Own Conclusions. 



Recent Changes in the Nationality of 
Immigrants, 

(Specially prepared for tJie League from Quarterly Report Btireau Statistics No. 2, 
Series 1892- 1893). 





Immigrants from 


Immigrants from 




A ustria- Hungary, 


United Kingdom, 




Italy, Poland 


France, Germany 




and Russia. 


and Scandinavia. 


1869 


3,515 


260,083 


1880 


36,812 


292,903 


1886 


71,734 


240,770 


1887 


124,781 


332,748 


1890 


154,873 


262,749 


1891 


222,020 


292,059 


1892 


259,967 


312,502 


1893* 


188,149 


212,169 


i8 94 t 


120,587 


161,950 


* Cholera Year. 




t Panic 


Year. 





Per cent of immigrants from 
Austria- H ungary, Italy , 
Poland and Russia, 
to total immigration. 



Per cent of immigrants 
from United Kingdom, 
France, Germany and 
Scandinavia, 
to total immigration. 



1869 


0.9 


73.8 


1880 


8.5 


645 


1890 


34.0 


57-7 


1891 


39.6 


521 


1892 


44.8 


53-9 


1893 


42.7 


48.2 


1894 


38.7 


52.0 



NOTE:— In 1869 the immigrants from Austria- Hungary, Italy, Russia 
and Poland, were about i-iooth of the number from the United Kingdom, 
France, Germany and Scandinavia; in 1880 about i-ioth; in 1894, nearly 
equal to it. In 1S8Q-Q3 the former class amounted to 934,395 or 37.6 per 
cent of the total immigration. 

Immigration into United States by Decades 

1820 to 1890. 

{From the report of the Supt. of Immigration for Hie year ending June 30, 1892. ) 



1820 — 1830 


128,393 


1830 — 1840 


539,391 


1840 — 1850 


^423,337 


1850 — i860 


2,799,423 


i860 — 1870 


1,964.061 [The War Period.] 


1870— 1880 


2,834,040 


1880— 1890 


5,246,613 



The yearly average, 1880-1890 was 524,661. Immigration 1880-1890 
was 35.1 per cent of the entire arrivals in U. S. 1820-1890. 

Immigration Years from 



xoou 334,203 

1887 490,109 

1888 546,881 

1889 444,427 

1890 455,302 

1891 560,319 

1892 579,663 

1893 440,793 [The Cholera Year.] 

1894 311,404 [The Panic Year.l 

NOTE:— Even the figures for 1894 give an average arrival of 853 
immigrants per day. 

Foreign Element in United States. 

(J- row United States Census.) 

Total Persons of 
Total Population. Foreign Birth. 



i860 31,443,321 4,138,697 

1870 38,558,371 5,567,229 

1880 S^SSJ** 6,679,943 

1890 62,622,250 9,249.547 



In i860 the foreign bom were 13.16 per cent of the total population 
In 1870 they were 14.44 P^r cent; in 1880, 13.32 per cent; and in 1890, 
14.77 P er cent. 



Native Persons Total Persons of 

having one or both Foreign Birth or 

parents Foreign. Foreign Parentage. 

1870 5,324,786 10,892,015 

1880 8,276,053 14,955,996 

1890 11,503,675 20,753,222 



In 1870 the total foreign element was 28.2 per cent of the total pop- 
ulation. In 1880 it was 29.8, and in 1890, 33.1 per cent. 

If only the white population of the U. S. is reckoned, then in 1890 
17 per cent of the total white were foreign born; 38 per cent were either for- 
eign born or of foreign parentage. 



Distribution of Immigrants. 

It is said that there is plenty of room in this country in the West on 
farms and ranches to receive an unlimited number of immigrants of what- 
ever character they may be. 



Of Persons born in 



Norway, 20.8% 

England, 40.7 

(jermany, 47.7 

Ireland, 55.9 

Poland, 57.1 

Russia, 57.9 

Italy, 58.8 



live in Cities. 



Insane. 



Total Insane in U. S. 
Total Native White, 
Total Foreign Born, 



1880 

9i>997 
59,494 
26,346 



1890 
106,254 
64,419 
35.300 



Thus in 1880, 28.8 per cent of total insane persons were foreign born. 
In 1890, 33.2 per cent were foreign born. So that a foreign born population 
which is only 14.77 of the total population, furnishes 1-3 of all the insane 
in the 17. S. 




Prisoners. 



NOTE:— The census of i8go, Part II, p. 169, says: "Taking into ac- 
count only the 105,885 parents whose nationality is known, 43.19 per cent 
of crime committed by white persons in the U. S. is chargeable to native 
white. 56.81 P? 1 ' rent to foreign element." 



Census of 1880. Census of 1890. 
Total Prisoners in U. S. 59.255 82,329 
Total White Prisoners, 42,294 57,310 
Native White Prisoners, 29,377 WAl 1 
Foreign Born Prisoners, 12,917 15,932 



By census of 1890, Part II, p. 182, number of native born white con- 
victs in penitentiaries was 12,842; number of foreign born or with foreign 
parentage was 15,598 or 54 per cent of the total. Thus a foreign born and 
foreign parent population which is 38 per cent of the total white population, 
furnishes over 1 -2 of the white convicts of the U. S. 

Paupers. 

NOTE:— The census of 1890, Part II, p. 174, says: "Taking into ac- 
count only 108,802 parents whose nationality is known, 41.56 per cent of 
white inmates in the almshouses of the U. S. is native white. 58.44 per 
crrit is of foreign element." 



Census of 1880. Census of 1890. 
Total Paupers in U. S. 67,067 73,045 
Total White Paupers, 61.316 66,578 
Total Native White, 38,349 36,646 
Total Foreign Born, 22,961 27,648 



Thus in 1880, 37.4 per cent of total white paupers were foreign born 
In 1890, 41.5 per cent were foreign born. • 

Thus a foreign population which is 17 per cent of the total white pop- 
ulation, furnishes nearly ONE HAI^F of the white paupers in the JJ. S. 

NOTE: — As bearing on assimilation of Immigrants. 

By census of 1890, part II, p. 683, out of the total foreign born males, 
over 21 years of age, 32.8 per cent were not naturalized; i. e. nearly 1-3 of 
the foreign adult males are not citizens. And out of the total male popu- 
lation of the U. S. over 21 years of age, 7 per cent are aliens. Of the 
1,189,452 aliens in the U. S. 32.6 per cent do not speak English. 



For Publications and Membership in the League apply to the 
Secretary, 428 Exchange Building, Boston. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, NO. 3. 

Various 
Facts and Opinions 

CONCERNING THE 

Necessity of 
Restricting Immigration. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

Immigration Restriction 
League. 

1894. 



I 



Wm 



■ 



111* 



<.1| 



Various Facts and Opinions 
Concerning the Necessity of Re- 
stricting Immigration. 



[This publication has been compiled for the 
league chiefly from articles which have ap- 
peared in various magazines and publications 
during the last four years. It is intended to 
bring together by this means a few of the im- 
portant words contributed to the discussion of 
the immigration question by statesmen, philan- 
thropists, workers in charities, and practical 
business men. It is very unlikely that many 
persons have read all the articles and reports 
from which these extracts are taken, and some 
may have failed to realize the number of men 
prominent in public affairs, or in their study of 
these problems, who have spoken earnestly and 
often to urge the adoption of measures to protect 
the national character.] 

Party Platforms. 

[Republican National Platform, June, 1892.] 
"We favor the enactment of more stringent laws and 
regulations for the restriction of criminal, pauper, and con- 
tract immigration." 

[Democratic National Platform, June, 1892.] 
"We heartily approve all legitimate efforts to prevent 
the United States from being used as the dumping ground for 
the known criminals and professional paupers of Europe, 
and we demand the rigid enforcement of the law against 
Chinese immigration or the importation of foreign work- 



men under contract to degrade American labor and lessen 
the wages, but we condemn and denounce any and all at- 
tempts to restrict the immigration of the industrious and 
worthy of foreign lands." 

[Prohibition National Platform, June, 1892.] 
"Foreign immigration has become a burden upon in- 
dustry, one of the factors in depressing wages, and causing 
discontent; therefore our immigration laws should be re- 
vised and strictly enforced." 

[From President Harrison's Message, Dec. 6th, 1892.] 
"This consideration [danger from cholera] , as well as 
those affecting the political, moral and industrial interests 
of our country, lead me to renew the suggestion that ad- 
mission to our country and to the high privileges of its 
citizenship should be more restricted and more careful. 
We have, I think, a right and owe a duty to our own people 
and especially to our working people, not only to keep out the 
vicious, the ignorant, the civil disturber, the pauper and the 
contract laborer, but to check the too great flow of immi- 
gration now coming by further limitations." 

The Nation's Duty Toward Her Citizens. 

[Vernon R. Andrew, in American Journal of 
Politics, Vol. iii, October, 1893, p. 427.] 

"Every honest citizen of the United States would 
rejoice to know that the whole world enjoyed the same 
blessings and privileges as are permitted to those who dwell 
beneath the liberty-loving folds of the "stars and stripes." 
But in the present condition of the world it is impossible 
for all to enjoy these privileges and the question we are now 
called upon as a nation, to decide, is this : "Is it our duty 
to sacrifice the welfare of our own citizens in attempting to 

4 



better the condition of the citizens of other nations?" It is 
essential to the welfare of any nation that the great mass 
of its citizens should be as highly educated as possible, but 
in a government such as our own, where the people both 
make the laws and select their own agents for enforcing 
them, it becomes an absolute necessity of the continued ex- 
istence of that government that the great majority of the 
people should be sufficiently educated to take a comprehen- 
sive and judicious view of all questions relating to the 
national welfare. 1 ' 

P. 428. "The American workingman has far more to 
fear from his foreign-born brother than his mere competition 
in the labor market. The foreigners who have come to us 
in the past, and many of whom are numbered among our 
best and most respected citizens, ought to be among the 
last to oppose a law restricting foreign immigration. They 
belonged to a different element from those who are deluging 

our country at the present time But if this tide of 

immigration is not stemmed, their labors will have been in 
vain." 

Our National Dumping Ground. 

[Charles Stewart Smith, President of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce, in North American Review, 
Vol. 154, April, 1892, p. 437.] 

"The danger to our institutions does not come from 
the anarchists and bomb-throwers. We can rely upon 
the operation of the law and police vigilance to protect so- 
ciety from these pestilent fellows, and Chicago justice has 
settled this question for some years to come ; there is, how- 
ever, a real and permanent danger to this country in the 
continued influx of so large a proportion of ignorant masses, 
for, as stated by an ex-president of the Board of Education 

5 



of New York City: 'Four-fifths of all our criminals are 
uneducated, and it costs $29.40 per annum to educate a 
child in a grammar school in this city, and $110 per annum 
to maintain a criminal in the penitentiary.'" 

The Restriction of Immigration. 

[Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, U. S. Senator from 
achusetts, in North American Review, Vol. 152, Janu- 
ary, 1891, p. 32.] 

"It is proved first, that immigration to this country is in- 
creasing, and second, that it is making its greatest relative 
increase from races most alien to the body of the American 
people and from the lowest and most illiterate among those 
races. In other words, it is apparent that while our immi- 
gration is increasing it is showing at the same time a 
marked tendency to deteriorate in character." 

Lynch Law and Unrestricted Immigration. 

[The same, in North American Review, May, 1891, p. 61 1 .] 

"There are great States in the West and Southwest 
naturally anxious to have their lands occupied and their 
population increased, but there is something more im- 
portant than rapidity of settlement or the quick develop- 
ment of wealth. These advantages will be dearly bought if 
we pay for them a price which involves the lowering of the 
standard of American citizenship. More important to a 
country than wealth and population is the quality of its 
people." 

Methods of Restricting Immigration. 

[Hon. Wm. E. Chandler, U. S. Senator from New 
Hampshire, in the Forum, Vol. XIII, March, 1892, p. 133.] 

6 



"It must be apparent to every candid and patriotic 
American, whatever may be his politics, that there is cause 
for alarm, and that there is real danger, if hordes of de- 
graded foreigners, accustomed to work for 10 and 20 cents 
per day, are to be allowed to swarm into our country, fill the 
avenues to employment, and reduce the wages of labor to 
the standard of the countries they have left, and in addition 
are to be naturalized and become voters without regard to 
legal conditions. There ought to be no political differences 
to prevent a united demand for an honest, faithful and 
effective enforcement of our present immigration and natural- 
ization laws, and for all helpful additions thereto which can 
be devised." 

The Immigration Question. 

[John H. Noble, in Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 
VII, June, 1892, p. 234.] 

•'Some strength of purpose was [formerly] required in 
the immigrant, while now nothing is needed but discontent 
with his lot at home and the few dollars that procure a 
passage. When the opportunity was dearly bought, it was 
more likely to be appreciated and improved ; while now 
swarms of miserable people crowd blindly into this country 
without plans or purpose, and when officially questioned can 
name as their destination only the port of landing." 

Studies in Immigration : The Mine Laborers 
in Pennsylvania. 

[Henry Rood, in the Forum, Vol. XIV, September, 
1892, p. 114.] 

"When a stranger visits the anthracite regions [of 
Pennsylvania] he is filled with sympathy for the poor Italian 
and Slav. He considers the American residents heartless 
in the extreme. He is amazed at the way the foreigners are 

7 



regarded. But a single year spent in that land will show 
him the truth, no matter how tender hearted he is. He will 
then know that disgust should take the place of surprise. 
He sees a thousand idle Americans and a like number of 
foreigners slaving for eighty or ninety cents per day. He 
sees the Americans sending their children to school, sup- 
porting churches, living in decent houses, trying to be 
cleanly and to wear presentable clothing. He also sees 
the scum of Europe taking the place of the former, content 
to swarm in shanties like hogs, to contract scurvy by a steady 
diet of the cheapest salt pork, to suffer sore eyes and bodies 
rather than buy a towel and wash-tub, to endure typhoid 
fever rather than undergo the expense of the most primitive 
sanitary apparatus. ,, 

Immigration of Aliens. 

[Arnold White, in The Charities Review, Vol. Ill, 
December, 1893, p. 75.] 

"The refugees from economic conditions that are insup- 
portable, do not gain, and still less impart, the liberty they 
seek, when they are accompanied by the very conditions 
from which they fly. To exchange the religious serfdom 
to the Czar for the economic serfdom of the sweating master 

is at least a doubtful advantage to the serf himself. But 

when he spreads the contagion of serfdom in his new home, 
the hour has struck for the rulers of a free people to look 
first to the welfare of their own people and their own race, 
before admitting the inefficient surplus of a lower nation." 

[Same. p. 73.] "For all nations there are other and 
nobler traditions which bear upon the nearer duties of re- 
gard to brothers in blood, color, race, before exercising 
vicarious hospitality to strangers without racial claim to 
generosity at the expense of justice to their own people." 

8 



[Same, p. 77.] "The grounds for excluding unsuitable 
immigrants from America and England are : 

1. The degradation of the racial type. 

2. The unfair competition forced upon the class of un- 
skilled wage-earners who are too poor and too numerous to 
combine against unscrupulous capitalists. 

3. The lowering of the standard of life among the 
classes with which destitute aliens compete in the unskilled 
labor market and the consequent contamination of character 
of the native born. 

4. The division of the charity fund from existing 
national distress. 

5. In the case of the Russian Exodus, the free admission 

of what Mr. N. S. Joseph [Hon. Sec. 

Russo-Jewish Committee] calls 'chronic incurable pau- 
pers. 1 " 

Alien Degradation of American Character. 

[Sydney G. Fisher, in the Forum, Vol. XIV, January, 
1893, p. 610.] 

"It is commonly asserted now that native and foreigner 
are alike corrupt in politics. But unless we deny the almost 
universal testimony of fifty years ago, we must believe that 
during the first half of the present century the native was 
honest and the foreigner corrupt. If the native is now 
equally corrupt with the foreigner, from whom did he learn 
his corruption?" 

[Mr. Fisher states that in 1850 there was 1 native 
pauper in every 3 1 7 natives; 1 foreign pauper in every 32 
foreigners; 1 native criminal in 1,619 natives and 1 foreign 
criminal in 154 foreigners.] 

[Same, p. 614.] "The modern movement against im- 
migration, if it go on increasing and take definite form, will 

9 



have many advantages over the Know Nothingism of 1850. 
It will avoid the absurdity of being a secret organization and 
the absurdity of recommending that the foreign born shall 
never hold political office. It will be entirely free from 
attacks on the Roman Catholics and all the violence and 
bitterness which that involved." 

Our Country. 

Judge Emory S peer's address before the Patria Club, 
of New York. Reported in the JV. Y. Herald, Nov. 26, 
1892. 

"Annually we spend millions to educate the masses, 
and yet admit hundreds of thousands of the ignorant and 
degraded whom we can never educate. Therefore, for every 
trained mind we produce we are presented with another, 
saturated with the densest ignorance, incompetent to under- 
stand our laws, to appreciate the blessings of our citizen- 
ship or to comprehend the simplest element of that political 
virtue which is indispensable to preserve them. 1 ' 

The Immigration Question. 

[Gen. N. P. Chipman, in the Californian Illustrated 
Magazine, Vol. V, February, 1894, p. 367.] 

"If this ratio of increase continues, the arrivals for the 
decade ending 1900 will not be less than 7,000,000, and 
if the increase during the decade ending 1890 over the 
number for the decade ending 1880 continue, the arrivals 
will reach 10,000,000." 

Gen. Chipman gives the percentage of the increase of 
the foreign, born in three states, as follows : 

New York. New Jersey Pennsylvania. 
1870-80 6.42 17.34 7.8o| 

1880-90 29.69 48.39 43-^7 

10 



The Lesson of The Recent Strikes. 

[Gen. Nelson A. Miles, in North American Review, 
Vol. 159, August, 1894, p. 188.] 

"As the importation of the vast hordes of cheap labor 
from China has been stopped on the Pacific coast, is it to 
the interest of every intelligent laboring man to stop the 
importation of the vast hordes of cheap and degraded labor 
unloaded on our Atlantic coast. We have no use for and 
should not receive any more than what can readily assimilate 
with our intelligent, self-respecting, industrious population. 

[Hon. Wade Hampton, United States Commissioner 
of Railroads, in North American Review, Vol. 159, August, 
1894, p. 190.] 

"Of course no reflection is meant on those honest im- 
migrants who have linked their destiny with ours, and who 
by their labor and their character have done so much to 
promote the best interests of the country ; but it seems to 
me that our land should no longer be the refuge of the scum 
of all Europe, and that every man who makes this his home, 
whatever his nationality may be, should, while holding his 
fatherland in tender memory, become at heart an American 
citizen with all his hopes, all his aspirations, all his patriot- 
ism centered in the land of his adoption." 

Restricted Immigration. 

[Speech of Hon. Elijah A, Morse, of Massachusetts, 
in the House of Representatives, Washington, March 2, 
1893.] 

"A man's first duty is to his own family; second, his 
duty is to protect and support the community, State and nation 
in which he lives. It is a question deserving the serious 
attention of the patriot, philanthropist and statesman as to 
how far our country can go in incorporating into our body 



politic these dangerous and hostile elements that are now 
coming to these shores. In the name of my constituents 
I stand in my place and demand that we shall enact radical 
legislation to stay this tide." 

Scandinavians in the Northwest. 

[Prof. Kendric C. Babcock, in the Forwn, Vol. 
XIV, September, 1892, p. 103.] 

"Every class of immigrants must be judged by its 
manifest ability to become American speedily, willingly, and 
thoroughly, in all that that term implies. The more gener- 
ations there are of ignorance, superstition, thriftlessness, 
and political passivity stretching out behind him, the more 
undesirable from every point of view the immigrant becomes. 
On the other hand, the immigrant whose home land shows a 
mimimum percentage of illiteracy, whose life has been sat- 
urated with ideas of thrift and small economies, who holds 
himself the slave of neither priest, landlord nor king, and 
whose history, past and passing, is a story of sturdy strug- 
gling for independence, — such an immigrant should find wel- 
come and encouragement instead of barriers to his coming." 
The Immigration Problem. 

[Prof. Hjalmar H. Boyesen, of Columbia College, 
in Boston Sunday Jotirnal, June 3, 1894.] 

"I have often discussed with prominent Europeans the 
problems which beset our national life, and they have in- 
variably declared that any sort of government would be 
workable in the United States as long as we were not con- 
fronted with that sternest of all problems, — the pressure of 
our own population. They told me it was madness to en- 
courage immigration. Our present duty is to assimilate and 
Americanize our vast alien population and to throw every 
obstacle in the way of immigration until we have accomp- 
ished this difficult task." 



12 



The Problem of Immigration. Its Dangers to 
the Future of the United States. 

[Gen. James R. O'Berne, late Assistant U. S. Com- 
missioner of Immigration, in the New York Independent, 
Nov. 2, 1893.] 

4< I wish I could arouse the American people, native- 
born and adopted citizens, to a full appreciation of the 
present and near impending dangers which seem to me to 
threaten the future stability of the Republic arising from 
immigration. It is an undeniable fact that many thousands 
of undesirable immigrants have been and still are admitted 
to our communities throughout the country. In the first 
place, the law is too lax and slipshod, the machinery for 
close and individual examination too loose, and the per- 
formance of official duty too careless, indifferent and inef- 
ficient to prevent the "undesirable" immigrant from landing 
on our shores." 

The American Commonwealth. 

[James Bryce, American Com?nonwealth, Vol. II, 
p. 726.] 

"Within the last decade new swarms of European im- 
migrants have invaded America, drawn from their homes in 
the eastern parts of Central Europe by the constant cheap- 
ening of ocean transit and by that more thorough drainage, 
so to speak, of the inland regions of Europe, which is due to 
the extension of railways. These immigrants, largely of 
Slavonic race, come from a lower stratum of civilization than 
the German immigrants of the past, and since they speak 
foreign tongues, are less quickly amenable to American in- 
fluences, and ,'probably altogether less improvable than are 
the Irish. There seems to be a danger that if they continue 
to come in large numbers they may retain their own low 



standard of decency and comfort, and menace the continu- 
ance among the working class generally of that far higher 
standard which has hitherto prevailed in all but a few spots 
in the country." 

NOTE. — The leading work on the subject is 
"Emigration and Immigration," by Richmond 
Mayo- Smith, Professor of Political Economy in 
Columbia College, published by Charles Scrib- 
ner f s Sons, New York, i8go. The whole book 
will repay a careful reading by all who are in- 
terested in the immigration problem. 



14 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, NO. 9. 



Latest Figures About Immigration 

(Compiled fro?n Reports of Commissioner-- General of Immigration). 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1894 and 1895, 



i8 94 . 1895. 

Total immigration 288,020 258,536 

Number debarred from entrance and 

returned within one year after landing 2,389 2,41 g 

Per cent of total immigration debarred and returned 0.8 1 

Total number of illiterate 42,142 
Per cent of total immigration over sixteen years 

of age, unable to write or to read and write 

their own language 25 21 

Per cent of total immigration from Austria-Hungary, 

Italy, Poland and Russia, 43 41 

Per cent of total immigration from the United 

Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia, 49 52 

Average money brought by immigrants, in dollars 16 
Per cent of total immigration who had no 

occupation whatever 39 36 

Per cent of total immigration who were farmers, 

laborers or servants 36 42 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the four 

states of 111., Mass.. N. Y., and Pa. 72 

Table of the Immigrant Arrivals at New York, 

For the six months ending October 31, 1895, compared with those during 

the same period last year. 



MONTH. 


1894. 


1895. 


May 


22,832 


34,648 


June 


16,403 


24,837 


July 




17,804 


August 


11,478 


18,424 


September 


14,834 


23,025 


October 


15,383 


23,426 


Total for six months 


92,673 


142,164 



NOTE That the immigration from May 1, to October 31, 1895, was 
larger by 49,491 or 53 per cent than that during the same months of 
1894. 

NOTE Al,SO :—That the immigration during the six months from 
May 1, to October 31, 1895, was within 48,760 of the total immigration 
at the Port of New York during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1895. 



t 



The Commissioner-General says in his report, (p. 13) : 
"The return of prosperity and the consequent demand for labor that dawned 
upon us early in 1895, caused an increase [of immigration] in the latter months 
of the fiscal year, which has grown steadily from that time down to the moment 
of writing this report. Should the same causes continue immigration will exceed 
300,000 during the next fiscal year." 

This fulfils the prediction made by the League in Publication No. 5, and 
it repeats that it is of the utmost importance to revise our laws now and 
make them effective for sifting out the unworthy and undesirable elements 
when the numbers increase again in the near future. 

ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons over sixteen years of age in each hundred immigrants 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language. 



Sweden and Norway 1 

Germany 2 

France, England and Scotland 3 

Ireland 7 

Wales 9 

Average of above 4 

Russia 26 

Poland 29 

Austria-Hungary 30 

Italy 44 

Average of above 32 



NOTE : — That the official figures as to illiteracy are not based upon 
actual tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of the im- 
migrants' answers to the questions put to them. If they were actually 
required by the inspectors to read and write before admission, the above 
figures of illiteracy would undoubtedly be larger. 

Countries Which Send us Skilled Labor. 

(From Report Superintendent of Immigration for 1893 J 

Of the immigrants sent to us in 18Q3 by the various countries of 
Europe, but a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus among im- 
migrants from Scotland there was one skilled in 4 ; from England and 
Wales, 1 in 5; Belgium, 1 in 7; France, 1 in 9; Germany and Norway, 
1 in 10 ; Italy, 1 in 14 ; Russia, 1 in 18 ; Ireland, 1 in ig; Poland, 1 in 23 ; 
Austria- Hungary, 1 in 29. 

For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, Address CHARLES WARREN, Secretary, 428 Exchange Bldg., 
Boston. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of 
any immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion of 
"All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who can- 
~~ x both read and write the English language or some other 
guage 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, NO. 10. 



What does the American Press say 

about the 
Further Restriction of Immigration? 

The present publication contains brief extracts from editorials which 
have recently appeared in some of the daily papers regarding the need of 
further restricting immigration. These extracts are selected from among 
hundreds of similar editorials that have been brought to the attention of 
the Immigration Restriction League, and may serve as indications of the 
general attitude of the papers which have lately spoken on this important 
subject. 



Los Angeles, Cal., " This (educational) 
TIMES. provision is an excellent 
one. , . It is a thoroughly American test. . 
If we had had siich a test in force during the 
past 30 years, we should not now be con- 
fronted with so difficult a problem as regards 
illiterate voters. 11 

Denver, Colo., " The P olic >' of the u - s - 
REPUBLICAN, should be to place 
severe restrictions upon immigration of an 
undesirable character. The welfare of the 
people already here calls for consideration 
before that of those who never have been in 
the country and who have no claim upon it 
whatever.' 1 

Hartford, Conn., -Certainly the sug- 
POST. gestion to take the first step 
toward a policy of restricting immigration, 
by absolutely refusing admission to illiterate 
foreigners, is a good one. 1 ' 
Washington, D. C, ' 4 0ur Census tables 
POST. prove that we have 

an ample supply of illiteracy on hand, both 
home-made and imported. The experience 
of all nations proves that ignorance is con- 
ducive to crime and pauperism, in a coun- 
try whose government is based on the ballot 
illiteracy is dangerous. To guard against 
this danger and to reduce the cost of main- 
taining penal and charitable institutions, we 
expend many millions of dollars annually — 
dollars raised by taxation — for the support 
of public schools. Is it good policy, under 
these circumstances, to keep our gates wide 
open for the influx of illiteracy from Europe? 

If we were in need of labor this question 
might possibly be answered in the affirm- 
ative. But no such need exists. Neither 
in manufactures, mining, agriculture, nor in 
any| other department of business is there 
any lack of workers. Illiterates are almost 
uniformly unskilled laborers, and we have an 



enormous redundancy of thai class. Every 
additional arrival of immigrants, such as are 
now coming in, increases the wretchedness 
of our city slums, and tends to reduce the 
scant wages of the men and women who are 
competing with each other for work. 

It is not proposed to require a knowledge 
of the English language as a condition of ad- 
mittance, but of some one language. It is 
not proposed to set up any high literary 
standard. To read and write one^ native 
language is the full measure of the proposed 
scheme. There is a call tor immigrants to 
take up land in the Northwest and in parts 
of the South. But those sections do not 
want illiterates. The West has quite 
enough and the South too much of illiteracy 
already. What they both want is intelli- 
gence, enterprise, and a little capital as qual- 
ifications of new citizens. 

The Post has uniformly discouraged 
drastic legislation on immigration. It has 
had no sympathy for proscriptive proposi- 
tions. But the time appears to have arrived 
for the exercise of judicious care as to the 
swelling stream of immigration that is pour- 
ing into our seaports and settling down in 
our cities. It does not seem advisable to 
keep on re-enforcing our stock of ignorance. 11 
• The Post has never approved any demand 
for extreme measures calculated to suppress 
European immigration. It would be morally 
wrong and politically inexpedient to put up 
the bars against such foreigners as would 
probably become good citizens. But the 
Post has expressed the opinion that this 
country now has on hand a sufficient supply 
of illiteracy, both native and foreign. The 
records of our penal and charitable institu- 
tions furnish conclusive proof that illiteracy 
conduces to crime and poverty. But. in 
spite of this fact, our people might be justi- 
fied in encouraging illiterate immigration if 



Ave were in need of additional labor. We 
might overlook deficiencies in brain culture 
it we were suffering for muscle. This, how- 
ever is not our case. We have a large sur- 
plus of labor, and the army of the idle in all 
our cities is re-enforced by every fresh ar- 
rival of immigrants. Under such circum- 
stances the Post is inclined to favor the bill 
now before Congress which proposes to ex- 
clude all immigrants between fourteen and 
sixty years who cannot read and write their 
own language. 

"So tar as the Eastern, Middle, and the 
older Northwestern States are concerned, no 
such illiterate immigrants are '-valuable ad- 
ditions to the population/ The South has all 
the illiterates that it cares to possess. There 
may be Western States that are longing for 
an increase of illiteracy by importation, but 
they rarely get it; for such immigrants settle 
in the slums of the Eastern cities as naturally 
as a duck takes to water."" 
Indianapolis, Ind., " The greater part of 

JOURNAL* these immigrants (from 
Austrian-Hungary, Italy. Russia and Poland) 
are unskilled laborers. . . These are just the 
people we do not need.'* 

Jacksonville, Fla., "The immigration 
TIMES -UNION* problem is becoming 
a question which can no longer be overlooked 
in national legislation, and procrastination 
in the matter of its summary and final settle- 
ment is already working incalculable harm 
to the country at large. 11 

Chicago. 111., ••Immigrants, other than 
INTER-OCEAN. vei T yotmg children, 
who neither can read or write in any lan- 
guage cannot be considered as desirable 
accessions to an industrial community/ 1 
Chicago, 111., "Its (the League's) object 
ISRAELITE. i s most excellent, and it is 
grappling with the immigration question in 
the most practical manner and in a spirit of 
broad liberality.* 1 

Chicago, 111., In its present shape the 
SKANDINAVEN. bill (proposed by 
the Immigration Restriction League) con- 
tains but one clause, viz., a provision impos- 
ing an educational test upon all intending 
immigrants between fourteen and sixty years 
of age. If such a law had been enacted 
years ago the condition of the country, es- 
pecially that of the working people, would 
have been better than it is today. It is time 
to call a halt to the importation of ignorance. 
The proposed legislation should receive the 
active support of all good citizens, irrespect- 
ive of nationality, and this paper assumes, 
as a matter of course, that the Scandina- 
vians will take the lead in this matter, and 
endeavor to induce other enlightened classes 



of adopted citizens to follow in their foot- 
steps. The average Congressman is gen- 
erally a coward in respect to measures which 
in his judgment are offensive to the " foreign 
vote 11 of his district. For this reason it is 
all the more important that Scandinavian- 
American citizens should inform members 
they have helped to elect that the bill now 
pending, so far from being offensive to them, 
meets with their hearty and unqualified ap- 
proval. Illiteracy is practically unknown in 
the Scandinavian countries. Citizens hail- 
ing from those lands suffer fully as much as 
do native-born citizens from the conse- 
quences of the increa>ing flood of ignorant 
and degraded people from " darkest Europe 11 
and other lands. It is their duty and privi- 
lege to inaugurate a general movement 
among adopted citizens in support of the 
pending measure. Let them act promptly, 
unitedly, and with decision and vigor.* 1 

Sioux City, la., "One amendment to 
TRIBUNE, the present law . . will 
probably meet with general approval. It is 
to exclude all persons between the ages of 
14 and 60 who cannot read and write the 
English language or some other language. 
This proposition will commend itself to 
thinking people generally. 11 
Louisville, Ky., " It is evident that there 
COURIER-JOURNAL. ^ still a large 
percentage of undesirable immigrants, as only 
the extreme cases are returned to the homes 
they quitted. Before the panic nearly half 
a million were landed every year upon our 
shores, and it is certain that a dangerous 
proportion were not fitted for becoming good 
American citizens. No political economist. 
American or European, but recognizes the 
menace to our institutions from such an influx 
of foreigners.'* 

New Orleans, La., "It is announced 
TIMES-DEMOCRAT, that the pres- 
ent Congress will be asked for further legis- 
lation for the restriction of immigration on 
the lines recommended by the executive 
committee of the Immigration Restriction 
League. That body has been working very 
earnestly for some time past and filling the 
country with its protests against our insuffi- 
cient immigration laws; its protests seem to 
have had some effect and are likely to result 
in some legislation on the part of Congress. 

The proposition of the League is that all 
aliens between fourteen and sixty years of 
age who cannot read and write English or 
some other language, that is. all illiterates, 
shall be shut out of the country. It is 
claimed that the adoption of this rule would 
bar out fully 20 per cent of the most undesir- 
able foreign element. It is not claimed that 
it will shut out all the bad immigrants, but 



that all or very nearly all it does shut out are 
people we are better without. 

We already have a great deal of illiteracy 
in this country, as much as we can safely at- 
tend to ; and it is unwise if not dangerous 
to introduce more illiteracy, especially when 
the illiterates speak a foreign tongue. Could 
there be a greater danger to a country where 
the government depends upon the votes ot 
the people than a large foreign-born popula- 
tion, ignorant of our language, unable to 
read or write, yet exercising the franchise? 
We recognize the danger of illiteracy, and 
fully appreciate it in our own people ; and to 
protect ourselves from the danger, and tnus 
reduce the cost of maintaining penal and 
charitable institutions, we spend millions of 
dollars for schools. Yet while we are de- 
fending ourselves at home against illiteracy, 
we throw open our doors and welcome illit- 
erates from abroad — illiterates whom we 
can never teach to read or write because they 
do not speak our language. 

There are occasions, of course, when this 
illiteracy might be overlooked. If we were 
in great need of rough labor we would be 
justified in overlooking the fact that the la- 
borers could not read or write : but. as a 
matter of fact, we have all the labor we need 
for manufactures, agriculture and every kind 
of industry : and it seems the height of folly 
to be bringing in illiterates, who are, in al- 
most every case, unskilled laborers. 

The arguments of the Immigration Re- 
striction League are strong and are likely to 
have a great influence with Congress. The 
league has no Know-Nothing tendencies. 
It does not propose to shut out immigrants 
or discriminate against races. All it pro- 
poses is that to enjoy the privileges of this 
great country and share in its government 
the new comer shall at least know how to 
read and write his native tongue. The rule 
will be no hardship to anyone, and will keep 
out many persons who will prove a burden to 
the country. 1 ' 

Boston, Mass., "The Journal welcomes 
JOURNAL. tlie addition of an educa- 
tional test as a wise and practical increase 
in the stringency of our laws. . . Until 
we have an educational test as a safeguard, 
we cannot feel sure that this enormous 
army of foreign citizens is capable of appre- 
ciating our institutions 

Boston. Mass., "It is certainly anomal- 
TRANSCRIPT. ous that in this land 
of compulsory education, as the only safe 
basis for our free institutions, foreigners — 
total strangers to us in language, habits and 
knowledge of government -should be al- 
lowed free entry, without being able to read 
and write. If education is so necessarv for 



our own people that millions of dollars are 
spent every year on our public schools, by 
what sort of logic do we allow foreigners to 
come among us who have had no rudimen- 
tary educational training?' 1 

Detroit Mich., " ]t would be a blessing 
JOURNAL. if " foreign immigration 
could be suspended so far as to exclude the 
illiterate and undesirable classes. . . . Such 
a qualification (educational) would not con- 
flict with the spirit of American Institutions. 
We compel the education of our own child- 
ren, and it is unquestionably right and proper 
that we should compel adult foreigners seek- 
ing residence here to be able to read and 
write." 

Grand Rapids, Mich., "Illiterate im- 
HERALD. migrants are a standing 
menace to any country. Their presence 
cannot be looked upon as desirable, nor are 
they such people as any civilized nation 
would recklessly invite to their shores." 
Duluth, Minn., "What we need is an 
TRIBUNE, immigration of intelligence 
and activity, not an invasion of mined ad- 
venturers and poverty-stricken laborers.* 1 

Minneapolis, Minn., "We have a per- 
TIMES. f ect right to insist upon 
some rational educational test — a test which 
shall guarantee that the immigrants we re- 
ceive are at least intelligent enough to make 
good citizens. . . . The Times agrees with 
the Restriction League when it says that no 
immigrant between the ages 14 and 60 shall 
be allowed to land in the United States who 
cannot read and write some one language." 
St. Paul Minn., " I* (educational test) 
PIONEER-PRESS. is n °t all the legis- 
lation that is needed ; but it would be a long 
step in the right direction. . . . This is a 
requirement which involves no hardship to 
the immigrant which he cannot overcome by 
industry and perseverance, and it wou!d be 
a valuable protection to the country against 
the invasion of ignorant and irresponsible 
hordes.* 1 

Kansas City, Mo., ** The fiercest and 
JOURNAL, bloodiest labor disturb- 
ances in this country have been those in 
which the Huns and Poles have been en- 
2a<red. It is a lasting commentarv on the 
stability of our institutions that they could 
withstand this might}- assault upon them 
from this aggregation of hostility and illiter- 
acy. The figures suggest the trend of legis- 
lation which must be enacted if the institu- 
tions of this country are to receive the pro- 
tection they demand." 

New York, N. Y., " We trust that the 
SUN", subject of immigration will 



be taken up at the coming session of Con- 
gress, and that better laws for its regulation 
will be enacted. There is very great need 
for the adoption of more stringent rules for 
the exclusion of undesirable immigrants, 
many of whom, after their admission, be- 
come a burden upon the community, or lower 
the character of our population.' 1 

Cleveland, O., " In the earlier years of 
PLAIN DEALER, immigration a large 
proportion of the new comers, especially the 
Germans and Scandinavians, went directly 
to the West, and aided materially in clearing 
the forest, bringing virgin lands into cultiva- 
tion and building of new towns and cities. 
Now there is a change. The immigrants 
driven from home by stern necessity, flock 
to the cities and remain there, intensifying 
by their added competition the sharp strug- 
gle of the laboring man for the necessities 
of existence. It will be found, as a rule, 
that the illiterate from foreign shores do not 
make desirable citizens. We already have 
too many illiterates in this country, and the 
educational test for immigrants is bound to 
grow in popularity. 1 ' 

Albany, Ore., " Congress is looking to- 
HERALD. war d the immigration re- 
striction measures, and it is to be hoped 
that something will be done in that line. 
There is a general opinion in favor of such 

a course All foreign-born citizens 

of the better sort will favor the adoption of a 
law enforcing an educational test upon in- 
tending immigrants. 1 ' 

Philadelphia, Pa., " w e do not want the 
TELEGRAPH, country to be deluged 
with foreign cheap labor, pauperism, vice, 
anarchy and illiteracy." 



Memphis, Tenn., "'This country does not 
COMMERCIAL APPEAL, need any 
increase of population other than the natural 

increase of the present stock We 

should be glad to see a still greater diminu- 
tion in the number of foreign immigrants."* 
Seattle, Wash., '"There was a time in 

POST-INTELLIGENCER. the 

history of this country when these strangers 
were gladly welcomed, but that time is not 
now : it was when the Republic was young 
and its unoccupied area greater ; it was at a 
time when the land would absorb all who 
sought asylum here and were willing to be- 
come good and intelligent citizens, in ac- 
cordance with the laws and usages of the 
country. . . . There is no use in attempt- 
ing to disguise the fact that there is danger 
in congesting here such masses of illiterate 
and non-assimilative foreigners. 1 ' 
Wheeling, W. Va., " The United States 
NEWS. nas been and is being 
made the dumping ground for a very large 
proportion of the ignorance and poverty of 
the old world. The constant addition of 
these elements to our population must result 
in lowering gradually the average moral and 
intellectual status of the whole people." 
Racine, Wis., " There are other reasons 
JOURNAL. tnan tne protection of our 
labor why we should restrict immigration. 
We already have in our large cities a vast 
amount of ignorance and pauperism to care 
for. . . . We need, for a time at least, to 
keep back all who have not intelligence 
enough to take care of themselves. This 
(educational test) would keep out the very 
poor and the illiterate and would furnish 
some protection to our present population."' 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, Address CHARLES WARREN, Secretary, 428 Exchange Bldg., 
Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the 
exclusion of any immigrants whose character and standards fit them to be- 
come citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion of 
"All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who cannot 
both read and write the English language or some other lang- 
uage." 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, Ko. 11. 

Distribution 

OF 

Illiterate Immigrants. 

The following tables are presented as a partial result of a recent visit 
to the Immigrant Station on Ellis Island, N. Y., made by members of the 
Executive Committee of the League. There were three objects in view ; 
to ascertain — 

1. The truth of the immigrant's answer as to his ability to read and 
write ; 

2. The destination, first, of the less desirable nationalities, and secondly, 
of the illiterates ; and 

3- The grouping" of the immigrants by the amount of money brought 
with them. 

There are at present, no adequate statistics on these subjects. It is sug- 
gested that hereafter the government publications should deal with at least 
the last two. 

On December 13, 14 and 15, 1895 about 1000 immigrants over 16 years 
of age were examined, chiefly Russians and A ustro- Hungarians together with 
some Syrians, arriving on six steamers from Bremen, Amsterdam, Antwerp, 
Southampton and Liverpool. Too few Italians came for tabulation. 

It is believed that the results obtained are characteristic of such immi- 
gration throughout the year. 

Destination by Nationalities. ( 1 ) 









-Other 




-Central 




Kon 




Penn. 


N. Y. 


Atlantic. 


^Middle, and Western. 


Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Germans, 


16 


39 


8 


21 


12 


63 


33 


Bohemians, 





4 





3 


6 


4 


9 


Finns, 


2 


6 


12 


2 


7 


20 


9 


Russians, 


26 


58 


20 


8 


2 


104 


10 


Hungarian*, 


197 


76 


74 


19 


1 


347 


20 


Galicians, 


42 


23 


39 


18 


5 


104 


23 


Croats, etc. 


40 


17 


2 


10 


1 1 


59 


21 


Syrians, 





30 


5 





4 


35 


4 



The ''Croats etc.," include all the other Austrian races. 



* Other Atlantic comprises N. H., Mass., Conn., N. J., Del, Md. and 
W. Va. Middle Atlantic comprises Ohio, Ind., 111., Mich., Wis., 

and Ky. Central and Western comprises Minn., Iowa, Mo., 

Texas, Kan., Neb., Col.,Wyo., and Mont. The boundary lines are, 

roughly, the western boundary of Penn., and the Mississippi river. 

The above states, together with N. Y., Penn. and Ga. were the only ones 
given by immigrants as their destination 

Note: that except for the Border States not one Southern State appears, 
except Ga., to which one German was going. 



Destination by Nationalities. (2) 



By Percentages. 









Other 




Central 




Non 


Penn. 


N. Y. 


Atlantic 


Middle, and Western. 


Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Germans, 






8$ 


22% 


12% 


66% 


3*% 


Bohemians, 


0. 


30 


0. 


23 


47 


30 


70 


Finns, 


7 


21 


41 


7 


24 


69 


3i 


Russians, 


23 


5 1 


17 


7 


2 


9i 


9 


Hungarians, 


54 


2 1 


20 


5 


0.0 


95 


5 


Galicians, 


33 


18 


31 


14 


4 


82 


18 


Croats, etc. 


5° 


21 


3 


12 


14 


74 


26 


Syrians, 


o. 


77 


1 3 


0. 


10 


90 


10 


Russians, > 
















Hungarians, , 




28 








89.2 


10.8 


Galicians, * 






7 


3 


Croats and 1 
















Syrians. 

















Note: therefore, that nine-tenths of the races whose illiteracy is very 
great remained on the Atlantic seaboard, while only ten per cent went west 
of Pennsylvania, and of these but three per cent crossed the Mississippi. 

Illiteracy of Nationalities. 

All the Germans and Bohemians could read and write, while the illiter- 
acy of the other races was as follows : 



Finns, 

Russians, 

Hungarians, 

Galicians, 

Croats, etc.. 

Syrians. 



io'/r Illiterate. 
48 

62 

45 

69 



Remember, for comparison, that the average of illiteracy for the British, 
Germans and Scandinavians is 2.3 in a hundred. 



Destination of Illiterates. 



By 







By Numbers. 








Percentages. 








Other 




Central and 




Non 




Non 




Penn. 


N. Y. 


Atlantic. 


Middle. 


Western. Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Russians, 


'ii 


28 


1 1 


4 


1 




5 




97' 


Hungarian 


s, 76 


20 


34 


4 





130 


4 


97 


3 


( ialicians. 


2 5 


12 


26 


1 1 


5 


63 


16 


80 


20 


Croats, etc 


20 


8 





4 


4 


28 


8 


78 


22 


Syrians, 





21 


2 





4 


23 


4 


85 




Totals, 


132 


89 


73 


23 


14 


294 


37 


89 


11 


< >nly e 


leven illiterates 


were <le 


•.tined to the South. 


i Hun 


Ejarian going to Delaware, 


| to West 


Virginia, 


and 


2 Galicians to 


Maryland. 


while the 5 who were 


£oing to 



Missouri were sent before the Hoard of Special Inquiry on suspicion of being Contract 
laborers and were admitted for lack of evidence. 



Exclusion of Illiterates. 



ITS EFFECT ON THE SOUTH AND WEST. 

Note: The above table gives the destination of the 33 1 illiterate Rus- 
siansrAustro-Hungarians, and Syrians only, and shows the small percentage 
of illiterates (11 per cent) who went beyond the Atlantic States. An edu- 
cational test as a measure of restriction would therefore not affect in any 
important degree the Western and Southern States, many of which are 
naturally desirous of obtaining a large immigration, for the illiterates largely 
stagnate near the Atlantic seacoast, while the more educated nations move 
on to build up the new states. 

Note also : that the immigration from the above nations for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1895, was 67,427, of which 26,925 were illiterate. By the per- 
centages of destination as above, only twenty two hundred and ninety -nine 
would have been excluded from the Non-Atlantic States, while the Atlantic 
seaboard would have been relieved of eighteen thousand six hundred and 
twenty -six illiterates. 

That the races like the Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, French 
and English who would be little affected by an educational test, largely go 
West, while the illiterate races such as the Hungarians, Galicians and Italians 
remain to lower the standards of the already crowded Atlantic territory, is 
confirmed by the following table, showing the percentages by nations of the 
foreign born residing in the several parts of the United States in 1890. 

Distribution of Foreign Born. 

(Compiled from Census of 1890, Part 1, p. exxxvi). 



North Atlantic. 


South Atlantic. 


North Central. 


South Central. 


Western 


Great Britain 












and Ireland, 


595 


25 


27.6 


2.4 


7-9 


France, 


36.0 


2.2 


34-1 


12.7 


14.9 


( rermany, 


32.2 


2.9 


5 6 -4 


4-i 


4-3 


Bohemia, 


10.4 


1.4 


84.3 


3-i 


0.8 


Scandinavia, 


12.7 


03 


76.0 


0.8 


10. 


Austria, 


499 


1-7 


31.8 


8.4 


8.1 


Hungary, 


72.9 


1.8 


22.1 


1.4 


1.6 


Italy, 


65.0 


2.7 


12.0 


6.7 


137 


Poland, 


38.4 


i-7 


57-0 


i-7 


1.2 


Russia, 


509 


3-2 


38.2 




6.1 


"South Atlantic" 


includes states $ 


outh of N. J. 


and Pa. 





'•South Central" includes states south of the Ohio River and Mo. 



Note : that only 4.6 per cent of the Poles and only 4.8 per cent of the 
Hungarians and 10.8 per cent of the Russians live in the Southern States or 
in the Western division; altogether only 29,528, scattered in a total popula- 
tion of nearly twenty three millions. Note : that while the Non- Atlantic 
States gain three -fourths of the Germans and Scandinavians, the Atlantic 
States are burdened with two-thirds of the Russians, Hungarians and Italians. 

(Report Supt. of Immigration for Fiscal Year 1894, p. 15). 
Much of the inflow of immigration has in former years sought employment in 
the rich mining regions, manufacturing cen res. and populous cities of the Eastern 
portions of our country. The class thus employed has proved to be less desirable 



than the hardy immigrants who seek homes in the West and engage in agricultural 
pursuits. In many portions of the East, and especially in large cities, certain classes 
and races of people have become a burden and a detriment to American labor. They 
form communities among themselves, speak only their own language, and do not 
assimilate with our people, nor do they become attached to the principles of our gov- 
ernment, and often prove a source of apprehension. 11 

Illiterates and Slums. 

Where the illiterate immigrants do go is shown by the Seventh Special 
Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Labor (1894), from which it appears 
(p. 44) that the proportion of those of foreign birth or parentage to the total 
population in the slums of Baltimore was 77 per cent, in Chicago 90 percent, 
in New York 95 per cent, and in Philadelphia 91 per cent. The figures for 
the foreign born alone are correspondingly striking. It appears from the same 
Report (p. 160-3) that of every 100 aliens, 40 were illiterate in the slums of 
Baltimore, 47 in Chicago, 59 in New York and 51 in Philadelphia; and that 
of every 100 of these illiterate aliens there were 67 males of voting age in 
Baltimore, 77 in Chicago, 78 in New York and 85 in Philadelphia. 

The proportion in which the literate and illiterate nationalities contribute 
to the slum population is shown by the following tables, compiled from the 
same Report p. 41,72. 

Austria- Hungary , Italy United Kingdom, France, 

Poland and Russia. Germany and Scandinavia. 

Per cent of Per cent of Per cent of Per cent of 

Total Population. Slum Population. Total Population. Slum Population. 

Baltimore. 

1.97 12.72 I 13.52 27.29 

Chicago. 

6.41 44.44 I 30-7° 10.64 

New York. 

9.45 5x.11 I 30.73 8.64 
Philadelphia. 

1.95 50.28 I 22.95 8 -44 

The comparative degrees of illiteracy of the foregoing elements of slums 
is as follows for the above mentioned four cities. 

Scandinavia, 5-6^ 
Great Britain, 7.0 

France, 10.2 

Germany, 21.9 

Ireland, 40.4 

Average of Group, 25.5 

Austria- Hungary, 16.6 

Russia, 37.1 

Poland, 46.1 

Italy, 66.4 



Average of Group, 54.5 
Native Americans, 7.4 



Illiterates and Money. 

While little emphasis should be laid on the amount of money brought 
by an immigrant — as money is no test of an immigrant's real worth, — 
light may be perhaps thrown on the question why the Russians, Galicians, 
Croats, and Syrians do not or cannot go West, by the statement that of the 
33 1 illiterates examined at Ellis Island, 32 or 10 per cent brought in no 
money, 101 or 30 per cent one to five dollars each, 92 or 28 per cent six to 
ten dollars, and 106 or ^2 per cent over ten dollars; that is 40 per cent of 
these immigrants had five dollars or less, and 68 per cent ten dollars or less. 

The total amount of money known to have been brought in during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, by 160,103 immigrants over 20 years of 
age was $4,126,793, an average of $25.97- per capita over twenty years of 
age, but an average of only $16.34 for each of the total number of immi- 
grants for that year. 

Note, however, that of the above 160,103 immigrants 78 per cent or 
125,328 brought in less than $30, and 34,775 or 22 per cent, brought in 
more. 

The figures as to average amount per immigrant, $25.97, as given above, 
were therefore extremely misleading, because it is evident that a very large 
percentage of immigrants may have brought in less than $10 ; but this would 
be counteracted by a small number of immigrants bringing several hundreds 
of dollars, as those who intend to settle on farms do. 

This is clearly shown by the report of the Superintendent of Immigration 
for 1892, page 26, where he says that, of the 9639 immigrants from Russia 
arriving at the ports of New York, " 333 brought more than $100 each, several 
of these bringing considerable sums of money: one bringing $25,000," while 
the " 9306 Russians who brought less than $100 were nearly all destitute." 

In order to have any real significance the statistics as to the amount of 
money brought in should show the number of immigrants bringing Si to $5, 
$S to $10, and $10 to $}0 etc. 

In this way it would probably appear that the great proportion of immi- 
grants really brought much less than the average per capita as now given ; 
and that their real average was raised by the fewer number who brought 
considerably over $30. 

With the above caution Note : that the report of the Superintendent of 
Immigration for the fiscal year 1892, shows that the 152,360 immigrants 
over 20 years of age arriving at the port of New York brought $3,060,908, 
an average of $20.09 per capita. Immigrants from 



France, brought 


$55.67 per capita 


Germany, 


35-42 


England, 


26.43 


Sweden,. 


2 1.69 


Russia, 


22.10 


Armenia. 


19.68 


Austria, 


14-95 


Poland, 


12.31 


Italy, 


IT. 77 


Hungary, 


11.42 



That according' to report of Commissioner-General of Immigration for 
1895, immigrants over twenty years of age brought into U. S. 

From France, S55.58 per capita. 

Germany, 41.39 
England, 36.76 
Sweden, 28.33 
Russia, 14.35 
Poland. 23.19 
Hungary, ^9-94 
Austria, excepting 

Bohemia and Moravia, 19.94 
Italy, 14.77 

which would make the amount per capita for each of the total number of 
Immigrants from 

France, S3 7 .98 

Germany, 26.43 

England, 1 9.37 

Sweden, 18.85 

Russia, % 7.52 

Poland. 1 i .18 

Hungary, 1 3-°9 
Austria, excepting 

Bohemia and Moravia, 12.94 

Italy, io-79 

For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, Address CHARLES WARREN, Secretary, 428 Exchange 
Bldg., Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion 
of any immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion 
of "All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who 
cannot both read and write the English language or some 
other language." 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 14. 

The Present Italian Influx, 

ITS STRIKING ILLITERACY. 

Comparison of Educational Test and Consular Certificate Plans. 

In Publication No. 11 ivere set forth the illiteracy of the more 
ignorant races of Europe as ascertained from actual tests made by 
the League at Ellis Island, New York Harbor, and the destination 
of those races in this country. The recent extraordinary influx of 
Italians seemed a favorable time for further investigation, and through 
the courtesy of Dr. J. H. Senner who placed the records of the Ellis 
Island station completely at the disposal of the League, it is now 
enabled to present an analysis of the recent Italian immigration based 
on an examination of the official manifests. 

The manifests examined were of those coming from both 
Northern and Southern Italy. The immigration from Southern 
Italy is much less desirable, is more ignorant and more degraded 
than that from Northern Italy, and has latterly been the chief part 
of the Italian influx. 

Inasmuch as the testimony of the manifests as to illiteracy is 
simply that of the immigrants themselves unverified by actual tests 
of their ability to read and write, the results are undoubtedly too 
favorable to the immigrants ; but it is believed that they aie striking 
enough to show the great efficiency of the reading and writing test 
as a means of further restricting immigration. 

Total Arrivals of Italian Immigrants at the 
Port of New York. 

[From figures furnished by Assistant Commissioner of Immigration.'] 



Total immigration Jan. 1 to April 30, 1895 52,565 

Italian " " 1 " " 30, 1895 11,896 

Percent which Italian was of total immigration 22.6 

Total immigration Jan. 1 to April 17, 1896 66,290 
Italian " " 1 " " 17, 1896 * 19,946 

Percent which Italian was of total immigration 30.0 

Italian immigration Jan. 1 to March 31, 1896 13,946 

Illiterate Italians " 1 " " 31,1896 7,001 

Percent of illiteracy among Italians 50.2 
Approximate number of Italians who were already on 
the way or about to embark for the port of New 

York on April 18, 1896 . 7,797 
Approximate number of Italians who will have arrived 

at New York Jan. 1 to April 30, 1896 27,000 

* The number from April 1 to April 17 was approximately 6,003. 



Illiteracy of Italian Immigrants. 



[From manifests of 3,174 immigrants over 14 years of age 
arriving at the Port of New York during April 1896, on four 
steamers from Genoa and Naples. This is not the total number so 
arriving during the month, but is believed to present a fair average 
of the entire Italian immigration J\ 



Total immigrants examined . 3,174 

Percentage of males 89.2 

Percentage of females 10.8 

Total illiterates ' 2,147 

Percent of total immigrants who ^vere illiterate 67.6 

Percentage of male illiteracy 66.5 

Percentage of female illiteracy 75.7 - 

Number debarred under existing laws 197 

Percentage debarred of total immigrants 6.2 

Number which would have been debarred by the 

League's bill * * 2,147 

or a percentage of * 67.6 

Percentage of those who have been in the U. S. before 27.7 

Percentage of total immigrants who were laborers f 85.8 



* Very few arriving were over 60 years of age, and this small number is included 
in the above figures. 

t A very large proportion of those not laborers were sailors, and the balance chiefly 
stone-cutters, shoemakers and barbers. 



Destination of Italian Immigrants. 



Boston, 150 




Philadelphia, 


137 




Other Mass., 34 




Other Pa., 


176 




Total Mass., 


184 


Total Pa., 




313 


Maine, 


7 


Ohio, 




45 


Rhode Island, 


88 


Chicago, 


34 




Connecticut, 


85 


Other Illinois, 


10 




Total New England, 


364 


Total Illinois, 




44 


New York Stale and City 


2,276 


Other States and Canada, 


62 


New Jersey, 


79 


Total, 




3174 



W illi bul few exceptions these immigrants were bound either to 
the large cities or to manufacturing and mining centres. Thus, 
those destined for New York state were going to New York city, 
Brooklyn, Buffalo, Syracuse, etc. It is probable that a small 
number of those giving New York city as their destination -e 
ultimately distributed to other places. 



From the above table is appears that 95.3% were destined for 
New England, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

Of those -destined for " other states" 3! or less than \ °J were 
bound to states west of the Mississippi River, and only g to states 
south of Pa. and the Ohio River, Avhile only 3 were going to the 
southern states proper. 

Educational Test and Consular Certificate 
Plans Compared. 

I. Objections to Consular Certificate Plan. 

1. Necessitates a large increase in consular force, and consequent 
expense. 

2. Divides responsibility between the consul and the inspector at 
the American port. In doubtful ca^es each would throw 
responsibility upon the other and the immigrant w r ould be 
allowed to enter ; or else 

3. Works hardships on the immigrants, because it is not certain 
that all with consular certificates will be allowed to land. 

4. Consuls have not the time to examine the large numbers em- 
barking at one time, and the result would be that inspection 
would practically be done by their clerks, who are frequently 
natives and who Avould generally sympathize w T ith the immi- 
grants, and in any case would be less efficient and responsible, 
and more open to corruption. 

5. Does not add at all to the classes now excluded by law, but is 
simply an administrative measure. Other classes are objection- 
able also. 

6. Does not draw any line of exclusion more definite than the 
present law, which vests an unlimited and burdensome discretion 
in the immigration officials. 

7. If consular inspection were public the foreign governments 
could at once tell whom to detain. as being desirable citizens, 
and fit for military service ; or 

8. If secret consular inspection were contemplated, foreign gov- 
ernments would not permit its introduction. 

II. Advantages of the Educational Test. 

1. Excludes the people we wish to exclude; i. e., those who are 
degraded, ignorant alike of their own language and of any oc- 
cupation, incapable of appreciating our institutions and 
standards of living, and very difficult of assimilation. Sec 
Pubs., Nos. 5, (>, 9, 11 and 12. 



2. Adds to the excluded classes. 



3. In practice would be applied at place where ticket bought and 
applied by steamship companies, therefore 

4. Does not imply any great change in existing machinery, or 
any large increase in consular service and expense. 

5. Inspection is not committed to persons in remote countries 
where surveillance is difficult, but remains a uniform system, 
which is public and easily controlled. 

6. Is exact and definite in its operation; easily and simply 
applied, and therefore 

7. Diminishes the labor of the boards of special inquiry, and 
gives the immigration officials opportunity for a more thorough 
inspection. 

8. Secures rudimentary education on the part of all foreigners 
applying for naturalization papers, and American citizenship. 

9. Promotes education among those who desire to emigrate and to 
that extent improves the social condition of Europe. 

10. Saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in 
doubt as to his admission or exclusion, and therefore 

11. Does away in large part with the separation of families, and 
with a temptation to a lax enforcement of inspection, in order 
to prevent such separation. Intending immigrants can tell 
before starting whether they are eligible or not, and can decide 
whether to separate or not. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration 
Restriction League, Address PRE5COTT F. HALL, Secretary, 
732 Exchange Building, Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion 
of any immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion of 
" All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who cannot 
both read and write the English language or some other language." 



a 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RE STRICTION LEAG UE, NO. 15. 

Immigratioih Figures-ior 1896. 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of immigration.) 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1 895 and 1896, 





1895. 


1806. 


Total immigration 


258.530 


343,267 


Increase of 1896 over 1895 




84,731 


Per cent of increase 




33 


Number debarred from entrance and 






returned within one year after landing 


2,389 




Per cent debarred and returned 


1 


O.Q 


Total number of illiterate 


42,142 


83,106 


Per cent of illiterate in total 






immigration over 15 years of age 


20 


2Q 


Per cent of total immigration coming from 






Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia 


41 


52 


Per cent of total immigration coming from the 






United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia 52 


39 


Average money brought by immigrants in dollars 


16 


11 


Per cent of total immigration having 






no occupation whatever 


36 


36 


Per cent of total immigration who were 






farmers, laborers or servants 


42 


46 


Per cent of total immigration destined for 






the four states of 111., Mass., N. Y., and Pa. 


72 


72 


Per cent of total immigration destined for states 






South of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 






Ohio River, or West of the Mississippi River 




11 



REMARKS.— The predictions made by the League in previous 
publications are now being verified. Immigration is increasing rapidly • 
the number of immigrants this year being'nearly 1-3 larger than last 
year. There has been a very large increase in the proportion of im- 
migration from South Eastern Europe and some increase in the 
proportion of unskilled labor. Inasmuch as the nations of South 
Eastern Europe furnish the greatest proportion of illiteracy there has 
been also a large increase in the percentage of illiterate immigrants 
this year. The average money brought by immigrants is also less 
than for many years. In spite of the apparently inferior quality of 
much of the year's immigration, the number debarred and returned 
is relatively less than last year, and this fact is a conclusive proof 
that the laws need amending. 



< 



ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons over fourteen years of age in each hundred im- 
migrants who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, 
from those nations of Europe which sent upwards of 2,000 immigrants to 
the United States during the past fiscal year. 

Switzerland 0.7 

Denmark 0.8 

Sweden and Norway 1.0 

Germany 2.4 

France 4.2 

England 4.4 

Scotland 4.6 

Ireland 6.5 

Finland 10.4 



Greece 23.9 

Russia 32.1 

Austria-Hungary 39.5 

Italy 46.1 

Portugal 58.1 

Average United Kingdom, France, Germany 

and Scandinavia 3.7 

Average Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland 

and Russia 40.1 

NOTE.— That the official figures as to illiteracy are not based 
upon actual tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of 
the immigrants' answers to the questions put to them. If they were 
actually required by the inspectors to read and write before admission, 
the above figures of illiteracy would undoubtedly be larger. 

Countries Which Send us Skilled Labor. 

{From Report Superintendent of Immigration for 1893.) 

Of the immigrants sent to us in i8g3 by the various countries 
of Europe, but a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus among 
immigrants from Scotland there was one skilled in 4 ; from England 
and Wales, 1 in 5 ; Belgium, 1 in 7 ; France, 1 in 9 ; Germany and 
Norway, 1 in 10; Italy, 1 in 14; Russia, 1 in 18; Ireland, 1 in ig ; 
Poland, 1 in 23; Austria-Hungary, 1 in 20. 

For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
I League, Address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, 732 Exchange 
Building, Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not 
the exclusion of any immigrants whose character and standards lit them 
to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion 
of "All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who 
cannot both read and write the English language or some 
other language." 



ILLITERACY. 



Number of persons over fourteen years of age in each hundred im- 
migrants who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, 
from those nations of Europe which sent upwards of 2,000 immigrants to 
the United States during the past fiscal year. 



Switzerland 0.7 

Denmark 0.8 

Sweden and Norway 1.0 

Germany 2.4 

France 4.2 

England 4.4 

Scotland 4.6 

Ireland 6.5 

Finland 10.4 



Greece 23.9 

Russia 32.1 

Austria- Hungary 39.5 

Italy 46.1 

Portugal 58.1 

Average United Kingdom, France, Germany 

and Scandinavia 3.7 

Average Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland 

and Russia 40.1 

NOTE. — That the official figures as to illiteracy are not based 
upon actual tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of 
the immigrants' answers to the questions put to them. If they were 
actually required by the inspectors to read and write before admission, 
the above figures of illiteracy would undoubtedly be larger. 

Countries Which Send us Skilled Labor. 

{From Report Superintendent of Immigration for 1893.) 

Of the immigrants sent to us in 1893 by the various countries 
of Europe, but a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus among 
immigrants from Scotland there was one skilled in 4 ; from England 
and Wales, 1 in 5 ; Belgium, 1 in 7 ; France, 1 in 9 ; Germany and 
Norway, 1 in 10; Italy, 1 in 14; Russia, 1 in 18; Ireland, 1 in 19; 
Poland, 1 in 23; Austria-Hungary, 1 in 29. 

For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, Address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, 732 Exchange 
Building, Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League advocates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not 
the exclusion of any immigrants whose character and standards Jit them 
to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion 
of "All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who 
cannot both read and write the English language or some 
other language." 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 16. 




IMMIGRATION. 

Its Effects upon the United S 




REASONS FOR FURTHER RESTRICTION. 



Immigration by Decades, 1820 to 1890. 

{From the Report of the Supt. of ftmnigration for the year ending June 30, 1892.) 

1820— 1830 128,393 

1830— 1840 539,391 

1840— 1850 1,423^337 

1850— 1860 2,799,423 

i860 — 1870 1,964,061 [The War Period.] 

1870 — 1880 2,834,040 

1880 — 1890 5,246,613 

The Yearly Average, 1880=1890, was 524,661. Immigration 
1880-1890 was 35.1 per cent, of the entire arrivals in U.S. 
1820=1890. 

Immigration by Years from 1885. 

(From Reports . of Superinte7ident and Bureau of Immigration.} 



1885 


395,346 


1886 


334,203 


1887 


490,109 


1888 


546,881 


1889 


444,427 


1890 


455,302 


1891 


560,319 


1892 


579,663 


1893 


440.793 


1894 


288,020 


1895 


258,536 


1896 


343-267 



[The Cholera Year.] 
[The Panic Year.] 



NOTE : fhrtt the figures fot 1896 show an increase over 1895 
of 84,731, or nearly one=third, ar.o a leturn to the conditions ex= 
i sting prior to the panic: 



Recent Changes in the Nationality of 
Immigrants. 

{Specially prepared for the League from Quarterly Report Bureau Statistics 
No. 2, Series 1892- 1893, and Reports of Superintendent of Immigration.') 





Immigrants from 
Austria-Hungary, 
Italy, Poland 
and Russia. 


Immigrants from 
United Kingdom, 
France, Germany 
and Scandinavia. 


1009 


3-5*5 


260,083 


I OOO 


30,512 


292,903 


IOOD 


7^734 


240,770 


.00. 
IOO7 


124,781 


332,748 


1800 


1^4,87^ 


262 ,749 


1891 ' 


222,020 


292,059 


1892 


259^67 


312,502 


1803* 


l88,I4Q 


212,169 


10 94T 


TOO Ro/i 


137,217 


10 95 


tao Ren 


i 3°j79° 


1896 




TOO Ol A 




Per cent, of immigrants 
from Austria-Hungary, 
Italy, Poland and Russia, 


Per cent, of immigrants 
from United Kingdom, 
France, Germany and 
Scandinavia, 




to total immigration. 


to total immigration. 


_ nr. 
IOO9 


0.9 


73-8 


I OOO 


8.5 


04-5 


189O 


34-o 


57-7 


189I 


39-6 


52.1 


1892 


44-8 


53-9 


1893 


42.7 


48.2 


1894 


42.6 


47-9 


1895 


39.8 


52.9 


I896 


52.0 


39-o 



NOTE: In 1869 the immigrants from Austria^ Hungary, Italy, 
Russia and Poland were about UlOOth of the number from the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia; in 1880 about 
UlOth ; in 1894 nearly equal to it ; in 1896 U3d greater. 

Numbers Debarred and Deported. 



1892 2,801 out of 579,663 or 0.5 per cent. 

1893 1 ^3° out of 440,793 or 0.4 per cent. 

1894 2,389 out of 228,020 or 1.0 per cent. 

1895 2,419 out of 258,536 or 1.0 per cent. 

1896 3,°37 OLlt °f 343,267 or 0.9 per cent. 



NOTE: That the average number dehnrnyj and deported under 
the present laws is less than one per cent, of the total immigration. 



* Cholera year. 



t Panic year. 



Legislation. 



The only classes of persons excluded from this country under 
our present immigration laws (not considering Chinese immigration) 
.are the following: 1. Idiots ; II. Insane persons ; III. Paupers or per- 
sons likely to become a public charge ; IV. Persons with a loathsome or 
dangerous contagions disease ; V. Persons who have been convicted of 
felony or other infamous crime or misdemeanor involving moral tur- 
pitude ; VI. Polygamists; VII. il Assisted immigrants" unless on 
special inquiry they are found not to belong to any of the fore- 
going excluded classes ; VIII. Contract laborers; IX. Women imported 
for purposes of prostitution. 

NOTE : There are three general misconceptions regarding our 
present immigration laws. The first is that we now require a careful 
examination of all intending immigrants in Europe, before they em- 
bark, and in this way the least desirable element is very largely pre- 
vented from coming here. The second, that persons who cannot read 
and write are at present debarred from landing. The third, that every 
immigrant must have $30 in order to be admitted. None of these is 
true. 

Advantages of the Educational Test as a Means 
of further Restricting Immigration. 

1. Excludes the people we wish to exclude; i.e. t those who are 

degraded, ignorant alike of their own language and of any 
occupation, incapable of appreciating our institutions and stand- 
ards of living, and very difficult of assimilation. 

2. Adds to the excluded classes. 

3. In practice would be applied at place where ticket bought and 

applied by steamship companies, therefore 
.4. Does not imply any great change in existing machinery, or any 

large increase in consular service and expense. 
5. Inspection is not committed to persons in remote countries where 

surveillance is difficult, but remains a uniform system, which is 

public and easily controlled. 
>6. Is exact and definite in its operation ; easily and simply applied, 

and therefore 

7. Diminishes the labor of the boards of special inquiry, and gives 

the immigration officials opportunity for a more thorough in- 
spection. 

8. Secures rudimentary education on the part of all foreigners 

applying for naturalization papers and American citizenship. 

1 1 



9. Promotes education among those who desire to emigrate, and to 
that extent improves the social condition of Europe. 

10. Saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in 

doubt as to his admission or exclusion, and therefore 

11. Does away in large part with the separation of families, and with 

a temptation to a lax enforcement of inspection; in order to 
prevent such separation. Intending immigrants can tell before 
starting whether they are eligible or not, and can decide 
whether to separate or not. 

"For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric= 
tion League, Address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, Fiske 
Building, Boston. The annual dues are one dollar. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto, the exclusion of " All 
persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who cannot both read 
and write the English language or some other language." 



I 2 



Condition of Immigrants. 

1895 1896 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 15 years 

of age 20 29 

Per cent, of total immigration who were farmers, laborers 

or servants 42 46 

Per cent, of total immigration having no occupation what- 
ever 36 36 

Countries which Send us Skilled Labor. 

{From Report Superintendent of Immigration for 1893.) 
Of the immigrants sent to us in 1893 by the various countries 
of Europe y but a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus 
among immigrants from Scotland there was one skilled in 4; from 
England and Wales, 1 in 5; Belgium, 1 in 7 ; France, 1 in 9; Ger= 
many and Norway, 1 in 10; Italy, 1 in 14; Russia, 1 in 18; Ireland, 
1 in 19; Poland, 1 in 23; Austria* Hungary, 1 in 29. 



Illiteracy. 

{From Report of Commissioner-Genet al of Immigration for 1896.) 
Number of persons over fourteen years of age in each 'hundred 
immigrants who could not write or could not read and write their own 
language, from those nations of Europe which sent upwards of 2,000 
immigrants to the United States during the fiscal year 1895-96, 



Switzerland 


0.7 


Denmark 


0.8 


Sweden and Norway 


1.0 


Germany ' 


2.4 


France 


4.2 


England 


4.4 


Scotland 


4.6 


Ireland 


6.5 


Finland 


10.4 


Greece 


23.9 


Russia 


32.1 


Austria-Hungary 


39.5 


Italy 


46.1 


Portugal 


58.1 



Average United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia 3.7 
Average Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia 40.1 

NOTE: That the official figures as to illiteracy are not based 
upon actual tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of 
the immigrants' answers to the questions put to them. If they 
'were actually required by the inspectors to read and write before 
admission, the above figures of illiteracy would undoubtedly be 
larger. 

3 



Illiteracy of Italian Immigrants. 

(Fro/// manifests of 3,174 immigrants over 14 years of age arriving at the 
Port of New York during April, 1896, on four steamers fro?n Genoa and Naples. 



This is believed to present a fair average of recent Italian immigration.') 

Total immigrants examined 3,174 

Percentage of males 89.2 

Percentage of females jo.8 

Total illiterates 2,147 

Percent, of total immigrants who were illiterates 67,6 

Percentage of male illiteracy . 66.5 

Percentage of female illiteracy 75.7 

Number debarred under existing laws 197 

Percentage debarred of total immigrants 6.2 

Number which would have been debarred by a reading and writing test 2,147 

Or a percentage of 67.6 

Percentage of those who had been in the U.S. before 27.7 

Percentage of total immigrants who were laborers * 85.8 

Crime, Insanity and Pauperism. 



According to the Census of 1890 [Part II., pp. 169, 174, 182] those 
of foreign birth or parentage, who are 38 per cent, of the total white 
population, furnish over % the white convicts of the United States, 
while the foreign-born population, who are about 15 per cent, of the 
total population furnish }i of the insane, and nearly Y /z of the paupers 
of the United States. 

Distribution of Foreign Born. 

(Compiled from Census of 1890, Part i,p. exxxvi.) 



North Atlantic. 


South Atlantic. 


North Central. 


South Central. 


Western. 


Great Britain 












and Ireland 


59-5 


2.5 


27.6 


2.4 


7-9 


France 


36.0 


2.2 


34-i 


12.7 


14.9 


Germany 


32.2 


2.9 


56.4 


4.1 


4-3 


Bohemia 


10.4 


1.4 


84.3 


3-i 


0.8 


Scandinavia 


12.7 


0.3 


76.0 


0.8 


10. 


Austria 


49.9 


1-7 


31.8 


8.4 


8.1 


Hungary 


72.9 


1.8 


22.1 


1.4 


1.6 


Italy 


65.0 


2.7 


12.0 


6.7 


13.7 


Poland 


38-4 




57.o 




1.2 


Russia 


5o-9 


3-2 


38.2 


i-5 


6.1 



" South Atlantic " includes stales south of N. J. and Pa. 

" South Central " includes states south of the Ohio River and Mo. 

NOTE : That only 4.6 per cent, of the Poles and only 4.8 per 



cent, of the Hungarians, and 10.8 per cent, of the Russians live in the 
Southern States t or in the Western division; altogether only 29,528, 
scattered in a total population of nearly twenty-three millions. NOTE: 
That while the Non-Atlantic States gain three-fourths of the Germans 

* A very large proportion of those not laborers were sailors, and the balance chiefly stone- 
cutters, shoemakers and barbers. 

4 



and Scandinavians, the Atlantic States are burdened with two-thirds of 
the Russians, Hungarians and Italians. 

Rural and Urban Distribution. 

It is said that there is plenty of room in this country in the 
West on farms and ranches to receive an unlimited number of 
immigrants of whatever character they may be. 

In considering this statement the following figures are of inter* 
est: [From Bureau of Statistics, Quarterly Report No. 2, 189 2. ~\ 
Of a total foreign born population of 9,249,547 in 1890, 4,081,927, 
or 44 per cent, of them were found in the 124 principal cities of 
the U.S. 

Of Persons born in Norway 20.8% live in Cities. 

" " England 40.7 " " " 
" " Germany 47.7 " " " 
" " Ireland 55.9 " " " 
" " Poland 57.1 " " " 
" " Russia 57.9 " " " 
" " Italy 58.8 



1 4 



TABLES 

Showing congestion of recent immigration and of that most 
affected by the illiteracy test in large cities and centers of 
population. 

{From the Senate Report No. 290, 54/// Congress, 1st Session, 1896.) 
In 1890 there were 147,740 persons in this country born in Poland. 
Of these there were in the States of — 



New York 


22,718 


Pennsylvania 


25,191 


Illinois 


28,878 


Michigan 


15.669 


Wisconsin 


17,660 


Total 


1 10,1 16 


Now, let us see how they are 


distributed within these States 


Illinois : 




Cook County (Chicago) 


25>336 


Michigan : 




Wayne County (Detroit) 


5*599 


Manistee County 


2,607 


Bay County 


i*973 


Kent County 


i,i75 


New York : 




Erie County (Buffalo) 


8,929 


New York County (New York) 


6,759 


Kings County (Brooklyn) 


i,957 


Pennsylvania : 




Allegheny County (Pittsburg) 


3,343 


Luzerne County 


7,408 



Pennsylvania : 

Northumberland County 2,083 
Philadelphia County (Philadelphia) 2,189 
Schuylkill County 4,492 
Wisconsin : 

Milwaukee County (Milwaukee) 10,066 
Portage County 2,070 

In 1890 there were 182,580 Italians. Of these there were in 
Massachusetts 8,066, and 4,799 in Suffolk County (Boston). In New 
York, 64,141, of which 39,951 were in New York County (city of New 
York); Kings County (Brooklyn) , 9,789 ; Westchester County, 1,820; 
Erie County (Buffalo), 1,908. In Pennsylvania, 24,662, of which 
6,799 were in Philadelphia County; Allegheny County (Pittsburg), 
3,498; Luzerne County, 1,661. In New Jersey, 12,989, of which 3,598 
were in Essex County; Hudson County (Jersey City), 3,039. In 
Illinois, 8,035, of which 5,734 were in Cook County (Chicago). In 
Louisiana, 7,767, of which 3,622 were in Orleans County (New Or- 
leans). In California, 15,495, of which 5,212 were in San Francisco. 

There were 182,644 from Russia. Of these there were in the 
States of — 

New York 58,466 
Pennsylvania 17,315 
Massachusetts 7,3 2 S 
Connecticut 3,027 
South Dakota 12,398 
Michigan 11,889 
Illinois 8,407 
Kansas 9,801 
Of these New York City had 48,790; Brooklyn, 3,397; Rochester, 
1 ,085 ; Albany, 479 ; Syracuse, 774 ; Elmira, 1 08 ; Long Island City, 121. 

There were in Boston 4,305, or more than attributed to Massachu- 
setts ; Philadelphia, 7,879; Chicago, 7,683; New Haven, 1,160; 
Hartford, 492; Bridgeport, 102; Waterbury, 123. 

One-half of these Russians are found in the Atlantic division, or 
89,896, and in the Central division, 69,907. 

Philadelphia has 7,897 
Pittsburg 2,279 
Scranton 488 
Wilkesbarre 149 
Kansas : 

Marion County 316 
Ellis County 1,269 
McPherson County 1,654 
Michigan : 

Portland County 3»5 21 
Gogebic County 1*129 
Marquette County 2,563 

In 1880 there were only 8,967 of these in the 50 principal cities. 

In 1890 there were 98,355. 

6 



Destination of Recent Immigrants. 



The following tables are the result of a visit to the Immigrant Station 
on Ellis Island, N.Y., by members of the Executive Committee of the 
League. About 1,000 immigrants over 16 years of age were examined: 









Other 




Central 




Non- 




Penn. 


N.Y. 


Atlantic. 


Middle. 


and Western. 


Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Germans 


17% 


41% 


O srf 

8% 


22% 


12% 


00% 


34% 


Bohemians 


O 


30 





23 


47 


30 


70 


Finns 


7 


21 


4i 


7 


24 


69 


31 


Russians 


23 


51 


17 


7 


2 




9 


Hungarians 


54 


21 


20 


5 





95 


5 


Galicians 


33 


_ 
IO 


3 1 




4 


02 


_ 
10 


Croats, etc. 


50 


21 


3 


12 


14 


74 


26 


Syrians 





77 


13 





10 


90 


10 


Russians 
















Hungarians 
















Galicians 


/ 42 


28 




7 


3 


89.2 


10.8 


Croats and 
















Syrians , 

















Other Atlantic comprises N.H., Mass., Conn., N.J., Del., Md. and W. Va. 
Middle comprises Ohio, Ind., 111., Mich., Wis. and Ky. Central and Western com- 
prises Minn., Iowa, Mo., Texas, Kan., Neb., Col., Wyo. and Mont. The boundary 
lines are, roughly, the western boundary of Penn. and the Mississippi river. The 
above States, together with N.Y., Penn. and Ga., were the only ones given by immi- 
grants as their destination. 

NOTE : No immigrant gave any Southern State as his destination, except one 
German going to Georgia. 



From Reports of the Commissioner=General of 

Immigration. 

. . 1895. 1896. 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for the 

four States of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. 72 72 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 
south of the Potomac river, Pa., and the 

Ohio river, or West of the Mississippi river n 



Destination of Illiterates. 

By 

By Numbers. Percentages. 









Other 




Central and 




Non- 




Non- 




Penn. 


N.Y. 


Atlantic. Middle. Western. Atlantic. Atlantic. 


Atlantic. Atlantic 


Russians 


II 


28 


II 


4 


I 


50 


5 


91% 


9% 


Hungarians 


76 


20 


34 


4 


O 


130 


4 


97 


3 


Galicians 


25 


12 


26 


11 


5 


63 


16 


80 


20 


Croats, etc. 


20 


8 





4 


4 


28 


8 


78 


22 


Syrians 


O 


21 


2 





4 


23 


4 


85 


15 


Totals, 


132 


89 


73 


23 




294 


37 


89 


11 



Only 11 illiterates were destined to the South. 1 Hungarian going to Delaware, 3 
to West Virginia, and 2 Galicians to Maryland, while the 5 who were going to Missouri 
were sent before the Board of Special Inquiry on suspicion of being contract laborers 
and were admitted for lack of evidence. 



7 



Italian Immigrants. 

From examination of the manifests of 3,174 immigrants over 14 
years of age arriving at the port of New York, on four steamers from 
Genoa and. Naples, it appeared that 95.3% were destined for New 
England, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

Of those destined for "other States" 31 or less than \% were 
bound to States west of the Mississippi river, and only 11 to States 
south of Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, while only 3 were going to 
the Southern States proper. 

NOTE: That an educational test as a measure of restriction would 
not affect in any important degree the Western and Southern States, 
many of which are naturally desirous of obtaining a large immigration ; 
because the races like the Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, 
French and English would be little affected by an educational test, 
largely go West, while the illiterate races such as the Hungarians, 
Galicians and Italians remain to lower the standards of the already 
crowded Atlantic territory, as appears by the tables on pp. 4 and 5, 
above. 

Illiterates and Slums. 

The Seventh Special Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Labor 
(1894) shows (p. 44) that the proportion of those of foreign birth or 
parentage to the total population in the slums of Baltimore was 77 per 
cent., in Chicago 90 per cent., in New York 95 per cent., and in Phila- 
delphia 91 per cent. The figures for the foreign born alone are corre- 
spondingly striking, It appears from the same Report (p. 160-3) that 
of every 100 aliens, 40 were illiterate in the slums of Baltimore, 47 in 
Chicago, 59 in New York, and 51 in Philadelphia; and that of every 
100 of these illiterate aliens there were 67 males of voting age in Balti- 
more, 77 in Chicago, 78 in New York, and 85 in Philadelphia. 

The proportion in which the literate and illiterate nationalities 
contribute to the slum population is shown by the following tables, 
compiled from the same Report, pp. 41, 72: 

Austria- Hungary , Italy, United Kingdom., France, 

Poland and Russia. Ger?nany and Scandinavia. 

Per cent, of Per cent, of Per cent, of Per cent, of 

Total Population. Slum Population. Total Population. Slum Population. 

Baltimore. 

1.97 12.72 I 13.52 27.29 

Chicago. 

6.41 44.44 I 30.70 10.64 

New York. 

9.45 5x.11 | 30.73 8.64 

Philadelphia. 

1.95 50.28 I 22.95 8.44 

8 



NOTE: That Southeastern Europe furnishes 3 times as many 
inhabitants as Northwestern Europe to the slums of Baltimore, 19 
times as many to the slums of New York, 20 times as many to the 
slums of Chicago, 71 times as many to the slums of Philadelphia, 

The comparative degree of illiteracy of foregoing elements of 
slums is as follows for the above-mentioned four cities : 



Scandinavia 5-6% 
Great Britain 7.0 

France 10.2 

Germany 21. 9 

Ireland 40.4 



Average of Group 25.5 



An stria- Hungary 16.6 

Russia 37.1 

Poland 46.1 

Italy 66.4 



Average of Group 54*5 



Native Americans 7.4 



Assimilation. 

By Census of 1890, Part If., p. 683, out of the total foreign=born 
males over 21 years of age, 32.8 per cent, were not naturalized ; i.e., 
nearly 1=3 of the foreign adult males are not citizens. And out of 
the total male population of the U.S. over 21 years of age, 7 per 
cent, are aliens. Of the 1,189,452 aliens in the U.S., 32.6 percent, 
do not speak English. 

From the Census of 1890 [Part II., pp. 600, 688], it appears that 
the proportion of the foreign-born of the various races who were still 
aliens, was as follows : 

Slav 21.4% British 9-3% 

Latin 29.7 Germanic 9.7 

Asiatic 85.7 Scandinavian 13.2 



Average 32.0 Average 9.9 

9 



Nationalities of Immigrants desired by the States. 

(From Report of the Immigration Investigating Commission, January, 1896. The 
Commission sent letters to the Governors of all the States asking what nationalities of 
immigrants were preferred i?i their several States.) 

Of 52 preferences for different nationalities of immigrants expressed 
in these replies 

15 are for Germans. 

14 are for Scandinavians. 

12 are for English, Scotch, or Irish. 

3 are for French. 

2 are for Swiss. 

2 are for Italians. 

1 is for Hollanders. 

I is for Belgians. 

1 is for "North of Europe." 

1 is for Americans. 

NOTE: That there are only 2 calls for immigrants from Southern 
and Eastern Europe, and these are both for Italians. One of the Gov- 
ernors asking for Italians expressly states that he is " not sure that 
immigrants from any foreign country are desirable as laborers " in his 
State, and the other says " that unskilled labor is not desired " in his 
State, but that farmers with small means are highly desirable. As very 
few of the Italian immigrants now coming to this country settle down 
and become independent farmers, but are almost entirely unskilled 
laborers, it may be concluded that in the second case Italian immigra- 
tion of its present character is not desired. 

NOTE : That there is no call for Poles, Russians, Hungarians, 
Bohemians, or the other races of Southern and Eastern Europe and of 
Asia. 

NOTE: That the immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, 
such as the English, Irish, Scotch, Germans, Scandinavians and French, 
who are desired as immigrants in all parts of the United States, are as 
a whole well educated, there being on the average only four per cent, of 
illiteracy among them, while the illiteracy of the immigrants from 
Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia and Poland is over thirty per cent. 
An educational test, therefore, requiring every immigrant to be able to 
read and write before gaining admission to the United States, would 
debar a considerable number of the undesirable classes, while it would 
interfere very little with the immigration from the North and West of 
Europe. 

10 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 16, [Second Edition.] 



IMMIGRATION. 

Its Effects upon the United States. 



REASONS FOR FURTHER RESTRICTION. 



Immigration by Decades, 1820 to 1890. 

.{From the Report of the Sufit. of Immigration for the year ending June 30, 1892.) 
1820— 1830 128,393 
1830— 1840 539,391 

1840— 1850 1,423,337 

1850— 1860 2,799,423 

i860 — 1870 1,964,061 [The War Period.] 

1870 — 1880 2,834,040 

1880 — 1890 5,246,613 

The Yearly Average, 1880=1890, was 524,661. Immigration 
1880=1890 was 35.1 per cent, of the entire arrivals in U.S. 
1820=1890. 

Immigration by Years from 1885. 

{From Reports of Superintendent and Bureau of Immigration.') 



1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 

1893 
1894 

1895 
1896 

NOTE: That the figures for 
of 84,731, or nearly one=third, 
existing prior to the panic. 



395,346 
334,203 
490,109 
546,881 

444,427 
455,302 

560,319 
579,663 

440,793 [The Cholera Year.] 
288,020 [The Panic Year.] 
258,536 
343,267 

1896 show an increase over 1895 
and a return to the conditions 



Recent Changes in the Nationality of 
Immigrants. 

{Specially prepared for the League from Quarterly Report Bureau Statistic 
No. 2, Series 1892- 1893, and Reports of Superintendent of Immigration.) 





Immigrants from 


Immigrants from 




Austria-Hungary, 


United Kingdom, 




Italy, Poland 


France, Germany 




and Russia. 


and Scandinavia. 


1 009 


3»5 I 5 


260,083 


.00. 
I00O 


30,812 


292,903 


1000 


7^734 


240,770 


T QQ H 
IOO7 


124,781 


332,748 


i8qo 


154..873 


262 7 /in 


i8qi 


222,020 




1092 


259,967 


312,502 


1803 * 


l88, I4Q 


212 i6q 


1804 t 


122 8^4 




1805 


102,850 


I06 7QO 


1896 


178,001 

/ 'I/I/ 


132.374. 






Per cent, of immigrants 




Per cent, of immigrants 


from United Kingdom, 




from Austria-Hungary, 


France, Germany and 




Italy, Poland and Russia, 


Scandinavia, 




tfi trttol ltn yyi i otto nn 


TA 4" r\ i" Q 1 i YYt YY\ 1 frx»Q Tl ATI 

LU LU Ldl llilllll^rdllUU. 


I0D9 


0.9 


73-8 


I00O 


Q - 
8-5 


04-5 


IO9O 


34-o 


57-7 


I89I 


39-6 


52.1 


l892 


44.8 


53-9 


1893 


42.7 


48.2 


I894 


42.6 


47.9 


1895 


39-8 


52.9 


I896 


52.0 


39-o 



NOTE: In 1869 the immigrants from Austria=Hungary, Italy , 
Russia and Poland were about l=100th of the number from the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia ; in 1880 about 
UlOth; in 1894 nearly equal to it ; in 1896 l=3d greater. 

Numbers Debarred and Deported. 



1892 2,801 out of 579,663 or 0.5 per cent. 

1893 1,630 out of 440,793 or 0.4 per cent. 

1894 2,389 out of 228,020 or 1.0 per cent. 

1895 2,419 out of 258,536 or 1.0 per cent. 

1896 3,°37 out °f 343>267 or 0.9 per cent. 



NOTE: That the average number debarred and deported under 
the present laws is less than one per cent, of the total immigration. 



Cholera year. 



t Panic year. 



Condition of Immigrants. 

1895 1896 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 15 years 

of age 20 29 

Per cent, of total immigration who were farmers, laborers 

or servants 42 46 

Per cent, of total immigration having no occupation what- 
ever 36 36 

. Countries which Send us Skilled Labor. 

(From Report of Superintendent of Immigration for 1893.) 
Of the immigrants sent to us in 1893 by the various countries 
of Europe, but a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus 
among immigrants from Scotland there was one skilled in 4 ; from 
England and Wales, 1 in 5; Belgium, 1 in 7; France, 1 in 9; Qer= 
many and Norway, 1 in 10 ; Italy, 1 in 14 ; Russia, 1 in 18 ; Ireland, 
1 in 19 ; Poland, 1 in 23 ; Austria= Hungary, 1 in 29. 

Illiteracy. 

(Compiled fro?n the Report of the Commissioner-Getieral of Immigration for the year 

ending June 30, 1896.) 
Percentages of illiteracy among immigrants from those nations of Europe 
which sent upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the united states during the fiscal 

YEAR 1895-96. 



Coming from North- 
western Europe. 



Coming from Eastern and 
Southern Europe. 




The black part 
shows the propor- 
tion of those over 
fourteen years of 
age who could not 
read and write in 
any language. 




Average of Group, 4.5%. 



Average of Group, 47.9%- 



Switzerland 


0.8% 


Greece 


26.2% 


Denmark 


0.9 


Russia 


41. 1 


Sweden and Norway 


1.2 


Austria- Hungary 


45-o 


Germany 


3-o 


Italy 


54-6 


France 


4.9 


Portugal 


77-7 


England 


5-4 






Scotland 


5-7 






Ireland 


7.0 






Finland 


11. 8 







NOTE: That the official figures as to illiteracy are not based 
upon actual tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of 
the immigrants* answers to the questions put to them. If they 
were actually required by the inspectors to read and write before 
admission, the above figures of illiteracy would undoubtedly be 
larger. 

3 



Illiteracy of Italian Immigrants. 

{From manifests of 3,174 immigrants over 14 years of age arriving at the 
Port of New York during April, 1896, on four steamers from Genoa and Naples. 



This is believed to present a fair average of recent Italian immigration.^ 

Total immigrants examined 3,174 

Percentage of males 89.2 

Percentage of females 10.8 

Total illiterates 2,147 

Per cent, of total immigrants who were illiterates 67.6 

Percentage of male illiteracy 66.5 

Percentage of female illiteracy 75.7 

Number debarred under existing laws 197 

Percentage debarred of total immigrants 6.2 

Number which would have been debarred by a reading and writing test 2,147 

Or a percentage of 67.6 

Percentage of those who had been in the U.S. before 27.7 

Percentage of total immigrants who were laborers * 85.8 

Crime, Insanity and Pauperism. 



According to the Census of 1890 [Part II., pp. 169, 174, 182] those 
of foreign birth or parentage, who are 38 per cent, of the total white 
population, furnish over % the white convicts of the United States, 
while the foreign-born population, who are about 15 per cent, of the 
total population, furnish Yz of the insane, and nearly ^2 of the paupers 
of the United States. 

Distribution of Foreign Born. 

{Compiled from Census of 1890, Part p. cxxxvi.~) 



North Atlantic. 


South Atlantic. 


North Central. 


South Central. 


Western. 


Great Britain 












and Ireland 


59-5 


2-5 


27.6 


2.4 


7.9 


France 


36.0 


2.2 


34-i 


12.7 


14.9 


Germany 


32.2 


2.9 


56.4 


4.1 


4.3 


Bohemia 


10.4 


1.4 


84.3 


3-i 


0.8 


Scandinavia 


12.7 


0.3 


76.0 


0.8 


10. 


Austria 


49.9 


i-7 


31.8 


8.4 


8.1 


Hungary 


72.9 


1.8 


22.1 


1.4 


1.6 


Italy 


65.0 


2.7 


12.0 


6.7 


13-7 


Poland 


38.4 


i-7 


57-o 


i-7 


1.2 


Russia 


50.9 


3-2 


38.2 


1-5 


6.1 



" South Atlantic 11 includes States south of N.J. and Pa. 
"South Central" 1 i?icludes States south of the Ohio River and Mo. 
NOTE : That only 4.6 per cent, of the Poles and only 4.8 per 



cent, of the Hungarians, and 10. 8 per cent, of the Russians live in the 
Southern States or in the Western division; altogether only 29,528, 
scattered in a total population of nearly twenty-three millions. NOTE: 
That while the Non-Atlantic States gain three-fourths of the Germans 

*A very large proportion of those not laborers were sailors, and the balance chiefly stone- 
cutters, shoemakers and barbers. 

4 



and Scandinavians, the Atlantic States are burdened with two-thirds of 
the Russians, Hungarians and Italians. 



Rural and Urban Distribution. 

It is said that there is plenty of room in this country in the 
West on farms and ranches to receive an unlimited number of 
immigrants of whatever character they may be. 

In considering this statement the following figures are of inter= 
est: [From Bureau of Statistics, Quarterly Report No. 2, 1892.^ 
Of a total foreign born population of 9,249,547 in 1890, 4,081,927, 
or 44 per cent of them were found in the 124 principal cities of 

the U.S. 



Of Pe 



bo 



n in Norway 

44 England 

" Germany 

" Ireland 

" Poland 

44 Russia 

44 Italy 



20.8% 

40.7 

47-7 

55-9 

57-i 

57-9 

58.8 



live in Cities. 



TABLES. 

Showing congestion of recent immigration and of that most 
affected by the illiteracy test in large cities and centers of 
population. 

(From the Senate Report No. 290, 54M Congress, 1st Session, 1896.) 
In 1890 there were 147,740 persons in this country born in Poland. 
Of these there were in the States of — 



New York 


22,718 


Pennsylvania 


25,191 


Illinois 


28,878 


Michigan 


15,669 


Wisconsin 


17,660 


Total 


110,116 


Now, let us see how they are 


distributed within these States 


Illinois : 




Cook County (Chicago) 


25>336 


Michigan : 




Wayne County (Detroit) 


5*599 


Manistee County 


2,607 


Bay County 


i,973 


Kent County 


i,i75 


New York : 




Erie County (Buffalo) 


8,929 


New York County (New York) 


6,759 


Kings County (Brooklyn) 


i,957 


Pennsylvania : 




Allegheny County (Pittsburg) 


3,343 


Luzerne County 


7,408 



Pennsylvania : 

Northumberland County 2,083 

Philadelphia County (Philadelphia) 2,189 

Schuylkill County 4,492 
Wisconsin : 

Milwaukee County (Milwaukee) 10,066 

Portage County 2,070 



In 1890 there were 182,580 Italians. Of these there were in 
Massachusetts 8,066, and 4,799 in Suffolk County (Boston). In New 
York, 64,141, of which 39,951 were in New York County (city of New 
York) ; Kings County (Brooklyn), 9,789; Westchester County, 1,820; 
Erie County (Buffalo), 1,908. In Pennsylvania, 24,662, of which 6,799 
were in Philadelphia County; Allegheny County (Pittsburg), 3,498; 
Luzerne County, 1,661. In New Jersey, 12,989, of which 3,598 were 
in Essex County; Hudson County (Jersey City), 3,039. In Illinois, 
8,035, °f which 5,734 were in Cook County (Chicago). In Louisiana, 
7,767, of which 3,622 were in Orleans County (New Orleans). In 
California, 15,495 of which 5,212 were in San Francisco. 

There were 182,644 from Russia. Of these there were in the 
States of — 



New York 


58,466 


Pennsylvania 


17,315 


Massachusetts 


7,325 


Connecticut 


3,027 


South Dakota 


12,398 


Michigan 


11,889 


Illinois 


8,407 


Kansas 


9,801 



Of these New York City had 48,790; Brooklyn, 3,397; Rochester, 
1 ,085 ; Albany, 479 ; Syracuse, 774 ; Elmira, 108 ; Long Island City, 121. 

There were in Boston 4,305, or more than attributed to Massachu- 
setts; Philadelphia, 7,879; Chicago, 7,683; New Haven, 1,160; Hart- 
ford, 492 ; Bridgeport, 102; Waterbury, 123. 

One-half of these Russians are found in the Atlantic division, or 
89,896, and in the Central division, 69,907. 



Philadelphia has 7,897 

Pittsburg 2^,279 

Scranton 488 

Wilkesbarre 149 
Kansas : 

Marion County 316 

Ellis County 1,269 

McPherson County 1,654 
Michigan : 

Portland County 3,5 21 

Gogebic County 1,129 

Marquette County 2,563 



In 1880 there were only 8,967 of these in the 50 principal cities. 
In 1890 there were 98,355. 

6 



Destination of Recent Immigrants. 



The following tables are the result of a visit to the Immigrant 
Station on Ellis Island, N.Y., by members of the Executive Committee 
of the League. About 1,000 immigrants over 16 years of age were 
examined. 









Other 




Central and 




Non- 




Penn. 


N.Y. 


Atlantic. 


Middle. 


Western. 


Atlantic. Atlantic. 


Germans 


17% 


41% 


8% 


22% 


12% 


66% 


34 % 


Bohemians 





30 





23 


47 


3° 


70 


Finns 


7 


21 


4i 


7 


24 


69 


31 


Russians 


23 


51 


17 


7 


2 


9i 


9 


Hungarians 


54 


21 


20 


5 





95 


5 


Galicians 


33 


18 


3i 


14 


4 


82 


18 


Croats, etc. 


50 


21 


3 


12 


14 


74 


26 


Syrians 





77 


13 





10 


90 


10 


Russians N 
















Hungarians 
















Galicians 


> 42 


28 




7 


3 


89.2 


10.8 


Croats and 
















Syrians , 

















Other Atlantic comprises N.H., Mass., Conn., N.J., Del., Md. and W. Va. 
Middle comprises Ohio, Ind., 111., Mich., Wis. and Ky. Central and Western com- 
prises Minn., Iowa, Mo., Texas, Kan., Neb., Col., Wyo. and Mont. The boundary 
lines are, roughly, the western boundary of Penn. and the Mississippi river. The 
above States, together with N.Y., Penn. and Ga., were the only ones given by immi- 
grants as their destination. 

NOTE: No immigrant gave any Southern State as his destination, except one 
German going to Georgia. 

From Reports of the Commissioner=General of 
Immigration. 

1895. 1896. 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 

States of 111., Mass., N.Y. and Penn. 72 72 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for States south 

of the Potomac river, Penn., and the Ohio river, 

or west of the Mississippi river .... 11 

Destination of Illiterates. 

By Numbers. By Percentages. 







Other 




Central and 




Non- 




Non- 


Penn. 


N.Y- Atlantic. Middle. Western. Atlantic. Atlantic. 


Atlantic. Atlantic 


Russians 11 


28 


II 


4 


I 


50 


5 


91% 


9% 


Hungarians 76 


20 


34 


4 





130 


4 


97 


3 


Galicians 25 


12 


26 


11 


5 


63 


16 


80 


20 


Croats, etc. 20 


8 





4 


4 


28 


8 


78 


22 


Syrians 


21 


2 





4 


23 


4 


85 


*5 


Totals 132 


89 


73 


23 


14 


294 


37 


89 


11 



Only 11 illiterates were destined to the South, 1 Hungarian going to Delaware, 3 
to West Virginia, and 2 Galicians to Maryland, while the 5 who were going to Missouri 
were sent before the Board of Special Inquiry on suspicion of being contract laborers 
and were admitted for lack of evidence. 



7 



Italian Immigrants. 



From examination of the manifests of 3,174 immigrants over 14 
years of age arriving at the port of New York, on four steamers from 
Genoa and Naples, it appeared that 95.3% were destined for New 
England, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

Of those destined for "other States" 31 or less than 1% were 
bound to States west of the Mississippi river, and only 1 1 to States 
south of Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, while only 3 were going to 
the Southern States proper. 

NOTE : That an educational test as a measure of restriction would 
not affect in any important degree the Western and Southern States, 
many of which are naturally desirous of obtaining a large immigration ; 
because the races like the Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, French 
and English, which would be little affected by an educational test, largely 
go West, while the illiterate races, such as the Hungarians, Galicians 
and Italians, remain to lower the standards of the already crowded 
Atlantic territory, as appears by the tables on pp. 4 and 5, above. 



Illiterates and Slums. 

The Seventh Special Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor 
(1894) shows (p. 44) that the proportion of those of foreign birth or 
parentage to the total population in the slums of Baltimore was 77 per 
cent., in Chicago 90 per cent., in New York 95 per cent., and in Phila- 
delphia 91 per cent. The figures for the foreign born alone are corre- 
spondingly striking. It appears from the same Report (p. 160-3) that 
of every 1 00 aliens, 40 were illiterate in the slums of Baltimore, 47 in 
Chicago, 59 in New York, and 51 in Philadelphia; and that of every 
100 of these illiterate aliens there were 67 males of voting age in Balti- 
more, 77 in Chicago, 78 in New York, and 85 in Philadelphia. 

The proportion in which the literate and illiterate nationalities 
contribute to the slum population is shown by the following tables, 
compiled from the same Report, pp. 41, 72: 



A ustria- Hungary , Italy, 
Poland and Russia. 



United Kingdom, France, 
Germany and Scandinavia. 



Per cent, of 
Total Population. 



I.97 



Per cent, of 
Slum Population. 



12.72 



6.41 



9-45 



i-95 



44.44 



51. 11 



50.28 



Baltimore. 

1 

Chicago. 

1 

New York. 



Philadelphia. 



Per cent, of 
Total Population. 



13-52 



Per cent, of 
Slum Population. 



27.29 



30.70 



30.73 



22.95 



IO.64 
8.64 
8.44 



NOTE: That Southeastern Europe furnishes 3 times as many 
inhabitants as Northwestern Europe to the slums of Baitimore, 19 
times as many to the slums of New York, 20 times as many to the 
slums of Chicago, 71 times as many to the slums of Philadelphia. 

The comparative degree of illiteracy of foregoing elements of 
slums is as follows for the above-mentioned four cities : 



Scandinavia 5*6% 
Great Britain 7.0 

France 10.2 

Germany 21.9 

Ireland 40.4 



Average of Group 25.5 



Austria-Hungary 16.6 

Russia 37.1 

Poland 46.1 

Italy 66.4 



Average of Group 54*5 



Native Americans 7.4 



Assimilation. 

By Census of 1890, Part II. , p. 683, out of the total foreign=born 
males over 21 years of age, 32.8 per cent, were not naturalized; i.e., 
nearly 1=3 of the foreign adult males are not citizens. And out of 
the total male population of the U.S. over 21 years of age, 7 per 
cent, are aliens. Of the 1,189,452 aliens in the U.S., 32.6 per cent, 
do not speak English. 

From the Census of 1890 [Part II., pp. 600, 688], it appears that 
the proportion of the foreign-born of the various races who were still 
aliens was as follows : 

Slav 21.4% British 9.3% 

Latin 29.7 Germanic 9.7 

Asiatic 85.7 Scandinavian 13.2 



Average 32.0 Average 9.9 

9 



Nationalities of Immigrants desired by the States. 



{From Report of the Immigration Investigating Commission, January, 1896. The 
Commission sent letters to the Governors of all the States asking what nationalities of 
immigrants were preferred in their several States.) 

Of 52 preferences for different nationalities of immigrants expressed 
in these replies 

15 are for Germans. 

14 are for Scandinavians. 

12 are for English, Scotch, or Irish. 

3 are for French. 

2 are for Swiss. 

2 are for Italians. 

1 is for Hollanders. 

1 is for Belgians. 

1 is for " North of Europe." 

1 is for Americans. 

NOTE : That there are only 2 calls for immigrants from Southern 
and Eastern Europe, and these are both for Italians. One of the Gov- 
ernors asking for Italians expressly states that he is " not sure that 
immigrants from any foreign country are desirable as laborers " in his 
State, and the other says " that unskilled labor is not desired " in his 
State, but that farmers with small means are highly desirable. As very 
few of the Italian immigrants now coming to this country settle down 
and become independent farmers, but are almost entirely unskilled 
laborers, it may be concluded that in the second case Italian immigra- 
tion of its present character is not desired. 

NOTE : That there is no call for Poles, Russians, Hungarians, 
Bohemians, or the other races of Southern and Eastern Europe and of 
Asia. 

NOTE : That the immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, 
such as the English, Irish, Scotch, Germans, Scandinavians and French, 
who are desired as immigrants in all parts of the United States, are as 
a whole well educated, there being on the average only four per cent, 
of illiteracy among them, while the illiteracy of the immigrants from 
Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia and Poland is over forty per cent. 
An educational test, therefore, requiring every immigrant to be able to 
read and write before gaining admission to the United States, would 
debar a considerable number of the undesirable classes, while it would 
interfere very little with the immigration from the North and West of 
Europe. 

10 



Legislation. 



The only classes of persons excluded from this country under 
oar present immigration laws (not considering Chinese immigration) 
are the following: I. Idiots; II. Insane persons; III. Paupers or per- 
sons likely to become a public charge ; IV. Persons with a loathsome or 
dangerous contagious disease ; V. Persons who have been convicted of 
felony or other infamous crime or misdemeanor involving moral tur- 
pitude ; VI. Polygamists ; VII. "Assisted immigrants" unless on 
special inquiry they are found not to belong to any of the fore- 
going excluded classes ; VIII. Contract laborers ; IX. Women imported 
for purposes of prostitution. 

NOTE : There are three general misconceptions regarding our 
present immigration laws. The first is that we now require a careful 
examination of all intending immigrants in Europe, before they em- 
bark, and in this way the least desirable element is very largely pre- 
vented from coming here. The second, that persons who cannot read 
and write are at present debarred from landing. The third, that every 
immigrant must have $30 in order to be admitted. None of these is 
true. 

Advantages of the Educational Test as a Means 
of further Restricting Immigration. 

1. Excludes the people we wish to exclude; i.e., those who are 

degraded, ignorant alike of their own language and of any 
occupation, incapable of appreciating our institutions and stand- 
ards of living, and very difficult of assimilation. 

2. Adds to the excluded classes. 

3. In practice would be applied at place where ticket bought and 

applied by steamship companies, therefore 

4. Does not imply any great change in existing machinery, or any 

large increase in consular service and expense. 

5. Inspection is not committed to persons in remote countries 

where surveillance is difficult, but remains a uniform system, 
which is public and easily controlled. 

6. Is exact and definite in its operation ; easily and simply applied, 

and therefore 

7. Diminishes the labor of the boards of special inquiry, and gives 

the immigration officials opportunity for a more thorough in- 
spection. 

8. Secures rudimentary education on the part of all foreigners 

applying for naturalization papers and American citizenship. 

1 1 



Promotes education among those who desire to emigrate, and 

to that extent improves the social condition of Europe. 
Saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in 

doubt as to his admission or exclusion, and therefore 
Does away in large part with the separation of families, and 
with a temptation to a lax enforcement of inspection, in order 
to prevent such separation. Intending immigrants can tell 
before starting whether they are eligible or not, and can de- 
cide whether to separate or not. 

For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric= 
tion League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, Fiske 
Building, Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : for 
annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admis= 
sion and upon January 1st of each year; for life membership, ten 
dollars, payable upon admission, life members being exempt from 
annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

It advocates as an important means thereto the exclusion of 
" All persons between fourteen and sixty years of age who cannot both 
read and write the English language or some other language." 




PUBLIGATiONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No, 17, [Second Edition.! 



Bibliography— of Receipt Literature 

T Public Library J 

on) Immigration. ^ 

/ C/fy of. Boston. \ 

The present brief bibliography has been specially prepared by 
the Immigration Restriction League for the use of debating clubs and 
for general reading. It includes the titles of a few of the more impor- 
tant articles on the Immigration Problem which have appeared during 
the last six years. The plan has been to select publications which set 
forth the main points in the present discussion of the problem, and 
which are easily accessible to most readers. 

The following general outline of an argument for the further 
restriction of immigration is presented as a possible aid in the prepa- 
ration of a debate on this question : 

1. Immigrants are not needed; (a) the force of unskilled labor 
is large enough ; (#) immigrants are largely unskilled laborers. 

2. Immigration does not increase the wealth of the country; (a) 
the wealth that immigration brings into the country is less than that 
taken out ; (b) the value of the immigrant depends solely on the use 
that can be made of him. 

3. Immigrants lower the standard of living;, (a) by cheap labor; 
(b) by willingness to live in a depraved condition. 

4. Immigrants are a menace to our national institutions; (a) by 
foreign speech and customs; (b) by grouping in isolated bodies; (c) 
because they do not appreciate our institutions and are not interested 
in preserving them. • 

5. Immigration is injurious to the moral condition of the United 
States; (tf) our prisons, work-houses, and reformatories are largely 
filled with those of foreign birth and parentage; (b) the quality of cur 
immigration is rapidly deteriorating. 

6. Immigration can be restricted by the enactment of laws. 



GENERAL REFERENCES. 

" Emigration and Immigration." By Richmond Mayo-Smith. 
New York. Scribners. 1892. (The best general book on the subject. 
Contains a useful bibliography.) 

"Un-American Immigration." By Rena M. Atchison. Chicago. 
Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1894. 

" Chinese Immigration." By George F. Seward. New York. 
Scribners. 1881. 

Report on the Importation of Contract Labor. 50th Congress, 
2d Session. House Report No. 3792. 1889. 

Report of the Select Committee on Immigration and Naturali- 
zation. 51st Congress, 2d Session. House Report No. 3472. 1891. 
(The Owen Report.) 

Report of the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. 
52d Congress, 1st Session. House Report No. 2090. 1892. (The 
Stump Report.) 

Report of the Senate Committee on Immigration, 5 2d Congress, 
2d Session. Senate Report No. 1333. 1893. (The Chandler 
Report.) 

Report of the Senate Committee on Immigration. 54th Con- 
gress, 1st Session. Senate Report No. 290. 1896. (The Lodge 
Report, reprinted as Senaffc Report No. 13, 55th Congress, 1st Session, 

1897.) 

1 Report of the Immigration Investigating Commission. 1895. 
1 Immigration Laws and Regulations. 1893. 

1 Annual Reports of the Commissioner-General of Immigration. 
Eleventh Census of the United States. 

2 Seventh Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor. 1894. 

Various publications of the Immigration Restriction League (sent 
on application to the Secretary). 



1 These publications can be procured from the Commissioner-General of Immigration, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

2 This report can be procured from the Commissioner of Labor, Washington, D.C. 



AFFIRMATIVE. 

THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. Hon. Henry Cabot 
Lodge. North American Review. Vol. 152, 27. (January, 1891.) 

METHODS OF RESTRICTING IMMIGRATION. Hon. Wm. 

E. Chandler. Forum. Vol. 13, 128. (March, 1892.) 

LYNCH LAW AND UNRESTRICTED IMMIGRATION. 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. North American Review. Vol. 152, p. 
602. (May, 1891.) 

OUR NATIONAL DUMPING-GROUND. Charles Stewart 
Smith. North American Revieiv. Vol. 154, 432. (April, 1892.) 

THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION. John H. Noble. Political 
Science Quarterly. Vol. 7, 232. 

THE MINE LABORERS IN PENNSYLVANIA. Henry Rood. 
Forum. Vol. 14, no. (September, 1892.) 

ALIEN DEGRADATION OF AMERICAN CHARACTER. 
Sydney G. Fisher. Forum. Vol. 14, 608. (January, 1893.) 

THE CENSUS AND IMMIGRATION. Hon. Henry Cabot 
Lodge. Century. Vol. 46, 737. (September, 1893.) 

RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. Gen. Francis A. Walker. 
Atlantic' Monthly. Vol. 77, 822. (June, 

ITALIAN IMMIGRATION. Prescott F. Hall. North American 
Review. Vol. 163, 252. (August, 1896.) 

HAS IMMIGRATION INCREASED POPULATION? Sydney 
G.Fisher. Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 48, 244. (December, 1895.) 

THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION. Dr. J. H. Senner. Annals 
American Academy Political and Social Science. Vol. 10, 1. (July, 
1897.) 

IMMIGRATION AND THE EDUCATIONAL TEST. Prescott 

F. Hall. North American Review. Vol. 165, 393. (October, 1897.) 

IMMIGRATION, HARD TIMES, AND THE VETO. John 
Chetwood, Jr. Arena. (December, 1897.) 

3 



NEGATIVE. 



OUR NATIONAL DUMPING-GROUND. John B. Weber. 
North American Review. Vol. 154, 424. (April, 1892.) 

INCALCULABLE ROOM FOR IMMIGRANTS. Edward Atkin- 
son. Forum. Vol. 13, 360. (May, 1892.) 

THE SCANDINAVIANS IN THE NORTHWEST. Kendric C. 
Babcock. Forum. Vol. 14, 103. (September, 1892.) 

WHAT IMMIGRANTS CONTRIBUTE TO INDUSTRY. Geo. 
F. Parker. Ibid., 600. (January, 1893.) 

A PRACTICAL REMEDY FOR EVILS OF IMMIGRATION. 
Gustav H. Schwab. Ibid., 805. (February, 1893.) 

HOW W 7 E RESTRICT IMMIGRATION. Hon. J. H. Senner. 
North American Review. Vol. 158, 494. (April, 1894.) 

A FEW FACTS AND THOUGHTS ON IMMIGRATION. Hon. 
J. H. Senner. Independent. New York. Vol.45, 1. (Nov. 2, 1893.) 

IMMIGRATION FROM ITALY. Hon. J. H. Senner. North 
American Review. Vol. 162, 649. (June, 1896.) 

SHOULD IMMIGRATION BE RESTRICTED? S. G. Croswell. 
North American Review. Vol. 164, 526. (May, 1897.) 

Further information as to references, statistics, etc., will be fur- 
nished, and the publications of the Immigration Restriction League sent, 
on application to 

PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, 

Fiske Building, Boston, Mass. 



D 198. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 18. 



TEXT OF IMMIGRATION BILLS 

INTRODUCED INTO 

55th Congress, First Session 

n ARCH— JULY, 1897. 





77ie following five bills are all the immigration bills which have 
been introduced into the present Congress at the session just passed, 
and are reprinted in this document in response to numerous requests 
for information concerning them. 



H. R. 1. 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

March 15, 1897. 

Mr. McCall introduced the following bill ; which was referred to the Committee on 
Immigration and Naturalization, and ordered to be printed. 

A BILL- 

TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled: 

That section one of the Act of March third, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-one, in amendment of the immigration and contract-labor Acts, 
be, and hereby is, amended by adding to the classes of aliens thereby 
excluded from admission to the United States the following: 

All persons over fifteen years of age, and physically capable of 
reading and writing, who cannot both read and write the English lan- 
guage or some other language; but an admissible immigrant or a per- 



son now in or hereafter admitted to this country may bring in or send 
for his wife, his children under eighteen years of age, and his parents 
or grandparents over fifty years of age, whether they are so able to 
read and write or not. 

SECT. 2. That for the purpose of testing the ability of the immi- 
grant to read and write, as required by the foregoing section, the 
inspection officers shall be furnished with copies of the Constitution of 
the United States, printed on numbered uniform pasteboard slips, each 
containing not less than twenty nor more than twenty-five words of 
said Constitution, printed in the various languages of the immigrants 
in double small pica type. These slips shall be kept in boxes made for 
that purpose, and so constructed as to conceal the slips from view, each 
box to contain slips of but one language, and the immigrant may 
designate the language in which he prefers the test shall be made. Each 
immigrant shall be required to draw one of said slips from the box and 
read, and afterwards write out in full view of the immigration officers 
the words printed thereon. Each slip shall be returned to the box 
immediately after the test is finished, and the contents of the box shall 
be shaken up by an inspection officer before another drawing is made. 
An immigrant failing to read and write out the slip thus drawn by him 
shall not be admitted, but shall be returned to the country from which 
he came at the expense of the steamship or railroad company which 
brought him, as now provided by law. The inspection officers shall 
keep in each box at all times a full number of said printed pasteboard 
slips, and in the case of each excluded immigrant shall keep a certified 
memorandum of the number of the slip which the said immigrant failed 
to read or copy out in writing. If in any case, from any unavoidable 
cause, the foregoing slips are not at hand for use, the inspection officers 
shall carefully and thoroughly test the ability of the immigrant to read 
and write, using the most appropriate and available means at their com- 
mand, and shall state fully in writing the reason why the slips are lack- 
ing, and describe the substitute method adopted for testing the ability 
of the immigrant. 

SECT. 3. That the provisions of the Act of March third, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-three, to facilitate the enforcement of the immigra- 
tion and contract-labor laws, shall apply to the persons mentioned in 
section one of this Act. 

Sect. 4. That this Act shall take effect three months after its 
passage. 

2 



Note. — The foregoing bill (H. R. i ) was prepared by the Immi- 
gration Restriction League, March, iSpy, and was introduced by Mr. 
McCall at the request of the League. It is similar in wording to that 
prepared by the League in November, 1895, which became the McCall 
bill (H.R. <?) and Lodge bill (S. joi) of the Fifty-fourth Congress. 
The Lodge bill, with the amendment offered by Mr. Corliss, of Michigan, 
commonly known as the Lodge-Corliss bill, passed both houses of Con- 
gress and was vetoed by President Cleveland, March 2, 1897. 

The principle of the Educational Test embodied in this bill has the 
indorsement and approval of the following bodies and individuals, among 
many others : 

Boston Chamber of Commerce, Jan. 22, 1896. 
Horseshoers International Union, Buffalo, May 30, 1896. 

Common Council and Mayor of Duluth, Minn., March 16, 1896, by a 

unanimous vote. 
Chicago Board of Trade, Dec. 15, 1896. 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, Dec. 15, 1896. 

Arkansas House of Representatives by a vote of 80 to 2, January, 1897. 
Hoisting Engineers Association, Chicago, 111., March, 1897, indorsing the 
above bill. 

Council of Trades and Labor Unions, Detroit, Feb. 11, 1897. 

John M. Haines, Esq., Secretary Idaho Immigration Association. 

Sewell Davis, Esq., Secretary Montana Mining and Immigration Com- 
mittee, Butte, Mon. 

S. W. Narregang, Esq., Secretary South Dakota Immigration Association. 

D. R. McGinnis, Esq., Secretary North Western Immigration Association. 

Sixth Congressional District Immigration Association, Aikin, Minn., March 
17-18, 1896. 

L. B. Wombwell, Esq., Commissioner of Agriculture, Florida. 

Mr. Justice Cornell, New York City. 

Glass Blowers Association of United States and Canada. 

Commercial Travellers of United States, 229 names. 

South Dakota Immigration Association. 

New York Central Labor Union. 

New York Protective Labor Union. 

The Legislature of the State of California. 

Branch No. 1, American Workmen's Protective League, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
National Board of Trade, Philadelphia. 
Park Street Club, Boston. 
Legislature of State of Washington. 
The Bostonian Club, Boston, Mass. 



3 



Lodge No. 21, Amalgamated Association of Iron, Tin, and Steel Workers, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Cigarmakers Union, No. 295, Scranton, Pa. 
Knights of Labor Local Assembly, No. 1562. 
Knights of Labor District Assembly, No. 66, Washington, D.C. 
Legislature of State of Wyoming. 
Cigarmakers Local Union, No. 22, Detroit, Mich. 
Typographical Union, Port Huron, Mich. 
Trades and Labor Council, Port Huron, Mich. 
Cigarmakers Union, Port Huron, Mich. 
Journeymen Barbers Union, Port Huron, Mich. 
Longshoremen's Union, Port Huron, Mich. 
Edison Union, Port Huron, Mich. 
Trades and Labor Assembly, Massilon, Ohio. 
The Nebraska Club. 
Central Labor Union, Brockton, Mass. 

National Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Cleveland, Sept. 29, 1896. 
S. M. Emery, Esq., Director Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. 
W ashington State Immigration Society, Seattle, Washington, Jan. 14, 1S96. 
Hon. Thomas Thorson, Secretary of State, Pierre, South Dakota. 
Jas. H. Mills, Esq., Commissioner Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and 

Industry, Helena, Mon. 
J. H. Brig-ham, Esq., President of Trustees of Ohio State Penitentiary, 

Delta, Ohio. 

Dr. J. H. Senner, formerly United States Commissioner of Immigration, 

Port of New York. 
Glass Blowers Association of America. 
Glass Bottle Blowers of United States and Canada. 
Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, Washington. 
Glass Bottle Blowers of Philadelphia. 

General Assembly Knights of Labor, Rochester, N.Y., Nov. 14, 1S96. 

Farmers Congress, Indianapolis, Ind., 1S96. 

Trades and Labor Assembly of Ohio. 

Journeymen Tailors Union of Bloomington, 111. 

United Wood Carvers Association, New York, December, 1896. 

Brass Moulders Union, New York City, December, 1S96. 

Stair Builders Union, New York City, December, 1S96. 

Stone Cutters Union, New York City, December, 1896. 

Typographical Union, New York City, December, 1896. 

In addition to the above, Jinndreds of petitions representing thousands 
of names, and from every State, were sent to the 54th Congress, on behalf 
of the Lodge and Me Call bills. 

4 



A very large number of important names of those favoring any 
measures for restricting immigration, though not in terms mentioning the 
educational test, may be added to the above. A few of these are : 

Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1895. 
Boston Clothing Cutters and Trimmers Union, April 8, 1895. 
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, Local No. 16. 
Atlantic Coast Seamen's Union. 

National Association of Katmakers of the United States, New York, Jan. 
25, 1895. 

Connecticut Branch American Federation of Labor, Hartford, Oct. 14, 1896. 
Bricklayers International Union, Worcester, Mass., Jan. 21, 1897. 
W. T. Levy, Esq., Inspector of Immigration, Galveston, Texas. 
Hon. Wm. Ruhrwein, Labor Commissioner of State of Ohio. 
Local Assembly 4907, Pittsburgh, Pa., June, 1897. 



H. R. 70. 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

March 15, 1897. 

Mr. Danford introduced the following bill ; which was referred to the Committee 
on Immigration and Naturalization, and ordered to be printed. 

A BILL 

ESTABLISHING ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS CONCERNING IMMIGRATION 
INTO THE UNITED STATES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : 

That section one of the Act of March third, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-one, in amendment of the immigration and contract labor Acts, 
be, and hereby is, amended by adding to the classes of aliens excluded 
from admission into the United States the following: 

All persons physically capable and over sixteen years of age, who 
cannot read and write the English language or some other language; 
but a person not so able to read and write who is over fifty years of 

5 



age, and is the parent or grandparent of a qualified immigrant over 
twenty-one years of age and capable of supporting such parent 
or grandparent may accompany such immigrant, or such a parent or 
grandparent may be sent for and come to join the family of a child or 
grandchild over twenty-one years of age similarly qualified and capable, 
and a wife or minor child not so able to read and write may accompany 
or be sent for, and come to join the husband or parent similarly quali- 
fied and capable. 

SECT. 2. For the purpose of testing the ability of the immigrant 
to read and write, as required by the foregoing section, the inspection 
officers shall be furnished with copies of the Constitution of the United 
States, printed on numbered uniform pasteboard slips, each containing 
not less than twenty nor more than twenty-five words of said Constitu- 
tion printed in the various languages of the immigrants in double small 
pica type. These slips shall be kept in boxes made for that purpose 
and so constructed as to conceal the slips from view, each box to con- 
tain slips of but one language, and the immigrant may designate the 
language in which he prefers the test shall be made. Each immigrant 
shall be required to draw one of said slips from the box and read, and 
afterwards write out, in full view of the immigration officers, the words 
printed thereon. Each slip shall be returned to the box immediately 
after the test is finished, and the contents of the box shall be shaken 
up by an inspection officer before another drawing is made. No immi- 
grant failing to read and write out the slip thus drawn by him shall be 
admitted, but he shall be returned to the country from which he came 
at the expense of the steamship or railroad company which brought 
him, as now provided by law. The inspection officers shall keep in 
each box at all times a full number of said printed pasteboard slips, 
and in the case of each excluded immigrant shall keep a certified 
memorandum of the number of the slip which the said immigrant failed 
to read or copy out in writing. If in any case from any unavoidable 
cause the foregoing slips are not at hand for use, the inspection officers 
shall carefully and thoroughly test the ability of the immigrant to read 
and write, using the most appropriate and available means at their 
command ; and shall state fully in writing the reasons why the slips are 
lacking, and describe the substitute method adopted for testing the 
ability of the immigrant. 

SECT. 3. That the provisions of the act of March third, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-three, to facilitate the enforcement of the immigra- 

6 



tion and contract-labor laws, shall apply to the persons mentioned in 
section one of this Act. 

SECT. 4. That it shall hereafter be unlawful for any male alien who 
has not in good faith made his declaration before the proper court, of his 
intention to become a citizen of the United States, to be employed on 
any public works of the United States, or to come regularly or habitually 
into the United States by land or water for the purpose of engaging in 
any mechanical trade or manual labor, for wages or salary, returning 
from time to time to a foreign country. 

Sect. 5. That it shall be unlawful for any person, partnership, 
company, or corporation knowingly to employ any alien coming into 
the United States in violation of the next preceding section of this Act: 
Provided, That the provisions of this Act shall not apply to the employ- 
ment of sailors, deck hands, or other employees of vessels, or railroad 
train hands, such as conductors, engineers, brakemen, firemen, or bag- 
gagemen, whose duties require them to pass over the frontier to reach 
the termini of their runs, or to boatmen or guides on the lakes and rivers 
on the northern border of the United States. 

Sect. 6. That any violation of the provisions of sections four and 
five of this Act by any alien or citizen shall be deemed a misdemeanor, 
punishable by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by impris- 
onment for the term of not exceeding one year, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court : Provided, That all 
persons convicted of a violation of section four of this Act shall be de- 
ported to the country whence they came. 

Sect. 7. That notwithstanding the provisions of this or any other 
existing law, the Secretary of the Treasury may permit aliens to enter 
this country for the purpose of teaching new arts or industries under 
such rules and regulations as he may provide. 

Note. — The foregoing bill is practically identical with the Lodge- 
Corliss bill as it passed the 54th Congress and received the veto of Pres- 
ident Cleveland, except that the last two sections of the Lodge-Corliss bill 
are omitted in this bill. These sections may be found as sections 3 and 4. 
of Senate Bill No. 112 printed below. 



7 



H. R. 74. 



IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

March 15, 1897. 

Mr. Corliss introduced the following bill ; which was referred to the Committee on 
Immigration and Naturalization, and ordered to be printed. 

A BILL 

TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : 

That it shall hereafter be unlawful for any male alien, who has not 
in good faith made his declaration, before the proper court, of his inten- 
tion to become a citizen of the United States, to be employed on any 
public works of the United States. 

SECT. 2. That it shall hereafter be unlawful for any male alien, 
who has not in good faith made his declaration to become a permanent 
resident of the United States, to come into this country for the purpose 
of engaging in any mechanical trade or manual labor for wages or salary 
while retaining his home or residence in a foreign country. 

SECT. 3. That it shall be unlawful for any person, partnership, or 
corporation knowingly to employ any alien coming into the United 
States in violation of the preceding sections of this Act : Provided, 
That the provisions of this Act shall not apply to the employment of 
sailors, deck hands, or other employees of vessels, or railroad train 
hands, such as conductors, engineers, brakemen, firemen, or baggage- 
men, whose duties require them to pass over the frontier to reach the 
termini of their runs, or to boatmen or guides on the lakes and rivers 
on the northern border of the United States. 

Sect. 4. That any violation of the provisions of this Act by any 
alien or citizen shall be deemed a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for the term of 
not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment in the 
discretion of the court : Provided, That all persons convicted of a viola- 

8 



tion of sections one and two of this Act shall be deported to the country 
whence they came. 

Note. — This bill has the same general scope, but differs in important 
details from the bill introduced by Mr. Corliss in the 54-th Congress. 

S. 112. 

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

March 16, 1897. 

Mr. Lodge introduced the following bill ; which was read twice, and referred to the 

Committee on Immigration. 

March 22, 1897. 
Reported by Mr. Lodge, without amendment. 
A BILL 

TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : 

{Sections 1 and 2 same as H. R. 70 above. ~\ 

SECT. 3. That this Act shall not apply to persons arriving in 
the United States from any port or place in the Island of Cuba during 
the continuance of the present disorders there, who have heretofore been 
inhabitants of that island. 

Sect. 4. That this Act shall take effect three months after its pas- 
sage. 

Note. — This bill as it stands is the same as the Lodge- Corliss bill 
as it passed the 54th Congress, with the Corliss amendment omitted. 



9 



S. 1051. 



IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

March 22, 1897. 

Mr. Chandler introduced the following bill ; which was read twice, and referred to 
the Committee on Immigration. 

A BILL 

TO AMEND THE VARIOUS ACTS RELATIVE TO IMMIGRATION, AND TO 
PROVIDE FOR THE EXCLUSION OF ALIEN ANARCHISTS. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the U?iited 
States of America in Congress assembled : 

That no alien anarchist shall hereafter be permitted to land at any- 
port of the United States, or be admitted into the United States, but 
this prohibition shall not be so construed as to apply to political refu- 
gees or political offenders. 

Sect. 2. That at the hearing of aliens charged with being anar- 
chists the board of special inquiry shall diligently inquire of the accused, 
by pertinent questions, as to his antecedents, political opinions, whether 
he belongs to any society or association of known anarchistic tendencies, 
and he may examine the person for marks indicative of such member- 
ship ; he may accept evidence of the immigrant's common reputation 
as an anarchist, and the orders, decrees, or judgments of foreign 
governments and police notifications as prima facie evidence, which 
shall be sufficient, unless successfully controverted, to sustain an order 
of deportation. The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized, in 
case he shall be satisfied that an alien has been allowed to land, or has 
come into the United States, contrary to the immigration laws, to issue 
a warrant and cause such alien to be taken into custody and returned 
to the country whence he came, at the expense of the importing vessel, 
or if he entered from an adjoining country, of which he is not a citizen, 
then to the country of his nativity, at the expense of the United 
States. In such cases the Secretary may authorize any immigration 
official to summon witnesses, administer oaths, and take testimony, to 
be submitted to him, and inspectors of immigration may execute such 
process and make arrests and convey to port of departure all such 
persons ordered deported. 



SECT. 3. That in cases where, upon the trial and conviction of 
any foreign-born and unnaturalized person of any crime or misdemeanor 
in any United States court, or court of record of any State or Territory 
or the District of Columbia, the presiding judge shall certify that from 
the evidence produced at the trial he is satisfied that such alien is an 
anarchist, or that he is not attached to the principles of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and well disposed to the peace and good 
order of the same, and that his remaining in this country will be a 
menace to the government, or to the peace and well being of society 
in general, such convict, in addition to other punishments adjudged, 
shall be taken before a commissioner of immigration, at a port of entry, 
who shall order his deportation, at the expense of the United States, to 
the country from which he came. Should he return to the United 
States he shall be arrested and sentenced to confinement in the peni- 
tentiary for a period not exceeding four years and afterwards again 
deported. 

SECT. 4. That the fact that an immigrant has declared his inten- 
tion to become a citizen of the United States shall constitute no bar to 
proceedings against him under this Act or under the Acts to which it 
is an amendment. 



11 



For publications and membership in the Immigration 
Restriction League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, 
Fiske Building, Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : 
For annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admis= 
sion and upon January 1st of each year; for life membership, ten 
dollars, payable upon admission, life members being exempt from 
annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-pai'tisan and non-sectarian organ- 
ization, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates 
a stricter regulation of immigration , but not the exclusion of any immi- 
grants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

All organizations and individuals favoring the 
enactment of House Bill No. I or Senate Bill No. 112 
are requested to send their names and addresses to 
the Secretary of the Immigration Restriction League, 
Fiske Building, Boston, Mass. 



12 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEA6UE No, 19. 

imnwration Fiaures lor 1897. 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner- General of Immigration.} 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending Jnne 30, 1896 and 1897. 





1896. 


1897. 


Total immigration 


343,267 


230,832 


Decrease in 1897 as compared with 1896 




"2,435 


Per cent of decrease 




33 


Number debarred from entrance and 






returned within one year after landing 


3,037 


1,880 


Per cent debarred and returned 


0.9 


0.8 


Total number of illiterate 


83,196 


44,580 


Per cent of illiterate in total 






immigration over 15 years of age 


29 


23 


Per cent of total immigration coming from 






Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia 


52 


52 


Per cent of total immigration coming from the 






United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia 39 


38 


Average money brought by immigrants in dollars 


11 




Per cent of total immigration having 






no occupation whatever 


36 


* 


Per cent of total immigration who were 






farmers, laborers or servants 


46 


* 


Per cent of total immigration destined for 






the four states of 111., Mass., N.Y., and Pa. 


72 


* 


Per cent of total immigration destined for states 






South of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 






Ohio River, or West of the Mississippi River 


11 


* 


REMARKS. — The fact that immigration 


which was 


1=3 larger 



in 1896 than in 1895 has fallen in 1897 below that of 1895 is another 
illustration of the law that the number of immigrants depends upon 
the degree of industrial activity in this country. And this leads to 
two important conclusions: first, that immigration will increase 
again rapidly as business activity increases; second, that the present 
is the time when the immigration laws can be amended with the 
least hardship to immigrants and the least disturbance to the im= 
migration service. 



Not yet tabulated, but undoubtedly similar to 1896. 



In regard to European immigration in 1897 it may be noted that 
while the proportion of the total immigration from South Eastern 
Europe has not diminished, the proportion from North Western 
Europe which was 52 per cent in 1895 and 39 per cent in 1896 is 
only 38 per cent this year, — a steady decline. 

Of immigrants from particular countries the Swiss, Scotch and 
Portuguese have this year fallen below the number of 2,000 while 
the Poles have increased again above that number. 

The proportion debarred and returned is steadily diminishing 
having been 1 per cent in 1895, 0.9 per cent in 1896 and being 
0.8 per cent this year. 

There has been some decrease in general illiteracy and an 
increase in the average amount of money brought by each immi= 
grant, as compared with last year. 

ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fifteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those 
nations of Europe which sent upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during the past fiscal year: 



Denmark 


0.5 


Sweden 


0.9 


Norway 


Z.I 


Germany 


1.8 


England 


4.1 


France 


4-3 


Ireland 


6.4 


Finland 


8.2 


Russia 


27.9 


Austria- Hungary 


28.1 


Poland 


39-4 


Italy 


50.9 



Average United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia 3.6 
Average Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia 39.9 
Average from all countries 23.2 

Countries which Send us Skilled Labor. 

(From report Superintendent of Immigration for 1893.) 

Of the immigrants sent to us in 1893 by the various countries of Europe, but 
a small proportion were skilled workmen. Thus among immigrants from Scotland 
there was one skilled in 4 ; from England and Wales, 1 in 5 ; Belgium, 1 in 7 ; 
France, 1 in 9 t ; Germany and Norway, 1 in 10 ; Italy, one in 14 ; Russia, 1 in 18 
Ireland, 1 in 19 ; Poland, 1 in 23 ; Austria-Hungary, 1 in 29. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, Fiske Building, 
Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : For annual mem= 
bership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon 
January 1st of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable 
upon admission, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards ft them to become citizens. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No, 22, 

FOREIGN STEAMSHIP AGITATION 

AGAINST THE 

Immigration Restriction Bill. 



The following is a copy of a telegram sent by H. C. Claussenius 
& Co., general western agents for the North German Lloyd Steamship 
Company in Chicago to F. W. A. Poppe, Milbank, S. Dak. : 

Immigration bill comes up in the House Wednesday ; wire your 
congressman, our expense, protesting against proposed exclusion and re- 
questing bill be defeated, informing him that vote in favor means defeat 
next election. 

(Signed) H. CLAUSSENIUS & CO. 

This telegram was sent Jan. 26, 1897. Mr. Claussenius stated in 
an interview in the Chicago 4< Times-Herald," Jan. 28, 1897, tna t " we 
sent similar messages to more than two hundred men. They are agents 
of the North German Lloyd who have been appointed to this office, 
but many of them doubtless represent other lines as well. The immi- 
gration bill menaces our business and the business of these agents. It 
also threatens to end emigration to the western States. We believe we 
have a legitimate right to use our influence to defeat a measure which 
may cause such widespread injury, and we acted on the assumption 
that the men we wired felt the same." 

The following letter was sent by the same firm to the steamship 
agents : 

Chicago, Jan. 25, 1897. 

To Agents: 

The immigration bill, which is intended to materially restrict immi- 
gration, comes up for final disposition in the House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C., on Wednesday, 27th instant. 

It is quite clear that immigration will really be restricted almost to the 
extent of total exclusion of immigrants should the bill become a law, and 
every effort should therefore be made to insure the defeat of the bill. 

You are directly interested in the defeat of the bill as much as we are, 
and we would respectfully ask you to wire your representative in Congress 



immediately upon receipt of this to vote against the bill, informing him that 
the measure virtually means exclusion, and that his vote in favor of same 
will mean repudiation by his constituents and his defeat at the next election. 

Trusting that you will not fail to give the matter your prompt attention, 
we are Yours respectfully, 

H. CLAUSSENIUS & CO. 
With this letter was sent the following slip : 

Wire your representative fully and let us know cost of telegram and we 
will promptly refund amount to you. 

Mr. Claussenius subsequently said in a formal statement : "Our 
principal objection to the bill is that it would deprive the West of agri- 
cultural immigrants which the country is sadly in need of, whether they 
are illiterate or not." 

What this Action means. 

In other words the agents of a foreign corporation, one of the 
most powerful in the world, and receiving a subsidy from the German 
Empire, undertook to have congressmen threatened with defeat if they 
voted for a measure which they believed would protect the institutions 
and the citizenship of the country and the social and industrial welfare 
of their constituents. Mr. Lodge said without contradiction, in the 
Senate on Feb. 2, 1897, m speaking of these letters and telegrams: 

" To every newspaper in which they have an advertisement they 
sent another telegram, and the hand of that company has been felt in 
this business ever since it looked as if the bill would get upon the 
statute book. You can see it to-day in the newspapers. Here is 
the report that the President has given it out that he means to veto 
the bill. Mr. President, no President of the United States would think 
of giving authority to anybody to say, or of saying himself, that he 
intended either to veto or to sign a bill before he had considered it, and 
before it had been sent to him in a perfected state for his consideration. 
That paragraph comes from the same source as those telegrams." 

Western Settlers not excluded by the Educational 

Test. 

" The principal objection " which is thus urged by the steamship 
company against the educational test bill, viz., that it will deprive the 
West of agricultural immigrants, is based either upon total ignorance or 
deliberate misrepresentation of the result of such a measure. Immi- 
grants from Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Germany, 



France, Great Britain, Ireland, and Finland have an average illiteracy 
of only 4^ in 100, the number of illiterates from Germany being 1.8 
in 100, and from Scandinavia 1 in 100. In other words, 96 per cent, 
and upwards of immigration from these countries would come in under 
the proposed bill. These are the sturdy and valuable citizens who 
have settled and built up the western States, and who are developing 
the agricultural regions of the Northwest. They will not be excluded 
by the educational test. 

If further proof be needed it is found in the fact that the State 
Immigration Associations of Minnesota, South Dakota, Montana, 
Idaho, Washington, and other States, organizations formed for the pur- 
pose of promoting immigration into those States, are all in favor of the 
illiteracy test for immigrants. In 1895 the governors of these States 
were asked by a special commission of the Treasury Department what 
immigrants they desired. There was only one call for immigrants from 
southern or eastern Europe, viz., for Italian farmers with money, intend- 
ing permanent settlement. 

Only the Undesirable excluded. 

The immigrants who would be excluded by the educational test 
bill are those from Greece, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Portugal, 
who have an average illiteracy of 47.9 in 100. This latter class fur- 
nished almost no immigration in the year 1869, less than one-tenth of the 
total immigration in 1880, while to-day they furnish more than one-half. 
It is, therefore, the exclusion of these very illiterate immigrants, to-day 
constituting more than one-half of the total immigration, to which the 
steamship companies object. Assuming twenty dollars as a low aver- 
age steerage rate from the ports of Europe to this country (at present 
it is thirty-five dollars), it is obvious that the foreign steamship com- 
panies have a considerable interest in fighting this bill. 

These do not go West and are not wanted There. 

Of the Russians, Poles, and Italians three-fifths live in the large 
cities of the East, while the census of 1890 shows that of the Poles, 
Hungarians, and Russians there are in the southern States or western 
division altogether less than thirty thousand in a population of twenty- 
three million. 

The reports of the Department of Labor show that the immigra- 
tion from southeastern Europe, which has increased so much in 
recent years, does not go West, but contributes largely to the slums of 

3 



the large cities on the Atlantic seaboard, and contributes the largest 
proportion to the criminal and dependent classes therein. 

In other words, the claim that the educational test bill " will 
deprive the West of agricultural immigration . . . whether illiterate 
or not " is false. It is obviously urged to excite opposition to the 
immigration bill in those sections which do not feel the burden upon 
the penal and charitable institutions of the East, caused by the recent 
inferior immigration out of which the foreign steamship companies 
make their profit at the cost of imposing a tremendous burden upon the 
American people. 

Germans and Scandinavians not affected by the 

Pending Bill. 

Certain persons have recently attempted to stir up the German 
press and the German societies against the educational test bill. A 
circular issued by one of those societies speaks also of the need of 
immigrants in the West, which we have shown would not be affected by 
the educational test bill, and asks: 41 how many founders of this repub- 
lic would have been able to read, copy, or explain five lines of our 
Constitution?" The existing bill does not propose to ask anybody to 
explain the Constitution of the United States, and the statement is to 
that extent a misrepresentation. 

We have confidence that those of German birth in this country 
who are among the best citizens that we have, and among whom illiter- 
acy is practically unknown, will not be deceived by an argument which 
ignores the spread of education in this country and in northwestern 
Europe since the founding of this republic; such an argument is too 
absurd to require further comment. As has been stated above, the 
educational test bill will affect hardly at all immigration from the German 
Empire. Therefore men of the German race have no reason to object 
to the educational test on account of its effect upon their countrymen. 

Opposition really based on Private Gain. 

The only persons who have any intelligible reason for objecting to 
the pending legislation are the foreign steamship companies, and they 
object not upon any rational grounds, but in order that they may make 
a few more dollars by bringing over here not Germans or Scandinavi- 
ans, or immigrants bound for the West, but Russians, Poles, Hungarians, 
Italians, Galicians, Croats, Syrians, and Asiatics, for these are the 
people who would be affected by the bill. 

5m 19S 4 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE Wo, 23, 



FORCIBLE DEMAND OF THE PRESS 

FOR THE 

FDRTHER RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION 

BY THE ILLITERACY TEST. 



The following is a list of such papers coming to 
our notice as have within the past three years favored 
the restriction of immigration by means of an illit- 
eracy test. There are doubtless hundreds of others 
which we have not seen whose services in calling 
attention to the need of further restriction of immigra- 
tion are entitled to equal recognition. 

To show that this demand for further restriction 
along the lines of the educational test is well-nigh 
unanimous it needs only to be stated that the list 
given below constitutes over 90 per cent, of all the 
papers we have seen having editorials upon the immi- 
gration question. A number of the papers opposed 
to the educational test are in favor of more radical 
measures for the restriction of immigration. 



New York (N. Y.), Times. 

New York (N. Y.), Evening Post. 

New York (N. Y.), Tribune. 

New York (N. Y.), Herald. 

New York (N. Y.), Mail a?id Express. 

New Orleans (La.), Times-Democrat. 

New Orleans (La.), Picayune. 

Atlanta (Ga.), Constitution. 

Macon (Ga.), Telegraph. 

Chicago (111.), Chronicle. 



Chicago (111-), Inter-Ocean. 

Chicago (111.), Israelite. 

Chicago (111.), Ger mania. 

Chicago (111.), Skandinaven. 

Jacksonville (Fla.), Times-Union. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), Public Ledger. 

Washington (D. C), Post. 

Boston (Mass.), Herald. 

Boston (Mass.), Commercial Bulletin. 

Boston (Mass.), Jotirnal. 



Boston (Mass.), Transcript. 

Springfield (Mass.), Republican. 

Natchez (Miss.), Democrat. 

Indianapolis (Ind.), Sentinel. 

Indianapolis (Ind.), Journal. 

Richmond (Va.), State. 

Detroit (Mich)., News. 

Victor (Colo.), Record. 

Detroit (Mich.), Telegram. 

Duluth (Minn.), Herald. 

St. Joseph (Mo.), Herald. 

Helena (Mont.), Herald. 

Elizabeth (N. J.), Journal. 

New York (N. Y.), Journal. 

Cincinnati (O.), Commercial Tribune. 

Bellingham (Ala.), News. 

Tuckson (Ariz.), Star. 

Fresno (Cal.), Expositor. 

Colorado Springs (Colo.), Gazette. 

Bridgeport (Conn.), Union. 

Augusta (Ga.), Chronicle. 

Council Bluffs (la.), Nonpareil. 

Waterville (Kan.), Telegraph. 

Louisville (Ky.), Times. 

Bangor (Me.), Journal. 

Cleveland (O.), Leader. 

Portland (Ore.), Sun. 

Lancaster (Pa.), Examiner. 

Pawtucket (R. I.), Post. 

Charlestown (S. D.), News. 

Sioux Falls (S. D.), Press. 

Chattanooga (Tenn.), Times. 

Dallas (Tex.), Texas Farmer. 

Salt Lake City (Utah), News. 

Tacoma (Wash.), News. 

Wheeling (W. Va.), Intelligencer. 

Madison (Wis.), Democrat. 

Cheyenne (Wyom.), Sun-Leader. 

Minneapolis (Miss.), Journal. 

Butte City (Mont.), Miner. 

St. Paul (Minn.), Northwestern Farmer. 

Helena (Mont.), Independent. 

Buffalo (N. Y.), Courier. 

Worcester (Mass.), Spy. 

Albany (N. Y.), Telegram. 

Omaha (Neb.), America. 

Nashua (N. H.), Telegraph. 

Bay City (Mich.), Times-Press. 

St. Paul (Minn.), Pioneer Press. 

Kansas City (Mo.), Journal. 

Lincoln (Neb.), Call. 

Concord (N. H.), Monitor. 

New York (N. Y.), Mercury. 



Grand Rapids (Mich.), Herald. 
Milwaukee (Wis.), Journal. 
Cedar Rapids (Iowa), Republican. 
Buffalo (N. Y.), Commercial. 
Wilkesbarre (Pa.), Leader. 
Toledo (O.), Blade. 
Trenton (N. J.), Times. 
Newark (N. J.), Advertiser. 
Pittsburg (Pa.), Post. 
La Croix (Wis.), Chronicle. 
Wheeling (W. Va.), Register. 
Omaha (Neb.), World and Herald. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Times. 
Springfield (O.), Springfield Farm News. 
Erie (Pa.), Dispatch. 
Chattanooga (Tenn.), News. 
New York (N. Y.), Press. 
Seattle (Wash.), Post Intelligencer. 
Houston (Tex.), Post. 
Knoxville (Tenn.), Tribune. 
Tacoma (Wash.), Ledger. 
Syracuse (N. Y.), Journal. 
Syracuse (N. Y.), Scientific Farmer. 
Troy (N. Y.)i Press. 
Harrisburg (Pa.), Call. 
Newport (R. I.), News. 
Ticonderoga (N. Y.), Sentinel. 
Cincinnati (O.), Tribune. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Call. 
Norrisburg (Pa.), Herald. 
Detroit (Mich.), Free Press. 
Wilmington (N. C), Messenger. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Item. 
Brooklyn (N. Y.), Citizen. 
Manchester (N. H.), Mirror. 
Kansas City (Mo.), Star. 
Minneapolis (Minn.), Times. 
Wilkesbarre (Pa.), Newsdealer. 
Detroit (Mich.), Journal. 
St. Louis (Mo.), Globe-Democrat. 
Marquette (Mich.), Mining Journal. 
St. Louis (Mo.), Republic. 
Saginaw (Mich.), Career Herald. 
Lebanon (Pa.), Courier. 
Fargo (N. D.), Journal. 
Birmingham (Ariz.), News. 
Sacramento (Cal.), Record Union. 
Leaderville (Colo.), Chronicle. 
Hartford (Conn.), Post. 
Topeka (Kan.), Journal. 
San Francisco (Cal.), Examiner. 
Paducah (Ky.), News. 
| Chicago (111-), Evening Post. 



2 



Louisville (Ky.), Commercial. 

Oakland (Cal.) , Inquirer. 

Sioux City (la.), Tribune. 

Terre Haute (Ind.), Gazette. 

Meriden (Conn.), Journal. 

Los Angeles (Cal.), Times. 

New Haven (Conn.), Register. 

Chicago (111.), Western Rural. 

Boston (Mass.), Banker & Tradesman. 

Portland (Me.), Press. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Chronicle. 

Chicago (111.). Herald. 

Madison (Ind.), Herald. 

Burlington (la)., Hawk Eye. 

Portland (Me.), Transcript. 

Lewiston (Me.), Journal. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Call. 

Macon (Ga.), Telegraph. 

Denver (Colo.), Republican. 

San Jose (Cal.), Mercury. 

Leavenworth (Kan.), Times. 

Dubuque (la.), Globe-Journal. 

Chicago (IH.)» Times-Herald. 

Savannah (Ga.), Press. 

Columbus (O.), State Journal. 

Portland (Ore.), Oregonian. 

Milwaukee (Wis.), Sentinel. 

Columbia (S. C), State. 

St. Albans (Vt.), Messenger. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), Public Ledger. 

Pittsburg (Pa.), Press. 

Providence (R. I.), News. 

Nashville (Tex.), Batmer. 

Burlington (Vt.), Free Press. 

Racine (Wis.), Journal. 

Portsmouth (Va.), Star. 

Fort Worth (Tex.), Gazette. 

Nashville (Tenn.), American. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), Press. 

Salem (Ore.), Independent. 

Toledo (O.), Commercial. 

Huntsville (Ala.), Mercury. 

Adams (Mass.), Freeman. 

Delta (Cal.), Versalia. 

Augusta (Me.), Journal. 

Amesbury (Mass.), News. 

Ansonia (Conn.), Sentinel. 

Attleboro' (Mass.), Sun. 

Bridgeport (Conn.), News. 

Beverly (Mass.), Citizen. 

Eureka (Can), Standard. 

Boston (Mass.;, Commonwealth . 

Fresno (Cal.), Republican. 



Chicago (111.), Despatch. 

Bridgeport (Conn.), Standard. 

Bridgeport (Conn.), Telegram. 

Boston (Mass.), Advertiser. 

Greenwich (Conn.), News. 

Napa (Cal.), Journal. 

Hartford (Conn.), Bulletin. 

Chicago (111.), Dispatch. 

Boston (Mass.), Citizen. 

Indianapolis (Ind.), News. 

Adrion (Mich.), Times. 

Chicago (111.), Journal. 

New York (N. Y.), Observer. 

Akron (O.), Beacon & Rep. 

Allentown (Pa.), Chronicle. 

Allentown (Pa.), Register. 

Arctic (R. I.), Times. 

Altoona (Pa.), Gazette. 

Altoona (Pa.), News. 

New York (N. Y.), Recorder. 

New York (N. Y.), Voice. 

Canton (O.), Repository. 

Cincinnati (O.), Times Star. 

Astbria (Ore.), Astorian. 

Norwich (N. Y.), Telegraph. 

Cleveland (O.), News. 

Los Angeles (Cal.), Herald. 

Los Angeles (Cal.), Express. 

Lowell (Mass.), Citizen. 

Lowell (Mass.), Courier. 

Lowell (Mass.), Mail. 

Alpena (Mich.), Argus. 

Coldwater (Mich.), Courier. 

Lowell (Mass ), News. 

Lowell (Mass.), Times. 

Flint (Mich ), Globe. 

Flint (Mich.), Journal. 

Riverside (Cal.), Press. 

Sacramento (Cal.), Bee. 

Sacramento (Cal.), Union. 

Colorado Springs (Colo.), Telegraph. 

Oneonta (N. Y.), Herald. 

Oswego (N. Y.), Times. 

Passaic (N. J.), News. 

Hartford (Conn.), Times. 

Meriden (Conn.), Republican. 

Boston (Mass.), Commercial. 

Boston (Mass.), Courier. 

Boston (Mass.), Home Journal. 

Mount Sterling (Ky.), Democrat. 

Bangor (Me.), News. 

Biddeford (Me.), Journal. 

Penn Yan (N. Y.), Democrat. 



3 



Poughkeepsie (N. Y.), Eagle. 
Boston (Mass.), Record. 
Boston (Mass.), Standard. 
Boston (Mass.), Star. 
Boston (Mass.), Times. 
Boston (Mass.), Traveler. 
Rochester (N. Y.), Democrat. 
Rochester (N. Y.), Democrat and Chron- 
icle. 

Columbus (O.), Dispatch. 

Columbus (O.), Post. 

Columbus (O.), Press. 

Bridgton (Me.), News. 

Lake Charles (La.), Commercial. 

Braintree (Mass.), Enterprise. 

Dayton (O.), News. 

Dayton (O.), Press. 

Great Falls (Mo.), Leader. 

Sante Fe (New Mexico), New Mexican. 

Lynn (Mass.), Item. 

Lynn (Mass.), Transcript. 

Lynn (Mass.), Times. 

Rome (N. Y.), Sentinel. 

Saratoga Springs (N. Y.), Saratogian. 

Schenectady (N. Y.), Star. 

Schenectady (N. Y.), Union. 

Brockton (Mass.), Enterprise. 

Brockton (Mass.), Times. 

Brookline (Mass.), Chronicle. 

Meridian (La.), News. 

New Orleans (La.), States. 

New Orleans (La.), Item. 

Cambridge (Mass.). Chronicle. 

Cambridge (Mass.), Tribune. 

Chelsea (Mass.), Pioneer. 

Chelsea (Mass.), Record. 

Delaware (O.), Gazette. 

Hamilton (O.), Telegraph. 

Lima (0.), Gazette. 

Chicopee (Mass.), Herald. 

Dedham (Mass.), Transcript. 

Shreveport (La.), Caucasian. 

Farmington (Me.), Chronicle 

Maiden (Mass.), Mirror. 

Mansfield (Mass.), News. 

Methuen (Mass.), Transcript. 

Clarion (Pa.), Democrat. 

Chester (Pa.), Republican. 

Clearfield (Pa.), Spirit. 

Eustis (Fla.), Region. 

Milford (Conn.), Citizen. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), American. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), Bulletin. 



Philadelphia (Pa.), Inquirer. 

Philadelphia (Pa.), Herald. 

Newport (R. I.), Herald. 

Deadwood (S. D.), Pioneer. 

Ashland (Wis.), Press. 

Darlington (Wis.), Journal. 

Albany (N. Y.), Press and Knickerbocke 

Albany (N. Y.), Times-Union. 

Albuquerque (N. Y.), Citizen. 

Green Bay (Wis.), Gazette. 

Janesville (Wis.), Recorder. 

Auburn (N. Y.), Bulletin. 

Batavia (N. Y.), News. 

Saratoga (Wyom.), Lyre. 

Burlington (Vt.), News. 

Binghamton (N. Y.), Leader. 

Broadalbin (N. Y.), Herald. 

Great Falls (Mont.), Leader. 

Sulphur Springs (Mont.), News. 

Milford (Mass.), Gazette. 

Milford (Mass.), Journal. 

Milford (Mass.), News. 

Columbia (Pa.), News. 

Conchohacken (Pa.), Recorder. 

Coudersport (Pa.), Journal. 

East Boston (Mass.), Argus- Advocate. 

East Walpole (Mass.), Democrat. 

Everett (Mass.), Herald. 

Everett (Mass.), Republican. 

Baltimore (Md.), American. 

Fall River (Mass.), News. 

Logan (O.), Gazette. 

Mansfield (O.), News. 

New Philadelphia (O ), Advocate. 

San Antonio (Cal.), Express. 

New Bedford (Mass.), Standard. 

Newburyport (Mass.), Herald. 

Newburyport (Mass.), News. 

Aurora (111.), News. 

Rome (Ga.), Tribune. 

Chicago (111.), Midland. 

Chicago (111.), News. 

Chicago (111.), New World. 

Chicago (111.), Observer. 

Chicago (111.), Post. 

Chicago (111.), Record. 

Chicago (111-), Times. 

Chicago (111.), Tribune. 

Anderson (Ind.), Democrat. 

Anderson (Ind.), News. 

Manhattan (Kan.), Mercury. 

Des Moines (la.), Capital. 

Crawfordsville (Ind.), Journal. 



Galesburg (111.), Mail. 
Hopkinsville (Ky.), New Era. 
Newton (Kan.), Republican. 
Des Moines (la.), Leader. 
Evansville (Ind.), Courier. 
Galesburg (111.)* Rep. Register. 
Lafayette (Ind.), Journal. 
Grayson (Ky.), Bugle. 
Galena (111.), Gazette. 
Parsons (Kan.), Sun. 
Keokuk (la.), Gate City. 
Logansport (Ind.), Journal. 
Topeka (Kan.), Journal. 
Muscatine (la.), Journal. 
Hardin (111.), Leader. 
Joliet (111.), Republican. 
Muscatine (la.), Tribune. 
Wichita (Kan.), Eagle. 
Madison (Ind.), Courier. 
Kewanee (111.), Star. 
La Salle (111.), Tribune. 
Mound City (111.), Enterprise. 
New Albany (Ind.), Ledger. 
Winfield (Kan.), Courier. 
Paris (111.), Beacon. 
Peoria (111.), Journal. 
Peoria (111.), Transcript. 
Kansas City (Mo.), Star. 
Concord (N. H.), Patriot. 
Richmond (Ind.), Item. 
Rising Sun (Ind.), Recorder. 
South Bend (Ind.), Tribune. 
Sufferin (N. Y.), Recorder. 
Syracuse (N. Y.), Herald. 
North Adams (Mass.), Herald. 
North Attleboro (Mass.), Chronicle. 
Fremont (Mich.), News. 
Kalamazoo (Mich.), Gazette. 
Kalamazoo (Mich.), Telegraph. 
Norwood (Mass.), Advertiser. 
Pittsfield (Mass.) , Eagle. 
Bellingham (Minn.), Times. 
Salem (Mass.), Gazette. 
Salem (Mass.), Observer. 
Syracuse (N. Y.), Post. 
Piqua (O.), Leader. 
Spencer (Mass.), Leader. 
Terre Haute (Ind.), Express. 
Rockford (IP.), Republican. 
Ottumwa (la.), Democrat. 
Ravenna (O.), Republican. 
Sioux City (la.), Journal. 
Sheator (111.), Free Press. 



Fitchburg (Mass.), Mail. 

Fitchburg (Mass.), Sentinel. 

Sandusky (O.), Register. 

Troy (N. Y.), Record. 

Troy (N. Y.), Times. 

Troy (N. Y.), Daily News. 

North Anson (Me.), Union Advocate. 

Greenfield (Mass.), Gazette. 

Springfield (O.), Republican Times. 

Utica (N. Y.), Herald. 

Warren (O.), Chronicle. 

Warren (O.), Tribune. 

Utica (N. Y.)» Observer. 

Oregon City (Ore.), Courier. 

Zanesville (O.), Courier. 

Haverhill (Mass.), Gazette. 

Watertown (N. Y.), Post. 

Youngston (O.), Vindicator. 

Yonkers (N. Y.), Herald. 

Washington (O.), Register. 

Baltimore (Md.), Herald. 

Baltimore (Md.), News. 

Rockland (Me.), Star. 

Cumberland (Md.), Times. 

Hyannis (Mass.), Patriot. 

Doylestown (Pa.), Democrat. 

Hyde Park (Mass.), Gazette. 

Parker City (Ore.), Democrat. 

Huntington (Mass.), Herald. 

Salem (Ore.), Statesman. 

Doylestown (Pa.), Republican. 

Lawrence (Mass.), American. 

Erie (Pa.), News. 

Lawrence (Mass.), Telegram. 

San Diego (Cal.), Union. 

Harrisburg (Pa.), Patriot. 

Phoenix (Ariz.), Report. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Argonaut. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Bulletin. 

San Francisco (Cal.), News and Letter. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Post. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Reporter. 

San Francisco (Cal.), Times. 

Spencer (Mass.), Sun. 

Lansing (Mich.), Republican. 

New Britain (Conn.), Record. 

Springfield (Mass.), Morning Union. 

Springfield (Mass.), N. E. Homestead. 

Springfield (Mass.), News. 

Springfield (Mass.), Republican. 

Springfield (Mass.), Tribune. 

Lapeer (Mich.), Clarion. 

Aberdeen (Miss.), Weekly. 



Taunton (Mass.), Gazette. 
West Gardner (Mass.), Journal. 
Weymouth (Mass.), Gazette. 
Winchendon (Mass.), Courier. 
Mankato (Minn.), Press. 
Hyde Park (Miss.), Times. 
Portland (Mich.), Observer. 
Winchester (Mass.), Star. 
Sault St. Marie (Mich.), Neivs. 
Minneapolis (Minn.), Progress. 
Worcester (Mass.), Gazette. 
Worcester (Mass.), Post. 
Worcester (Mass.), Spy. 
Worcester (Mass.), Telegram. 
Minneapolis (Minn.), Progress. 
Brooklyn (N. Y.), Eagle. 
Jersey City (N. J.), Journal. 
Rothsay (Minn.), Record. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Mail and Express. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), News. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), North American. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Record. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Star. 
Philadelphia (Pa.), Telegraph. 
Buffalo (N. Y.), News. 
Buffalo (N. Y.), Tidings. 
Harrisburg (Pa.), Telegraph. 
Kansas City (Mo.), World. 
Concord (N. H.), People and Patriot. 
Hallidaysburg (Pa.), Register. 
Farmerville (Fla.), Gazette. 
San Jose (Cal.), Herald. 
Chatham (N. Y;), Courier. 
St. Louis (Mo.), Chronicle. 
St. Louis (Mo.), Post Despatch. 
St. Louis (Mo.), Star. 
Lincoln (Neb.), News. 
Chatham (N. Y.), Republican. 
Kittanning (Pa.), Tribune. 
Lebanon (Pa.), News. 
Lebanon (Pa ), Report. 
Chittenango (N. Y.), Times. 
Elmira (N. Y.), Advertiser. 
Elmira (N. Y.), News. 
Elmira (N. Y.), Star. 
St. Joseph (Mo.), Gazette. 
St. Joseph (Mo.), News. 
Nebraska City (Neb.), Nebraska City 
Press. 

Laconia (N. H.), Press. 
Newark (N. J.), News. 
Pittsburg (Pa.), Com. Gazette. 
Pittsburg (Pa.), Times. 



Far Rockaway (N. Y.), Journal. 
Springfield (Mo.), Democrat. 
Plattsmouth (Neb.), News-Herald. 
Superior (Neb.), Journal. 
Glen's Falls (N. Y.), Star. 
Glen's Falls (N. Y.), Times. 
Nashua (N. H.), Press. 
Gloversville (N. Y.), Leader. 
Holley (N. Y.), Standard. 
Macungie (Pa.), Progress. 
Meadville (Pa.), Journal. 
Mifflintown (Pa.), Tribune. 
Hornelsville (N. Y.), Times. 
Passaic (N. J.), News. 
Mount Pleasant (Pa.), Journal. 
New Bloomfield (Pa.), Times. 
Norristown (Pa.), Times. 
Rochester (N. H.), Record. 
Pillston (Pa.), Gazette. 
Potsville (Pa.), Chronicle. 
Pottsville (Pa.), Standard. 
Trenton (N.J.), Gazette. 
Jamestown (N. Y.), All. 
Little Falls (N. Y.), Times. 
Lockport (N. Y.), Journal. 
Reading (Pa.), Review. 
New York (N. Y.), Christian Advocate. 
New York (N. Y.), Christian Work. 
New York (N. Y.), Commercial Adver- 
tiser. 

New York (N. Y.), Morning Advertiser. 
New York (N. Y.), News. 
New York (N. Y.), Advertiser. 
Scranton (Pa.), Republican. 
Gainesville (Fla.), Sun. 
New Haven (Conn.), News. 
vScranton (Pa.), Times. 
New Haven (Conn.), Union. 
Dubuque (Colo.), Wild West. 
New London (Conn.), Telegraph. 
Scranton (Pa.), Tribune. 
Santa Cruz (Cal.), Sentinel. 
Shenandoah (Pa.), Herald. 
Denver (Colo.), Patriot. 
Sunbury (Pa.), American. 
Denver (Colo.), Times. 
Titusville (Pa.), Herald. 
Derango (Colo.), Democrat. 
Milwaukee (Wis.), Wisconsin. 
Norwalk (Conn.), Gazette. 
Warren (Pa.), Ledger. 
Norwich (Conn.), Bulletin. 
Dallas (Tex.), Farmer. 



Jasper (N. Y.), Monitor. 
Canandaigua (N. Y.), Journal. 
Bath (N. Y.), Courier. 
Thornton (Va.), Enterprise. 
Pt. Byron (N. Y.), Chronicle. 
Belfast (Maine), Journal. 
Des Moines (Iowa), Register. 
Cooperstown (N. Y.), Republican. 
Jacksonville (111.)* Journal. 
Warren (Pa.), Mirror. 
Pawtucket (R. I.), Times. 
Leadville (Colo.), Herald. 
Phcenix (R. I.), Gleaner. 
Willimantic (Conn.), Chronicle. 
Providence (R. I.), Telegram. 
Williamsport (Pa.), Grit. 
Woonsocket (R. I.), Reporter. 
Wilmington (Del.), News. 
Chattanooga (Tenn.), Press. 
Washington (D. C), Kate Field's Wash- 

ington. 
Jackson (Tenn.), Whig. 
Wilkesbarre (Pa.), Record. 

2M 198 



York (Pa.), Despatch. 

Jacksonville (Fla.), Citizen. 

Knoxville (Tenn.), Journal. 

Orlando (Fla.), Reporter. 

Denton (Texas), Chronicle. 

Monroe (Wis.), Sentinel. 

St. Augustine (Fla.), News. 

El Paso (Tex.), Tribune. 

San Mateo City (Fla.), Item. 

Sheboygan (Wis.), Telegram. 

Renham (Texas), Banner. 

Tavares (Fla.), Herald. 

Atlanta (Fla.), Journal. 

San Antonio (Tex.), Express. 

Waupaca (Wis.), Post. 

Waco (Tex.), Times. 

Superior (Wis.), Leader. 

Ogden (Tex.), Standard. 

Superior (Wis.), Citizen. 

Vergennes (Vt), Vermonter. 

Norfolk (Va.), Landmark. 

Superior (Wis.), Telegram. 

Olympia (Wash.), Olympian Tribune. 



7 



0_ 



P UBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No, 24 . 

THE SURPRISING CIRCULAR £ 

OF THE 

Immigration Protective League. 



PURPOSE AND OPERATION OF THE LODGE BILL 
GREATLY MISREPRESENTED. 



Opposition to the Lodge Bill based on a Misunderstanding. 



Congress and the newspapers have recently been flooded with 
protests against the Lodge Bill, coming from German societies. That 
these protests have not been spontaneous, but have been worked up by 
some outside influence, must be evident to all, from the fact that 
although the Lodge Bill has been before the country for nearly two 
years, very few protests have come to Congress before this time, and 
the almost unanimous voice of the press has been in its favor. 

Among some of the methods employed by those who are trying 
to defeat the bill are the following: 

Dr. J. H. Senner, now Secretary of the Immigration Protective 
League, recently sent out a circular letter in German to various societies 
and individuals, containing language of which the following is an 
accurate translation : 

"... The nativistic authors of such entirely superfluous new 
laws pretend that their only object is to protect the American labor- 
ing man against foreign competition. This is, however, only a poor 
excuse for their real scheme, dictated by that hatred of the for- 
eigner, whom they would like to exclude altogether." 

" If, in particular, the now comparatively feeble stream of Ger- 
man immigration is completely cut oft', then they will succeed in 
oppressing Germans in this country, and ruin the German element 
politically and industrially. To the great satisfaction and delight 
of the English-American press, many a German newspaper, whose 
competition is a thorn in their flesh, will be forced to the wall. No 
German church building will then be erected any more, or con- 
served ; no German school could exist, and the German language 
will disappear from the public schools." 



The absurdity of such an appeal to race prejudice has rarely been 
equalled. The proposed law cannot " cut off" German immigration, for 
only 1.8 per cent, of German immigrants are illiterate. The hundreds of 
thousands of Germans in this country are among the best foreign-born 
citizens we have, and no one would wish to " ruin them industrially," 
even if it were possible, which it is not. 

The " Courier," of Evansville, Indiana, on January 19, in speaking 
of the protests against the Lodge Bill from the various branches of the 
German Catholic Central Society of the United States, said : 

" Nearly seven hundred German Catholics of Evansville remon- 
strated against the passage of the Immigration Bill. But they did 
so under a misapprehension. One of the men most prominent in 
the remonstrance said, Tuesday, that had he known the educational 
qualification did not require the ability to read and write English he 
would not have signed the remonstrance. Neither would a single 
society in Evansville have taken the action they all did." 

The Chicago "Tribune" of January 21 prints an interview with 
Senator Fairbanks in which he said : 

" 1 received and am still receiving protests from various societies 
in Indiana. One of them was from a German organization in Jeffer- 
sonville. I took the trouble to investigate this and found it had 
been directly instigated by a steamship agent, and that the members 
of the German Aid Society, who ostensibly protested, were led to 
believe that it was a general restriction of immigration and not 
merely an attempt to keep out illiterates, which these very men who 
protested heartily approved of." 

A circular has just been sent out by the " Immigration Protective 
League," an organization recently started in New York, which is so full 
of incorrect statements as to the purposes and provisions of the Lodge 
Bill, that the Immigration Restriction League considers that the public 
should be given a careful and candid analysis of this surprising 
document. 

1. The circular states : " The so-called Lodge Bill provided that all 
immigrants over sixteen years of age to be admitted must pass an educa- 
tional test, and demonstrate their ability to read and write five lines 
of the Constitution in their own language." 

Answer. This is clearly intended to deceive. The Lodge Bill as 
it passed both Houses of Congress last year provided for the exclu- 
sion of 

u All persons physically capable and over sixteen years of age, 
who cannot read and write the English language or some other 
language ; but a person not so able to read or write who is over fifty 
> years of age, and is the parent or grandparent of a qualified immi- 



grant over twenty-one years of age and capable of supporting such 
parent or grandparent, may accompany such immigrant, or such a 
parent or grandparent may be sent for and come to join the family 
of a child or grandchild over twenty-one years of age similarly 
qualified and capable, and a wife or minor child not so able to read 
and write may accompany or be sent for, and come to join the hus- 
band or parent similarly qualified and capable." 

The Lodge Bill as passed by the Senate on January 17 of the 
present year contains exactly the same provisions, with an amendment 
changing " read and write" to "read or write." 

Thus the mere reading of the language of the bill proves that this 
assertion that " all immigrants over sixteen years of age " " must pass an 
educational test" is a clear and bald misstatement. Further, the asser- 
tion that they must read " in their own language " is untrue. The bill 
says " read or write the English language or some other language." Ger- 
man newspapers and German societies should thus notice that the bill 
does not require reading in English alone. 

2. The circular states, " as a result of this restriction, families 
would most cruelly be separated in case one or another of the members is 
not able to pass the examination." 

ANSWER. This is another absolute misstatement calculated, if not 
intended, to deceive the public. The most cursory reading of the real 
provisions of the Lodge Bill will show that it is expressly and carefully 
intended to prevent this very separation of families, through the excep- 
tions made of wives, parents, grandparents, and minor children. 

3. The circular states, " it would lead to immeasurable and intoler- 
able hardships. It would take days to have ordinary shiploads of immi- 
grants pass any such an educational test." 

ANSWER. One might suppose from this that the test to be re- 
quired is a long college or high school examination. In reality it 
simply consists in having the immigrant read not more than twenty-five 
words of the Constitution printed on a cardboard slip which is drawn 
from a number of slips kept concealed in a box. 

If any one will go to Ellis Island and try this experiment he will 
find how extremely simple it is to find out whether an immigrant can 
read or not. It is not a question of days, nor hours, nor even min- 
utes, but of seconds, and the steady rapid progress of the stream 
of those who pass the inspector will hardly seem to be appreciably 
affected. 

But a still better answer to the statement that it is impracticable is 
found in the article written by Dr. J. H. Senner himself, now the Secre- 
tary of the Immigration Protective League, in the Annals of the Ameri- 

3 



can Academy, July, 1897, where he says : " With these limitations [i.e., 
not applying to persons under sixteen or to females] I believe in the intro- 
duction of a limited and practical educational test as a natural and 
proper addition to the present immigration laws ; and I may add that 
since Oct. 1, 1896, I have practically introduced this test on Ellis Island 
without being forced by law." And as Dr. J. H. Senner was formerly 
Commissioner of Immigration at New York, and is so active at 
present in opposing the Lodge Bill, we quote again from his article : 
"/ am in favor of a moderate educational test for the protection of American 
civilization and of the American standard of life. Illiteracy is invariably 
coupled with a low standard which inevitably tends to a lowering of wages 
under the present condition of education in continental Europe." 

In further answer to the charges and misstatements of the Immi- 
gration Protective League we would call attention to the following facts 
regarding an educational test that are often forgotten. In practice it 
would be applied by the steamship companies and at the place where 
the ticket is bought by the intended immigrant; therefore it does not 
imply any great change in existing machinery, or any large increase 
in consular service and expense. 

It saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in 
doubt as to his admission or exclusion ; and therefore does away in 
large part with the separation of families, and with a temptation to lax 
enforcement of inspection in order to prevent such separation. Intend- 
ing immigrants can tell before starting whether they are eligible or not, 
and can decide whether to separate or not. 

4. The circular states : " Since 1893 immigration has been rigor- 
ously restricted and has practically come to a standstill." 

Answer. The true fact is, that the total number of immigrants 
in 1890 was 455,302 ; in 1892 was 579,663; in 1894 was 288,020 ; in 
1895,258,536; in 1896,343,267; in 1897, 230,832; in 1895 20 per 
cent, of those over 15 years old were illiterate; in 1896, 29 per 
cent.; in 1897, 23 per cent. Is this "coming to a standstill"? At 
the same time the percentage of immigrants coming from Austria- 
Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia has steadily increased from 34 per 
cent, in 1890 to 52 per cent, in 1896; while those coming from United 
Kingdom, France, Germany, and Scandinavia decreased from 57 per 
cent, to 39 per cent, in the same years. 

5. The circular states : " Demagogic nativist interests too cowardly 
to openly admit their design of prohibiting immigration entirely, hope to 
attain their end by making the condition, governing the admission of 
immigration, so unpleasant for the immigrants, as well as for tJieir 
friends residing in America, that immigration will, as a result, cease alto- 

4 



gether!' u Hardships must not be increased so as to practically exclude 
ally even the most desirable immigration!' 

ANSWER. The fact is that the Immigration Restriction League, 
which drafted the bill as introduced into the Fifty-Fourth Congress 
(which was the basis of and very similar to the present bill as it passed 
the Senate), expressly states in every document: "The League is a 
strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, with members 
from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter regulation of 
immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose character 
and standards fit them to become citizens!' So that it has clearly no 
" design of prohibiting immigration entirely." Nor can the wildest 
imagination picture how, under any conceivable conditions, the Lodge 
Bill would " practically exclude all, even the most desirable immigra- 
tion," so that as a result it would " cease altogether." 

An educational test applied to every immigrant in 1897 would 
have kept out only 23.2 per cent, of all persons over sixteen years of 
age. It would have kept out less than 1.8 per cent, of the Germans and 
only 3.6 per cent, of those from the United Kingdom, France, Germany, 
and Scandinavia, and such a test applied under the provision of the 
Lodge Bill would keep out still fewer, because of the many exceptions 
made by that bill in favor of persons not required to take the test. 

Indeed, it may very well be that the 1.8 percent, of illiterates 
among the Germans in 1896 were all of them persons under sixteen 
years of age, or over fifty years of age, parents or grandparents of a 
qualified immigrant, or wives or minor children ; and if so, would all 
be admitted under the present bill. 



5 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 25. 

immiffration Figures for 1898. 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration.') 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1897 and 1898. 





1897 


1898 


Total immigration ...... 


230,832 


229,299 


Number debarred from entranee and returned 






within one year after landing 


1,880 


3,194 


Per cent, debarred and returned .... 


0.8 


1, 


Total number of illiterate ..... 


44,580 


44473 


Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 15 






years of age ....... 


23 


23 


Per cent, of total immigration coming from 






Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia . 


52 


57 


Per cent, of total immigration coming from the 






United Kingdom, France, Germany and 






Scandinavia ....... 


38 


33 


Average money brought by immigrants in dollars, 


15 


17 


Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 






United States before ..... 




18 


Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 






tion whatever ...... 


39 


* 


Per cent, of total immigration who were farmers, 






laborers or servants ..... 


40 


* 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 






states of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. 


7i 


* 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 






South of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 






Ohio River, or West of the Mississippi River, 


15 


* 



REMARKS. — The total immigration remains about the same as 
last year, the beginning of better industrial conditions in this country 
having been neutralized as far as attracting immigration was con= 
cerned by the war with Spain. It is safe to predict a larger volume 
for the year 1899, unless something unusual occurs to prevent it. 
There has been a marked increase in the number debarred and re= 
turned, probably due to a more rigid inspection. 

Immigration from Southeastern Europe has increased 5 per cent, 
in the total, while that from Northwestern Europe has diminished 



* Not yet tubulated. 



)y the same per cent. Denmark and France now send less than 
!,000 immigrants each, while Greece sent 2,339. The largest immi= 
:ration from any country outside of Europe was from Turkey in Asia 
including Arabia and Syria), amounting to 4,275. The increase of 
mmigration from Southeastern Europe and from Asia will probably 
>e more marked in the future. 

| The average money brought is $2 more than in 1897, and $7 
nore than in 1896. 



ILLITERACY. 

b 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fifteen years of age 
vho cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those nations 
)f Europe which sent upward of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during 
he past two fiscal years : 

I Denmark ....... 

Sweden ....... 

] Norway ....... 

Germany ....... 

I England . . . . . 

France ....... 

Finland ....... 

1 Ireland ....... 

I 

Greece ....... 

I Russia ....... 

Austria-Hungary ..... 
I Poland . . 

i Italy . . ... . • . 

f Average, United Kingdom, France, Ger- 

many and Scandinavia 

t Average, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland 

and Russia ...... 

Average from all countries 

REMARKS. — There has been an improvement in the illiteracy 
pf European immigration as compared with last year, except among 
[Italians, but the average illiteracy for all immigrants is slightly 
c nore than last year. 

f It is to be noted that the improvement amounts to one=third 
in the case of Northwestern Europe, and only about one=tenth in 
t,he case of Southeastern Europe ; but this improvement is neutral= 
led by the fact that a larger proportion of all immigrants came from 
j,>outheastern Europe, making the average illiteracy greater than 
-ast year. 
3m 1198. 



IS97. 


i8qS. 


o-5 




0.9 


0.6 


1.1 


0.6 


1.8 


0.8 


4.1 


2.4 


4-3 




8.2 


4.4 


6.4 


4-7 




19.9 


27.9 


24.1 


28.1 


25.2 


39- 1 


32.2 


50-9 


52.6 


3.6 


2.4 


39-9 


35-4 


23.2 


23-3 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, Boston. 
The dues for membership are as follows: For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis= 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, 
with members from all farts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No, 26, 

immigration Figures for 1899. 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration.} 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1898 and 1899, 



Total immigration ..... 

Percentage of increase 1899 over 189S . 
Number debarred from entrance and returned 

within one year after landing . 
Per cent, debarred and returned 
Total number of illiterate .... 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration ove 

14 years of age . 
Per cent, of total immigration coming from Aus 

tria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia 
Total immigration from Eastern Europe. \_See 

note.~\ ...... 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Eastern Europe .... 
Per cent, of total immigration coming from the 

United Kingdom, France, Germany, and 

Scandinavia ...... 

Total immigration from Western Europe. \_See 

note.~\ ....... 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Western Europe ..... 
Total Hebrew immigration ..... 
Per cent, of total immigration who were 

Hebrews . . . . . . 

Average money brought by immigrants, in dollars, 
Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 

United States before . . . . 

Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 
tion whatever ...... 

Per cent, of total immigration who were farmers, 

laborers, or servants . 
Percent, of total immigration destined for the four 

States of 111., Mass., N. Y., and Pa. 
Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 

south of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 

Ohio River, or west of the Mississippi River, 



1898 
229,299 



3,194 
1.4 

44,473 

23 
57 



33 



17 
18 

39-4 
40.3 
68.9 

15.2 



3n,7i5 
36 

4,061 

i-3 
61,468 

19.7 
64 

137,855 
44.2 

27 

130,160 

41.7 
37,415 

12.0 
17 

16 
35-i 
47-3 
68.7 

15-7 



XOTE. — Iu /8gg the Government abandoned tabulation by political divisions and 
adopted a classification by races. This is in all respects a more precise and useful division, 
and //as long been needed. In order to preserve the valuable comparison of groups of 
relatively desirable and relatively undesirable immigrants from Europe, the League has 
divided Europe by a north and south line as follows : Beginning at the boundary between 
Finland and Russia the line leaves Finland and Germany on the west, then follows the 
boundary between Bohemia, Austria, and Carinthia on the west, and Galicia, Hungary, 
and Croatia on the east. It then follows the division between Norther?i and Southern 
Italy adopted by the new U. S. classification. Spain and Portugal, having a high illiteracy 
and sending many undesirable immigrants, are also placed in the eastern division. 

The Hebrews are put by themselves in this publication, but the Government report 
shows that about two-thirds come from Russia and most of the balance from Austria- 
Hungary. 

REilARKS. — The prediction of an increase of immigration in 1899 made in 
Publication No. 25 has been verified, the increase being over one=third. The 
largest elements in immigration at present are : 



Southern Italian 65,639 

Hebrew 37,415 

Irish 32,345 

Polish 28,466 

German 26,632 

Scandinavian 23,249 



It will be noticed that immigration from Southeastern Europe has continued 
to increase and now constitutes over three=fifths of the total, while immigration 
from Northwestern Europe has fallen to nearly one-fourth of the total. 

ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those nations 
of Europe which sent upward of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during 
the past two fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 


189s. 


1S99. 


Scandinavian .... 


0.6 


0.6 


English ..... 


2.4 


i-7 


Finnish ..... 


4.4 


2.0 


German ..... 


0.8 


3-2 


Bohemian & Moravian 




3-3 


French ..... 




3-5 


Irish ...... 


4.7 


3-9 


Italian (North) .... 




11. 4 


Average of above 




3.6 



Eastern Euroi-e. 

Magyar 

Greek 

Russian 

Austro-Hungarian 
Croatian & Slovenian 
Slovak 
Polish 
Lithuanian 
Italian (all) 
Italian (South) 
Portuguese 



Average of above 



1S9S. 

19.9 
24.1 
25.2 



32.2 
52.6 



1899. 
10.8 



26. 1 
27.6 
31.3 
32.4 

57-2 
65.5 

42.4 



Hebrew 



20.3 



A T OTE. — In comparing- the two years it should be remembered that figures for i8gS 
Represent con //tries, figures for iSgg races. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, Boston. 
The dues for membership are as follows: For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis= 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of im?nigration. but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

MD — 1299 



+1* C C ( Zr*~<2*? 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 27. 

immigration Figures lor 1900. 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner- General of Immigration.*) 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1899 and 1900, 



1899. 1900. 

Total immigration . . . . . . 311,715 448,572 

Percentage of increase 1900 over 1S99 . . 44 
Percentage of increase 1900 over 1898 . ... 96 

Number debarred from entrance and returned 

within one year after landing . . . 4,061 
Per cent, debarred and returned ... 1.3 

Total number of illiterate 61,468 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 

14 years of age ...... 19.7 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from Aus- 
tria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia . 64.0 
Total immigration from Eastern Europe. [See 

note.~] I37> 8 55 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Eastern Europe ..... 44.2 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany, and 
Scandinavia . . . . . . 27.0 

Total immigration from Western Europe. [See 

note.~] 130,160 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Western Europe ..... 4*-7 

Total Hebrew immigration ..... 37,415 

Per cent, of total immigration who were 

Hebrews ....... 12.0 

Average money brought by immigrants, in dollars 17 
Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 

United States before .... 16.0 

Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 
tion, including women and children . . 35.1 
Per cent, of total immigration who were farm- 
laborers, laborers, or servants ... 47-3 



1899. 1900. 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 

States of 111., Mass., N. Y., and Pa. . 68.7 68.8 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 

south of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 

Ohio River, or west of the Mississippi River, 15.7 13.4 

NOTE. — The line between Eastern Europe and Western Europe is as follows: 
Beginning at the boundary bet-ween Finland and Russia the line leaves Finland and Ger- 
many on the -west, then follows the boundary between Bohemia, Austria, and Carinthia on 
the west, and Galicia, Hungary, and Croatia on the east. It then follows the division be- 
tween Northern and Southern Italy adopted by the ?iew U. S. classification. Spain and 
Portugal, having a high illiteracy and sending many undesirable immigrants, are also 
placed i?i the eastern division. 

The Hebrews are put by themselves in this publication, but the Government report 
shows that about two-thirds come from Russia and most of the balance from Austria- 
Hungary. 

REMARKS. — The predictions made in Publications Nos. 25 and 26 of a 
rapid and important increase in immigration have been strikingly verified, 
immigration for 1900 being nearly double that of 1898, and it is safe to say 
that the total volume will remain large until another period of industrial 
depression sets in. The total immigration this year was larger than in any 
year since 1892, and has been exceeded only four times in the last fifteen 
years. 

The largest elements in immigration at present are : 





1899. 


1900. 




65,639 


84,346 






60,764 




28,466 


46,938 






35,607 






32,952 




26,632 


29,682 






29,243 



It will be noted that immigration from Western Europe has further fallen 
off, while that from Eastern Europe has gained. As we might expect from 
this fact, the percentage of illiteracy has increased by 5 ; the average money 
brought has decreased by $2 ; the percentage of unskilled labor has increased 
by 5 ; and the percentage of immigration destined for the West and South has 
diminished by 2.3. 

ASIATIC IMMIGRATION. 

The total immigration from Asia was 8,972 in 1899, and 17,946 in 1900, 
an increase of 110 per cent. 

IMMIGRATION THROUGH CANADA. 

1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 

10,646 10,737 13,853 23,200 

From contiguous countries (Canada and Mexico), 1,616 persons were re- 
fused admission in 1900. 



ILLITERACY. 



Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those races 
{not nations), which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during the past two fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 1S99. 1900. 

English . . . . . . 1.7 0.2 

Scandinavian ..... 0.6 0.9 

Finnish ....... 2.0 2.7 

Bohemian and Moravian . . . 3.3 3.0 

Irish 3.9 3.3 

French 3.5 3.9 

German ...... 3.2 5.8 

Dutch and Flemish .... — 9.6 

Italian (North) 11. 4 11.2 

Average of above .... 3.6 4.2 



Eastern Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 

Magyar 10.8 16.8 

Greek 23.4 17. 1 

Slovak ....... 27.6 27.9 

Polish ....... 31.3 31.2 

Lithuanian ...... 32.4 3 1 *? 

Croatian and Slovenian .... 26.1 37*4 

Ruthenian ...... — 49*° 

Italian (South) ..... 57.2 54.6 

Portuguese . . . . .65.5 59.9 

Average of above . . . 42.4 39.8 



Other Races. 

Cuban — 6.8 

Japanese ...... 4.7 8.9 

Hebrew . . . . . . 20.3 22.9 

Syrian . . . . . . . 56.2 55.9 



1899. 1900. 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 

States of 111., Mass., N. Y., and Pa. . 68.7 68.8 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 

south of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 

Ohio River, or west of the Mississippi River, 15.7 13.4 

NOTE. — The line between Eastern Europe and Western Europe is as follows: 
Beginning at the boundary between Finland and Russia the line leaves Finland and Ger- 
many on the -west, then follows the boundary between Bohemia, Austria, and Carinthia on 
the west, and Galicia, Hungary, and Croatia on the east. It then follows the division be- 
tween Northern and Southern Italy adopted by the new U. S. classification. Spain and 
Portugal, having a high illiteracy and sending many undesirable immigrants, are also 
placed in the eastern division. 

The Hebrews are put by themselves in this publicatio?i, but the Government report 
sho-vs that about two-thirds come fro7n Russia and most of the balance from Austria- 
Hungary. 

REMARKS. — The predictions made in Publications Nos. 25 and 26 of a 
rapid and important increase in immigration have been strikingly verified, 
immigration for 1900 being nearly double that of 1898, and it is safe to say 
that the total volume will remain large until another period of industrial 
depression sets in. The total immigration this year was larger than in any 
year since 1892, and has been exceeded only four times in the last fifteen 
years. 

The largest elements in immigration at present are : 





1899. 


1900. 






84,346 




. . 37,415 


60,764 




28,466 


46,938 




32,345 


35,607 




23,249 


32,952 




26,632 


29,682 


Slovak .... 


15,838 


29,243 



It will be noted that immigration from Western Europe has further fallen 
off, while that from Eastern Europe has gained. As we might expect from 
this fact, the percentage of illiteracy has increased by 5 ; the average money 
brought has decreased by $2 ; the percentage of unskilled labor has increased 
by 5 ; and the percentage of immigration destined for the West and South has 
diminished by 2.3. 

ASIATIC IMMIGRATION. 

The total immigration from Asia was 8,972 in 1899, and 17,946 in 1900, 
an increase of 110 per cent. 

IMMIGRATION THROUGH CANADA. 

1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 

10,646 10,737 13,853 23,200 

From contiguous countries (Canada and Mexico), 1,616 persons were re- 
fused admission in 1900. 



ILLITERACY. 



Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those races 
{not nations) , which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during the past two fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 1S99. 1900. 

English . 1.7 0.2 

Scandinavian ..... 0.6 0.9 

Finnish ....... 2.0 2.7 

Bohemian and Moravian . . . 3.3 3.0 

Irish 3.g 3.3 

French 3.5 3.9 

German ...... 3.2 5.8 

Dutch and Flemish .... — 9.6 

Italian (North) 11. 4 II. 2 

Average of above .... 3.6 4.2 



Eastern Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 

Magyar 10.8 16.8 

Greek ....... 23.4 17. 1 

Slovak ....... 27.6 2 7«9 

Polish 31.3 31.2 

Lithuanian ...... 32.4 3*»7 

Croatian and Slovenian .... 26.1 37.4 

Ruthenian ...... — 49*0 

Italian (South) ..... 57.2 54.6 

Portuguese 65.5 59.9 

Average of above . . . 42.4 39.8 



Other Races. 

Cuban — 6.8 

Japanese ...... 4.7 8.9 

Hebrew . . . . . . 20.3 22.9 

Syrian . . . . . . . 56.2 55.9 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, Boston. 
The dues for membership are as follows : For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year ; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis= 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, 
with 7nembers from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



501 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 28. 

Bibliography of Recent Literature 
on Immigration. 

The present brief bibliography has been specially prepared by the Immi- 
gration Restriction League for the use of debating clubs, and for general 
reading. It includes the titles of a few of the more important articles on the 
Immigration Problem which have appeared during the last ten years. The 
plan has been to select publications which set forth the main points in the pres- 
ent discussion of the problem, aud which are easily accessible to most readers. 

The following general outline of an argument for the further restriction of 
immigration is presented as a possible aid in the preparation of a debate on 
this question : 

1. Immigrants lower the standard of living : (a) by cheap labor; (3) 
by willingness to live in a depraved condition. 

2. Immigrants are a menace to our national institutions: (a) by foreign 
speech and customs ; (6) by grouping in isolated bodies ; (c) because they do 
not appreciate our institutions and are not interested in preserving them. 

3. Immigration is injurious to the moral condition of the United States : 
(a) our prisons, work-houses, and reformatories are largely filled with those of 
foreign birth and parentage ; (b) the quality of our immigration is rapidly 
deteriorating. 

4. Immigration tends to favor the supplanting of the more desirable races 
by the less desirable, through diminishing largely the birth-rate of the former. 

5. Immigration can be restricted by the enactment of laws. 

GENERAL REFERENCES; 

" Emigration and Immigration." By Richmond Mayo-Smith. New 
York. Scribners. 1892. (The best general book on the subject. Contains 
a useful bibliography.) 

" Un-American Immigration." By Rena M. Atchison. Chicago. 
Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1S94. 



" Chinese Immigration." By George F. Seward. New York. Scrib- 
ners. 1SS1. 

Report on the Importation of Contract Labor. 50th Congress, 2d Session. 
House Report No. 3792. 1889. 

Report of the Select Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. 51st 
Congress, 2d Session. House Report No. 3472. 1891. (The Owen 
Report.) 

Report of the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. 5 2d 
Congress, 1st Session. House Report No. 2090. 1892. (The Stump 
Report.) 

Report of the Senate Committee on Immigration. 52d Congress, 2d Ses- 
sion. Senate Report No- 1333. 1S93. (The Chandler Report.) 

Report of the Senate Committee on Immigration. 54th Congress, 1st Ses- 
sion. Senate Report No. 290. 1896. (The Lodge Report, reprinted as 
Senate Report No. 13, 55th Congress, 1st Session, 1897.) 

1 Report of the Immigration Investigating Commission. 1895. 

1 Immigration Laws and Regulations. 

1 Annual Reports of the Commissioner-General of Immigration. 
Eleventh Census of the United States. 

2 Seventh Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor. 1894. 

3 Testimony before U. S. Industrial Commission. 
3 Report of U. S. Industrial Commission. 
Congressional Record. (See index under Immigration.} 

Various publications of the Immigration Restriction League (sent on 
application to the Secretary). 

AFFIRMATIVE. 

THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. North 
American Review. Vol. 152, 27. (January, 1891.) 

LYNCH LAW AND UNRESTRICTED IMMIGRATION. Hon. Henry Cabot 
Lodge. North American Review. Vol. 152, p. 602. (May, 1891.) 

METHODS OF RESTRICTING IMMIGRATION. Hon. Wm. E. Chandler. 
Forum. Vol. 13, 128. (March, 1892.) 

OUR NATIONAL DUMPING-GROUND. Charles Stewart Smith. North Amer- 
ican Review. Vol. 154, 432. (April, 1892.) 

1 These publications can be procured from the Commissioner-General of Immigration, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

2 This report can be procured from the Commissioner of Labor, Washington, D.C. 

:> This report can be procured from the Secretary, U. S. Industrial Commission, Washington, D.C. 



THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION. John H. Noble. Political Science Quarterly. 
Vol. 7, 232. 

THE MINE LABORERS IN PENNSYLVANIA. Henry Rood. Forum. Vol. 
14, no. (September, 1892.) 

ALIEN DEGRADATION OF AMERICAN CHARACTER. Sydney G. Fisher. 
Forum. Vol. 14, 608. (January, 1893.) 

THE CENSUS AND IMMIGRATION. Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. Century. 
Vol. 46, 737. (September, 1893.) 

HAS IMMIGRATION INCREASED POPULATION? Sydney G. Fisher. Pop- 
ular Science Monthly. Vol. 48, 244. (December, 1895.) 

RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. Gen. Francis A. Walker. Atlantic 
Monthly. Vol. 77, 822. (June, 1896.) 

ITALIAN IMMIGRATION. Prescott F. Hall. North American Review. Vol. 
163, 252. (August, 1896.) 

THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION. Dr. J. H. Senner. Annals American Acad- 
emy Political and Social Science. Vol. 10, 1. (July, 1897.) 

IMMIGRATION AND THE EDUCATIONAL TEST. Prescott F. Hall. North 
American Review. Vol. 165, 393. (October, 1897.) 

IMMIGRATION, HARD TIMES, AND THE VETO. John Chetwood, Jr. 
Arena. (December, 1897.) 

A PENNSYLVANIA COLLIERY VILLAGE. 1. A POLYGLOT COMMU- 
NITY. Henry E. Rood. Century. Vol. 55, 809. (April, 1898.) 

THE MENACE OF IMMIGRATION. Gunton's Magazine. Vol. 16, 166. (1899.) 

NEW PROBLEMS OF IMMIGRATION. Prescott F. Hall. Forum. Vol. 30, 
555- (January, 1901.) 



NEGATIVE. 

OUR NATIONAL DUMPING-GROUND. John B. Weber. North American 
Reviezv. Vol. 154, 424. (April, 1892.) 

INCALCULABLE ROOM FOR IMMIGRANTS. Edward Atkinson. Fortim. 
Vol. 13, 360. (May, 1892.) 

THE SCANDINAVIANS IN THE NORTHWEST. Kendric C. Babcock. 
Forum. Vol. 14, 103. (September, 1892.) 

WHAT IMMIGRANTS CONTRIBUTE TO INDUSTRY. Geo. F. Parker. Ibid., 
600. (January, 1893.) 

A PRACTICAL REMEDY FOR EVILS OF IMMIGRATION. Gustav H 
Schwab. Ibid., 805. (February, 1893.) 

A FEW FACTS AND THOUGHTS ON IMMIGRATION. Hon. J. H. Senner. 
Independent. New York. Vol. 45, 1. (Nov. 2, 1893.) 



HOW WE RESTRICT IMMIGRATION. Hon. J. H. Senner. North American 
Review. Vol. 158, 494. (April, 1894.) 

IMMIGRATION FROM ITALY. Hon. J. H. Senner. North American Review. 
Vol. 162, 649. (June, 1896.) 

SHOULD IMMIGRATION BE RESTRICTED? S. G. Croswell. North Amer- 
ican Review. Vol. 164, 526. (May, 1897.) 

AN EDUCATIONAL TEST FOR IMMIGRANTS. Hon. Joseph H. Senner. 
Independent. Vol. 50, 77. (January 20, 1898.) 

SOME IMMIGRANTS FROM OVERSEA. K. Munroe. Harper's Magazine. 
Vol. 96, 429. (February, 1898.) 

OUR IMMIGRANTS AND OURSELVES. K. C. Claghorn. Atlantic Monthly. 
Vol. 86, 535. (October, 1900.) 

fllSCELLANEOUS. 

THE FOREIGN ELEMENT IN AMERICAN CIVILIZATION. A. H. Hyde. 

Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 52, 387. (January, 1898.) 

THE FEDERAL CONTRACT LABOR LAW. Prescott F. Hall. Harvard Law 
Review. Vol. 11, 525. (April, 1898.) 

A STUDY IN NATIVITIES. B. C. Mathews. Forum. Vol. 26, 621. (January, 
1899.) 

AMONG THE IMMIGRANTS. Arthur Henry. Scridner's Magazine. Vol. 29, 
301. (March, 1901.) 

Further information as to references, statistics, etc., zvill be furnished, 
and the publications of the Immigration Restriction League sent, on appli- 
cation to 

PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary. 

Fiske Building, Boston, Mass. 



2M-501 . 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE Wo. 29. 



immigration Figures lor 1901. 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner- General of Immigration.) 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1900 and 1901. 



1900. 1901. 

Total immigration 448,572 487,918 

Percentage of increase 1901 over 1900 . . 9 
Percentage of increase 1901 over 1899 . 113 
Number debarred from entrance and returned 

within one year after landing . . . 4,602 3*879 

Per cent, debarred and returned ... 1.3 0.8 

Total number of illiterate ..... II 7>^45 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 

14 years of age ...... 24.3 27.7 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from Aus- 
tria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia . . . 66.7 68.6 
Total immigration from Eastern Europe. \_See 

note.'] 216,029 248,203 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Eastern Europe ...... 48.3 50.8 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from the* 
United Kingdom, France, Germany, and 

Scandinavia ...... 25.3 22.5 

Total immigration from Western Europe. [See 

note.~\ . . 149,442 164,792 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from 

Western Europe ..... 33*3 33-7 

Total immigration from Asia .... 17,946 13,698 

Total Hebrew immigration ..... 60,764 58,098 

Per cent, of total immigration who were 

Hebrews ....... 13.5 n.g 

Average money brought by immigrants, in dollars, 15 15 

Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 

United States before . . . . . 11.6 11. 9 

Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 
tion, including women and children . . 30.1 30.5 



1900. 1901. 

Per cent, of total immigration who were farm- 
laborers, laborers, or servants ... 53.0 53.1 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 

States of 111., Mass., N.Y., and Pa. . . 68.8 69.5 

Per cent, of total immigration destined for States 
south of the Potomac River, Pa., and the 

Ohio River, or west of the Mississippi River, 13.4 13.5 

NOTE. — The line between Eastern Europe and Western Europe is as follows: 
Beginning- at the boundary between Finland and Russia the line leaves Finland and 
Germany on the west, then follows the boundary between Bohemia, Austria, and Car- 
i?ithia on the west, and Galicia, Hungary, and Croatia on the east, It then follows 
the division between Northern and Southern Italy adopted by the new U.S. Classi- 
fication. Spain and Portugal, having a high illiteracy and sending many undesirable 
immigrants, are also placed in the eastern division. 

The Hebrews are put by themselves in this publication, but the Government report 
shows that about two-thirds come from Russia and most of the balance from Austria- 
Hungary. 

REMARKS. — The predictions made in Publications Nos. 25 and 26 of a 
rapid and important increase in immigration have been strikingly verified, 
immigration for 1901 being more than double that of 1898, and it is safe to 
say that the total volume will remain large until another period of industrial 
depression sets in. The total immigration this year was larger than in any 
year since 1892. 

The largest elements in immigration at present are : 





1889. 


1900. 


1901. 


Southern Italian 


65,639 


84,346 


115,704 






60,764 


58,098 




28,466 


46,938 


43,617 


Scandinavian 


23,249 


32,952 


40,277 






35,607 


30,404 






29,682 


34,742 


Slovak . 


15,838 


29,243 


29,343 



Immigration from Eastern Europe continues to increase rapidly (fur- 
nishing now one=half the total), while the illiteracy of such immigration has 
also increased. This has necessarily increased the average illiteracy, and 
emphasizes the value of an educational test. This test is being considered 
by Australia, in a form similar to that originally proposed by the League. 
Will it turn out after all that we shall copy Australia in this as in other 
reforms, although our Congress was the first to pass a bill prescribing such 
a test? China contributes more than 2,400 immigrants this year, appearing 
for the first time in the illiteracy table below. 



ILLITERACY. 



Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those races 
{not nations) which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during the past three fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 


1800. 


1900. 


1901 . 


Scandinavian . 


0.6 


0.9 


0.6 


English 


i-7 


0.2 


1.1 


OCLIlv-.ll •••••• 






T O 


Bohemian and Moravian 


3-3 


3-o 


1.5 


Finnish ...... 


2.0 


2.7 


2.2 


Irish . 


3-9 


3-3 


3-2 


French ...... 


3.5 


3.9 


3-9 


German ...... 


. 3-2 


5.8 


4.1 


Dutch and Flemish . . . . 


— 


9.6 


7.8 


Italian (North) 


11.4 


11. 2 


15-7 


Average of above 


3.6 


4.2 


5.6 


Eastern* Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 








Magyar ...... 


10.8 


16.8 


7-5 


Greek ....... 


23-4 


17. 1 


25-9 


Slovak ...... 


27.6 


27.9 


30.7 


Polish ...... 


3i-3 


31.2 


37-5 


Croatian and olovenian 


20.1 


37-4 


39-7 


Lithuanian ...... 


32.4 


3 J -7 


49.8 


Ruthenian ...... 




49.0 


53-2 


Italian (ooutn) . 


• 57-2 


54-6 


59.i 


Portuguese ...... 


fir r 
05-5 


59-9 


03.O 


Average of above 


42.4 


39.8 


46.0 


Other Races. 








Cuban ...... 




6.8 




Japanese . . . . 


4-7 


8.9 


6.7 


Chinese ...... 






6.9 


Hebrew ...... 


20.3 


22.9 


23.6 


Syrian ...... 


56.2 


55-9 


56.1 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restriction 
League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, Boston. 
The dues for membership are as follows: For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year ; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis- 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards ft them to become citizens. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 30. 



tit 



APR 2$ i:02 



DIGEST Of IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION UPON THE 
UNITED STATES 

AND 

REASONS FOR FURTHER RESTRICTION, 



PROPOSED LEGISLATION. 



1U 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



General Figures as to Total Immigration. 

(/.) Immigration by Decades, 1821 to 1900. 

{From Report of U.S. Industrial Commission, p. 267.) 



182 1 to 1830 


143*439 


1831 to 1840 


599 > 1 25 


1841 to 1850 


1,713,251 


1851 to i860 


2,598,214 


1861 to 1870 


2,314,824 


187 1 to 1880 


2,812,191 


1881 to 1890 


5,246,613 


1891 to 1900 


3*687,56 


Total, 1821=1900 


19,115,22 



(2.) Immigration by Years from 1885. 

{From Reports of Superintendent and Bureau of hnmigration.) 



1885 


395*346 


1886 


334*203 


1887 


490,109 


1888 


546,889 


1889 


444*427 


1890 


455*302 


1891 


560,319 


1892 


579*663 


1893 


439*730 


1894 


285,631 \ 


1895 


25 8 *536f 


1896 


343*267t 


1897 


230,832; 


1898 


229,299 


1899 


3n*7i5 


1900 


448,572 


1901 


487,918 



[The Cholera Year.] 

[Period of 

Commercial 

Depression.] 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



3 



II. Recent Changes in the Nationality of 

Immigrants. 

{Specially prepared for the League from Quarterly Report Bureau 
Statistics No. 2, Series 1892-1893, and Reports of Commissioner- General 
of Immigration.} 



(/.) Comparison of Certain Groups. 







Per cent, of immigrants 




Per cent, of immigrants 


from United Kingdom, 




from Austria-Hungary, 


France, Germany, and 




Italy, Poland, and Russia 


Scandinavia 




to total immigration. 


to total immigration. 


1869 


0.9 


73.8 


1880 


8-5 


64.5 


1890 


34-0 


57.7 


1891 


39-6 


52.1 


1892 


44.8 


53-9 


1893 


42.7 


48.2 


1894 


42.6 


47-9 


1895 


39.8 


52.9 


1896 


52. 


39. 


1897 


52. 


38. 


1898 


57- 


33- 


1899 


64. 


27. 


1900 


66.7 


25-3 


1901 


68.6 


22.5 



Note. — In 1S69 the immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, 
and Russia were about i-iooth of the number from the United Kingdom, 
France, Germany, and Scandinavia; in 1880 about i-ioth; in 1894 nearly 
equal to it ; in 1901 three times as great. 



4 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



(2. ) Western Europe and Eastern Europe. 

Note. — In 1899 tne Government abandoned tabulation by political 
divisions and adopted a classification by races. This was in all respects a 
more precise and useful division, and had long been needed. In order to 
preserve the valuable comparison of groups of relatively desirable and rela- 
tively undesirable immigrants from Europe, the League has divided Europe 
by a north and south line as follows : Beginning at the boundary between 
Finland and Russia the line leaves Finland and Germany on the west, then 
follows the boundary between Bohemia, Austria and Carinthia on the west, 
and Galicia, Hungary, and Croatia on the east. It then follows the division 
between Northern and Southern Italy adopted by the new U.S. classification. 
Spain and Portugal, having a high illiteracy and sending many undesirable 
immigrants, are also placed in the eastern division. 

The Hebrews are also included in Eastern Europe, as the Government 
report shows that about seven-tenths come from Russia and most of the 
balance from Austria-Hungary. 

Per cent. 

Immigration from Per cent, of total Immigration from of Total 
Western Europe. Immigration. Eastern Europe. Immigration. 

1899 130,160 41.7 175*270 5 6 - 2 

1900 i49>442 33-3 276,793 61.8 

1901 164,792 33.7 3 9-30i 62.7 

(3.) Total Immigration of Asian Races. 

1899 8,972 

1900 J 7*946 

1901 13*698 



(4.) The Largest Elements in Immigration at 

Present are: 





1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Southern Italian 


65,639 


84,346 


H5<704 


Hebrew .... 


37*415 


60,764 


58,098 


Polish .... 


28,466 


46,938 


43»6l7 


Scandinavian 


23,249 


32,952 


40,277 


Irish .... 


32,345 


35,607 


30,404 


German .... 


26,632 


29,682 


34*742 


Slovak .... 


15*838 


29,243 


29*343 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



5 



III. Conditions of Immigration. 

(/.) Average Money Shown by Immigrants. 

1896 $n 

1897 15 

1898 17 

1899 17 

1900 15 

1901 15 



Money Brought by the Several Races, 1900. 



{Report of United States Industrial Commission, p. 284.) 



Races. 


Amount of money Races. 


Amount of money 




shown per capita. 


shown per capita. 


Scotch, 


$41.51 


Chinese, 


$13-98 


Japanese, 


39-59 


Finnish, 


13.06 


English, 


3890 


Croatian and Slavonian 


, 12.51 


French, 


37.80 


Slovak, 


II.69 


Greek, 


28.78 


Ruthenian (Russniak), 


IO.51 


German, 


28.53 


Portuguese, 


10.47 


Bohemian and Moravi 


an, 23.12 


Magyar, 


IO.39 


Italian (northern), 


22.49 


Polish, 


9.94 


Dutch and Flemish, 


21.00 


Italian (southern), 


8.84 


Cuban, 


19-34 


Hebrew, 


8.67 


Scandinavian, 


16.65 


Lithuanian, 


7.96 


Russian, 


14.94 






Irish, 


14.50 






Syrian, 


14-31 







(2. ) Percentage of Immigrants who have been in the 
United States before. 

1898 18. 

1899 16. 

1900 1 1.6 

1901 11. 9 



6 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



(J. ) Percentage of Immigrants having no Occupation, 
including Women and Children. 

1895 36. 

1896 36. 

1897 39. 

1898 39.4 

1899 35-i 

1900 30.1 

1901 30.5 



(4.) Percentage of Immigrants who were Farm Labor- 
ers, Laborers, or Servants. 

1895 42. 

♦ 1896 • 46. 

1897 40. 

1898 40.3 

1899 47-3 

1900 53.0 

1901 53.1 



(5.) Illiteracy. 

(a.) In General. 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration 
over 15 years of age. 

1895 20 

1896 29 

1897 23 

Over 14 years of age. 

1898 23. 

1899 19-7 

1900 24.3 

1901 27.7 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



7 



(b.) Of Particular Groups. 

( Compiled from the Report of the Com?nissioner- General of Immigration 
for the Tear ending June 30, 1901.) 

Percentages of Illiteracy among Immigrants from those 
Nations of Europe which sent upwards of 2,000 Immigrants to 
the United States during the Fiscal Year 1901. 



Coming from Western 
Europe. 

© 

Average of Group, 5.6%. 



The black part 
shows the propor- 
tion of those over 
fourteen years of 
age who could not 
read and write in 
any language. 



Coming from Eastern 
Europe. 

Average of Group, 43.2%. 



Note : that the official figures as to illiteracy are not based upon actual 
tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of the immigrants' answers 
to the questions put to them. If they were actually required by the inspect- 
ors to read and write before admission, the above figures of illiteracy would 
undoubtedly be larger. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those 
races (not nations) which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the 
United States during the past three fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Scandinavian . 


0.6 


0.9 


0.6 


English . 


1.7 


0.2 


I.I 


Scotch . . . . 






1.2 


Bohemian and Moravian 


3-3 


30 


i-5 


Finnish . 


2.0 


2.7 


2.2 


Irish ...... 


3-9 


3-3 


3-2 


French ...... 


3-5 


3-9 


3-9 


German . . . . . 


3-2 


5-8 


4.1 


Dutch and Flemish . . . 




9.6 


7.8 


Italian (north) . 


11.4 


11. 2 


15-7 


Average of above . 


3.6 


4.2 


5.6 



8 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



Eastern Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 


1S99. 


1900. 


IOOI. 


Magyar ...... 


10.8 


16.8 


7.1 


Hebrew ...... 


20.3 


22. Q 


23.6 


Greek 


23.4 


17. 1 

m 


IK. Q 


Slovak ...... 


27.6 


27 .0 


30.7 


Polish . 


3^3 


31.2 


37-5 


Croatian and Slovenian 


26.1 


37-4 


39-7 


Lithuanian ...... 


32.4 


3i-7 


49.8 


Ruthenian ...... 




49.0 


53-2 


Italian (South) ..... 


57-2 


54-6 


59-i 


Portuguese . 


65-5 


59-9 


638 




1 .0 






Other Races. 








Cuban . . . . 




6.8 




Japanese ..... 


4.7 


8.0 


6.7 


Chinese ..... 






6.9 


Syrian . . . . . 


56.2 


55-9 


56.1 


(c.) Illiteracy of Italian Immigrants. 






{From manifests of 3,174 immigrants 


• over 14 years 


of age arriving 


at the fort of New York during April 


, 1896, on four steamers from 


Genoa and Naples. This is believed to present a fair average of recent 


Italian t?nmigration . ) 








Total Immigrants examined, 






3,174 


Percentage of males, 






89.2 


Percentage of females, 






10.8 


Total illiterates, 






2,147 


Percentage of total immigrants who were 


illiterates, 




67.6 


Percentage of male illiteracy, 






66.5 


Percentage of female illiteracy, 






75-7 


Number debarred under existing Jaws, 






197 


Percentage debarred of total immigrants, 






6.2 


Number which would have been debarred by a reading and 




writing test, 






2,147 


Or a percentage of, 






67.6 


Percentage of those who had been in the United States befo 


e, 


27.7 


Percentage of total immigrants w.ho were la 


borers, 




85. 8 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



9 



IV. Effects of Immigration in the United 

States. 

(/.) Crime, Insanity, and Pauperism. 

According to the Census of 1890 \_Part II., ftp. 169, 174, 182] those 
of foreign birth or parentage, who are 38 per cent, of the total white 
population, furnish over *4 the white convicts of the United States, while 
the foreign-born population, who are about 15 per cent, of the total 
population, furnish y$ of the insane, and nearly % of the paupers of the 
United States. 

Or, comparing an equal number of the foreign element and the native 
element, the foreigners furnish ij4 times as many criminals, 2}i times as 
many insane, and 3 times as many paupers. 

(Pro?n Senate Reftort No. 290, $^th Congress, \st Session, 1896.) 

Commitments to all penal 



institutions of Massachu- Illiteracy 

setts per 1,000 inhabi- of 

tants from countries Immigrants 

Country. named, less drunks. (1895)- 

Scandinavia ...... 5.1 1 

Germany ....... 3.6 2 

Scotland ....... 5.8 3 

France ....... 6.1 3 

England ....... 7.2 3 

Ireland ....... 7.1 7 

Russia ....... 7.9 26 

Austria ....... 10.4 28 

Poland ....... 16.0 29 

Hungary 15.4 33 

Italy 18.2 44 



(2.) Distribution of Immigrants. 

(a.) Foreign-Born in the United States. 

(Census of 1890. Population. Part I., ftp. Ixxxii, cxxxv.) 

The total foreign-born population of the United States is 9,249,547, 
constituting 14.77 P er cent « of the entire population of the United States. 
This foreign-born population is made up as follows : 



IO DIGEST OF* IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 







Number. 


Per cent. 


JNortn and oouth Americans 




1,000,245 


11.70 


Great Britain and Ireland . 




3,122,911 


33-76 


Germanic nations 




3,119,583 


33-73 


Scandinavian nations 




933,249 


10.09 


OltlV llcHlOHS • . • 




510,625 


5-5 2 


Latin nations 




319,822 


346 


Asiatic nations . 




113,383 


1.23 


All others .... 




41,729 


o-45 


Total 




9,249,547 


100.0 



(b.) Distribution of Foreig-n-Born. 

{Compiled from Census of 1890, Part p. cxxxvi.) 



North Atlantic. South Atlantic. North Central. South Central. Western. 

Great Britain 



and Ireland, 


59-5 


2-5 


27.6 


2.4 


7-9 


France, 


36.0 


2.2 


34-i 


12.7 


14,9 


Germany, 


32.2 


2.9 


56.4 


4.1 


4-3 


Bohemia, 


10.4 


1.4 


84.3 


3-1 


0.8 


Scandinavia, 


12.7 


0.3 


76.0 


0.8 


10.0 


Austria, 


49.9 


i-7 


31-8 


8.4 


8.1 


Hungary, 


72.9 


1.8 


22.1 


1.4 


1.6 


Italy, 


65.0 


2.7 


12.0 


6.7 


13-7 


Poland, 


38.4 


i-7 


57-o 


1-7 


1.2 


Russia, 


50-9 


3-2 


38.2 


i.5 


6.1 



*• South Atlantic" includes States south of N.f. and Pa. 
11 South Central" includes States south of the Ohio River and Mo. 

Note : that only 4.6 per cent, of the Poles and only 4.8 per cent, of 
the Hungarians and 10.8 per cent, of the Russians live in the Southern 
States or in the Western Division ; altogether only 29,528, scattered in a 
total population of nearly twenty-three millions. 

Note: that while the non- Atlantic States gain three-fourths of the 
Germans and Scandinavians, the Atlantic States are burdened with two- 
thirds of the Russians, Hungarians, and Italians. 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



I 1 



(c.) Congestion in Certain States. 

( Compiled from the Reports of the Commissioner- General of 
Immigration.) 

Per cent, of total immigration 
Per cent, of total immigration destined for States south of 

destined for the four States the Potomac River, Pennsyl- 

of Illinois, Massachusetts, vania, and the Ohio River, or 

New York, and Pennsylvania. west of the Mississippi River. 



1895 


72. 


i895 




1896 


72. 


1896 


Hi 


1897 


71. 


1897 




1898 


68.9 


1898 


15.2 


1899 


68.7 


1899 


15.7 


1900 


68.8 


1900 


13-4 


1901 


69.5 


1901 


13-5 



(d.) Rural and Urban Distribution. 

It is said that there is plenty of room in this country in the West on 
farms and ranches to receive an unlimited number of immigrants of whatever 
character they may be. 

In considering this statement the following figures are of interest. 
[From Bureau of Statistics, Quarterly Report, No. 2, 1892.] Of a total 
foreign-born population of 9,249,547 in 1890, 4,081,927, or 44 per cent, of 
them, were found in the 124 principal cities of the United States. 

Of persons born in Norway 20.8% live in cities, 
u u u u England 40.7 44 44 44 
u it u u Germany 47.7 4 4 4 4 4 4 
44 4 4 4 4 4 4 ' Ireland 55.9 4 4 4 4 4 4 
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Poland 57.1 4 4 4 4 4 4 
4 4 4 4 4 4 Russia 57.9 4 4 4 4 4 4 
44 k 4 4 4 t4 Italy 58.8 4 4 4 4 4 4 

Congestion of Recent Immigration and of that most Affected by the 
Illiteracy Test in Large Cities and Ce litres of Population. 

(From the Senate Report No. 290, $\th Congress, ist Session, 1896.) 
In 1890 there were 147,740 persons in this country born in Poland. Of 
these there were in the States of — 

New York ......... 22,718 

Pennsylvania ......... 25,191 

Illinois 28,878 

Michigan . . . . . . . . 15,669 

Wisconsin ......... 17,660 

Total 110,116 



I 2 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



Now let us see how they are distributed within these States. 



Illinois : 

Cook County (Chicago) ...... 25,336 

Michigan : 

Wayne County (Detroit) ...... 5,599 

Manistee County ....... 2,607 

Bay County ........ i,973 

Kent County 1,175 

New York : 

Erie County (Buffalo) . . • . . 8,929 

New York County (New York) .... 6,759 

Kings County (Brooklyn) ..... i>957 

Pennsylvania : 

Allegheny County (Pittsburg) .... 3,343 

Luzerne County ....... 7,408 

Northumberland County ...... 2,083 

Philadelphia County (Philadelphia) , 2,189 

Schuylkill County ..... . 4,492 

Wisconsin : 

Milwaukee County (Milwaukee) .... 10,066 

Portage County ....... 2,070 



In 1890 there were 182,580 Italians. Of these there were in Massachu- 
setts 8,066, and 4,799 in Suffolk County (Boston). In New York, 64,141, 
of which 39,951 were in New York County (city of New York) ; Kings 
County (Brooklyn), 9,789; Westchester County, 1,820; Erie County 
(Buffalo), 1,908. In Pennsylvania, 24,662, of which 6,799 were m Phila- 
delphia County; Allegheny County (Pittsburg), 3,498; Luzerne County, 
1,661. In New Jersey, 12,989, of which 3,598 were in Essex County; 
Hudson County (Jersey City), 3,039. In Illinois, 8,035, of which 5,734 
were in Cook County (Chicago). In Louisiana, 7,767, of which 3,622 were 
in Orleans County (New Orleans). In California, 15,495, of which 5,212 
were in San Francisco. 

There were 182,644 from Russia. Of these there were in the States 
of — 

New York 58,466 

Pennsylvania ......... 17,315 

Massachusetts 7>325 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 13 

Connecticut ......... 3,027 

South Dakota ...... 12,398 

Michigan ......... 11, 889 

Illinois . . . 8,407 

Kansas .......... 9,801 



Of these New York City had 48,790; Brooklyn, 3,397; Rochester, 
1,085; Albany, 479 ; Syracuse, 774; Elmira, 108; Long Island City, 121. 

There were in Boston 4,305, or more than attributed to Massachusetts; 
Philadelphia, 7,879; Chicago, 7,683; New Haven, 1,160; Hartford, 492 ; 
Bridgeport, 102 ; Waterbury, 123. 

One-half of these Russians are found in the Atlantic division, or 89,896, 



and in the Central division, 69,907. 

Philadelphia has ....... 7,897 

Pittsburg ......... 2,279 

Scranton ......... 488 

Wilkesbarre ......... 149 

Kansas : 

Marion County ....... 316 

Ellis County ........ 1,269 

McPherson County ....... 1,654 

Michigan : 

Portland County ....... 3,521 

Gogebic County . . . . . . . 1,129 

Marquette County 2,563 



In 1880 there were only 8,967 of these in the 50 principal cities. In 
1890 there were 98,355. 

(e.) Destination of Illiterates. 

{From Manifests of 1000 Immigra,7its at New York, i8q6.) 

By Numbers. By Percentages. 







Other 




Central and 




Non- 




Non- 


Penn. 


N.Y. Atlantic. Middle. Western. Atlantic. Atlantic. Atlantic. Atlantic 


Russians, 11 


28 


II 


4 


I 




5 




9% 


Hungarians, 76 


20 


34 


4 





130 


4 


97 


3 


Galicians, 25 


12 


26 


11 


5 


63 


16 


80 


20 


Croats, etc., 20 


8 





4 


4 


28 


8 


78 


22 


Syrians, 


21 


2 





4 


23 


4 


85 


15 


Totals, 132 


89 


73 


23 




294 


37 


89 


11 



T 4 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



Only ii illiterates were destined to the South, i Hungarian going to 
Delaware, 3 to West Virginia, and 2 Galicians to Maryland, while the 5 who 
were going to Missouri were sent before the Board of Special Inquiry on 
suspicion of being contract laborers and were admitted for lack of evidence. 

Italians. — From examination of the manifests of 3,174 immigrants 
over 14 years of age arriving at the port of New York* on four steamers 
from Genoa and Naples, in 1896, it appeared that 95.3% were destined 
for New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

Of those destined for " other States "31 or less than 1 % were bound to 
States west of the Mississippi river, and only 1 1 to States south of Pennsyl- 
vania and the Ohio river, while only 3 were going to the Southern States 
proper. 

Note : that an educational test as a measure of restriction would not 
affect in any important degree the Western and Southern States, many of 
which are naturally desirous of obtaining a large immigration ; because the 
races like the Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, French, and English, 
which would be little affected by an educational test, largely go West, while 
the illiterate races, such as the Hungarians, Galicians, and Italians, remain 
to lower the standards of the already crowded Atlantic territory, as appears 
by the tables above. 

(f.) Illiterates and Slums. 

The Seventh Special Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor 
(1894) shows (p. 44) that the proportion of those of foreign birth or par- 
entage to the total population in the slums of Baltimore was 77 per cent., in 
Chicago 90 per cent., in New York 95 per cent., and in Philadelphia 91 per 
cent. The figures for the foreign-born alone are correspondingly striking. 
It appears from the same report (pp. 160-3) that of every 100 aliens, 40 were 
illiterate in the slums of Baltimore, 47 in Chicago, 59 in New York, and 51 
in Philadelphia; and that of every 100 of these illiterate aliens there were 67 
males of voting age in Baltimore, 77 in Chicago, 78 in New York, and 85 
in Philadelphia. 

The proportion in which the literate and illiterate nationalities contrib- 
ute to the slum population is shown by the following tables, compiled from 
the same report, pp. 41, 72 : 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



l 5 



Austria-Hungary, Italy, 
Poland, and Russia. 
Percent, of Per cent, of 



United Kingdom, Prance, 
Germany, and Scandinavia. 
Per cent, of Per cent, of 



Total Population. Slum Population. Total Population. Slum Population 

Baltimore. 

I 13-52 
Chicago. 



1.97 
6.41 
9-45 
i-95 



12.72 
44.44 
51. 11 
50.28 



I 

New York. 



Philadelphia. 

I 



30.70 

30.73 
22.95 



27.29 
10.64 
8.64 
8.44 



Note: that Southeastern Europe furnishes 3 times as many inhabitants as 
Northwestern Europe to the slums of Baltimore, 19 times as many to the 
slums of New York, 20 times as many to the slums of Chicago, 71 times as 
many to the slums of Philadelphia. 

The comparative degree of illiteracy of foregoing elements of slums is 
as follows for the above-mentioned four cities : 



Scandinavia, 


5-6< 


Great Britain, 


7.0 


France, 


10.2 


Germany, 


21.9 


Ireland, 


40.4 


Average of Group, 


25-5 


Austria-Hungary, 


16.6 


Russia, 


37-i 


Poland, 


46.1 


Italy, 


66.4 


Average of Group, 


54-5 


Native Americans, 


7-4 



(3.) Naturalization of Aliens. 

By Census of 1890, Part II>,p. 683, out of the total foreign-born males 
over 21 years of age, 32.8 per cent, were not naturalized; i.e., nearly £ of 
the foreign adult males are not citizens. And out of the total male popula- 
tion of the United States over 21 years of age, 7 per cent, are aliens. Of the 
1,189,452 aliens in the United States, 32.6 per cent, do not speak English. 



r6 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



From the Census of 1S90 \_Part IL, pp. 600, 688] it appears that the 
proportion of the foreign-born of the various races who were still aliens was 
as follows : 

Slav, 21.4% British, 9-3% 

Latin, 29.7 Germanic, 9.7 

Asiatic, 85.7 . Scandinavian, 13.2 

Average, 32.0 Average, 9.9 

(4.) Replacing of Native Stock by Foreign Stock. 

Perhaps the most important effect of immigration, and the one to which 
popular attention has been least directed, is that of the supplanting of one 
race by another in this country. In this view the descendants of the settlers 
of British origin, and later the immigrants of Irish, German, French, and 
Scandinavian origin, have tended to increase less rapidly on account of the 
coming of immigrants of habits, customs, and modes of thought alien to those 
already here and of an inferior social and economic status. The result is not 
merely a social and economic struggle between those already here and those 
coming, in which it may be true that the former are in general victorious and 
are displaced upwards to take more lucrative and responsible positions; but 
there is another struggle between the new-comers and their children on the 
one side, and the children of those already here on the other, in which the 
latter are defeated and slain by never being allowed to come into existence. 
^ H Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the Censuses of 1870 and 18S0, 
maintained that if there had been no immigration whatever into this country 
during the past 90 years, " the native element would long ago have rilled the 
place the foreigners have usurped." And he further says : 

" The American shrank from the industrial competition thus thrust upon 
him. He was unwilling himself to engage in the lowest kind of day labor 
with these new elements of population ; he was even more unwilling to bring 
sons and daughters into the world to enter into that c6mpetitiori\ ) . . The 
great fact protrudes through all the subsequent history of our population that 
the more rapidly foreigners came into the United States the smaller was the 
rate of increase, not merely among the native population, but throughout the 
population of the country as a whole, including the foreigners. ... If 
the foregoing views are true, or contain any considerable degree of truth, 
foreign immigration into this country has, from the time it assumed large 
proportions, amounted not to a reenforcement of our population, but to a 
replacement of native by foreign stock." (See articles in " Forum," 1S91, pp. 
634-743 ; reprinted in " Discussions in Economics and Statistics," Vol. II., 
pp. 417-426; also article in "Atlantic Monthly," Vol. 77, p. 822, June, 

1896.) 

The United States Industrial Commission says in its report, p. 277 : " It 
is a hasty assumption which holds that immigration during the nineteenth 
century has increased the total population." 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



l 7 



IV. Nationalities of Immigrants desired by 

the States. 

(From Report of the Immigration Investigating Co?nmission, 
January, 1896. The Commission sent letters to the Governors of all the 
States asking what nationalities of im?nigrants were preferred in their 
several States.) 

Of 52 preferences for different nationalities of immigrants expressed in 
these replies 

15 are for Germans. 

14 are for Scandinavians. 

12 are for English, Scotch, or Irish. 

3 are for French. 

2 are for Swiss. 

2 are for Italians. 

1 is for Hollanders. 

1 is for Belgians. 

i is for " North of Europe." 

1 is for Americans. 

Note: that there are only 2 calls for immigrants from Southern and 
Eastern Europe, and these are both for Italians. One of the Governors 
asking for Italians expressly states that he is " not sure that immigrants from 
any foreign country are desirable as laborers " in his State, and the other 
says " that unskilled labor is not desired " in his State, but that farmers with 
small means are highly desirable. As very few of the Italian immigrants 
now coming to this country settle down and become independent farmers, 
but are almost entirely unskilled laborers, it may be concluded that in the 
second case Italian immigration of its present character is not desired. 

Note : that there is no call for Poles, Russians, Hungarians, Slovaks, 
or the other races of Southern and Eastern Europe _and of Asia. 

Note: that the immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, such 
as the English, Irish, Scotch, Germans, Scandinavians, and French, who are 
desired as immigrants in all parts of the United States, are as a whole well 
educated, there being on the average only four per cent, of illiteracy among 
them, while the illiteracy of the immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Italy, 
Russia, and Poland is over forty per cent. An educational test, therefore, 
requiring every immigrant to be able to read before gaining admission to 
the United States, would debar a considerable number of the undesirable 
classes, while it would interfere very little with the immigration from the 
North and West of Europe. 



i8 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



V. The Present Laws and Their Effects. 

(/.) Excluded Classes. 

The only classes of persons excluded from this country under our present 
immigration laws (not considering Chinese immigration) are the following: 
I. Idiots ; II. Insane persons ; III. Paupers or persons likely to become a pub- 
lic charge; IV. Persons with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; 
V. Persons who have been convicted of felony or other infamous crime or 
misde7neanor involving moral turpitude ; VI. Polygamists ; VII. u As- 
sisted immigrants " unless on special inquiry they are found not to belong 
to any of the foregoing excluded classes; VIII. Contract laborers; IX. 
Women imported for purposes of prostitution. 

Note. — There are three general misconceptions regarding our present 
immigration laws. The first is that we now require a careful examination 
of all intending immigrants in Europe, before they embark, and in this way 
the least desirable element is very largely prevented from coming here. The 
second, that persons who cannot read and write are at present debarred from 
landing. The third, that every immigrant must have $30 in order to be 
admitted. None of these is true. 

All immigrants except those from Canada and Mexico pay a head tax 
of$i. 



(2.) Numbers Debarred and Deported. 



1892 2,801 out of 579,663 or 0.5 per cent. 

1893 1,630 out of 440,793 or 0.4 per cent. 

1894 2,389 out of 228,020 or 1.0 per cent. 

1895 2,419 out of 258,536 or 1.0 per cent. 

1896 3,037 out of 343,267 or 0.9 per cent. 

1897 1,880 out of 230,832 or 0.8 per cent. 

1898 3^94 ou t of 229,299 or 1.4 per cent. 

1899 4,061 out of 311,715 or 1.3 per cent. 

1900 4,602 out of 448,572 or 1.3 per cent. 

1901 3,879 out of 487,918 or 0.8 per cent. 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



19 



VI. Proposed Methods of Restriction. 

(/.) Consular Certificate Plan. 

It has been suggested that the U.S. consuls shall examine intending im- 
migrants at the various ports of embarkation and certify as to their admissi- 
bility under the U.S. immigration laws. This plan was formerly very pop- 
ular and at first sight seems an excellent one ; but closer examination dis- 
closes defects in it that not only make it useless but show it would endanger 
all the good of the present system of inspection. Some of these objections 
are as follows : 

E. Necessitates a large increase in consular force, and consequent expense. 

2. Divides responsibility between the consul and the inspector at the 

American port. In doubtful cases each would throw responsibility 
upon the other and the immigrant would be allowed to enter ; or else 

3. Works hardships on the immigrants, because it is not certain that all 

with consular certificates will be allowed to land. 

4. Consuls have not the time to examine the large numbers embarking at 

one time, and the result would be that inspection would practically be 
done by their clerks, who are frequently natives and who would gen- 
erally sympathize with the immigrants, and in any case would be less 
efficient and responsible, and more open to corruption. 

5. Does not add at all to the classes now excluded by law, but is simply an 

administrative measure.* Other classes are objectionable also. 

6. Does not draw any line of exclusion more definite than the present law, 

which vests an unlimited and burdensome discretion in the immi- 
gration officials. 

7. If consular inspection were public the foreign governments could at once 

tell whom to detain as being desirable citizens, and fit for military 
service ; or 

8. If secret consular inspection were contemplated foreign governments 

would not permit its introduction. 

(2.) The Educational Test. 

(a.) Advantages of the Educational Test as a Means of further 
Restricting Immigration. 

1. Excludes the people we wish to exclude ; i.e., those who are degraded, 
ignorant alike of their own language and of any occupation, incapable 



20 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



of appreciating our institutions and standards of living, and very 
difficult of assimilation. 

2. Adds to the excluded classes. 

3. In practice would be applied at place where ticket bought and applied 

by steamship companies, therefore 

4. Does not imply any great change in existing machinery, or any large 

increase in consular service and expense. 

5. Inspection is not committed to persons in remote countries where ser- 

veillance is difficult, but remains a uniform system, which is public 
and easily controlled. 

6. Is exact and definite in its operation ; easily and simply applied, and 

therefore 

7. Diminishes the labor of the boards of special inquiry, and gives the im- 

migration officials opportunity for a more thorough inspection. 

S. Secures rudimentary education on the part of all foreigners applying for 
naturalization papers and American citizenship. 

9. Promotes education among those who desire to immigrate, and to that 
extent improves the social condition of Europ *. 

10. Saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in doubt as 

to his admission or exclusion, and therefore 

1 1 . Does away in large part with the separation of families, and with a 

temptation to a lax enforcement of inspection, in order to prevent 
such separation. Intending immigrants can tell before starting 
whether they are eligible or not, and can decide whether to separate 
or not. 

1 

(b.) Proposed Bill. 

The Immigration Restriction League is not committed to any one 
method of restriction. It recognizes the need of many administrative re- 
forms, and of a proper treaty with Canada concerning European and Asiatic 
immigration through that country; it is also not opposed to a small increase 
of the head-tax for the purpose of improving the efficiency of the inspection 
service. Nevertheless it believes that the most important reform at present 
is legislation which will really exclude the most undesirable elements of the 
present immigration. 

The League has therefore prepared a bill embodying the educational 
test as follows : 



WORST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



21 



A BILL TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION LAWS OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : 

That section one of the Act of March third, eighteen hundred and ninety- 
one, in amendment of the immigration and contract labor Acts, be and hereby 
is amended by adding to the classes of aliens thereby excluded from admis- 
sion to the United States the following : 

All persons over fifteen years of age and physically capable of reading, 
who cannot read the English language or some other language ; but an ad- 
missible immigrant or a person now in or hereafter admitted to this country 
may bring in or send for Jhis wife, his children under eighteen years of age, 
and his parents or grandparents over fifty years of age, if they are otherwise 
admissible, whether they are so able to read or not. 

Sect. 2. That for the purpose of testing the ability of the immigrant 
as required by the foregoing section, the inspection officers shall be 
d with copies of the Constitution of the United States, printed on 
pasteboard slips, each containing not less than twenty nor more 
than twenty-five words,.of said Constitution printed in the various languages 
of the immigrants in double small pica type. Each immigrant may desig- 
nate the language in which he prefers the test shall be made, and shall be 
required to read the words printed on a slip in such language. No two 
immigrants listed on the same manifest shall be tested with the same slip. 
An immigrant failing to read as above provided shall not be admitted, but 
shall be returned to the country from which he came at the expense of the 
steamship or railroad company which brought him. 

Sect. 3. That the provisions of the Act of March third, eighteen hun- 
dred and ninety-three, to facilitate the enforcement of the immigration and 
contract labor laws shall apply to the persons mentioned in Section one of 
this Act. 

(c.) Endorsements. 

The principle of the educational test has been endorsed in past years by 
about 90 per cent, of the press of the United States which has pronounced 
editorially upon the question of restriction, and was asked for by petitions of 
thousands of citizens sent to the 54th and 55th Congresses. 

The following bodies and individuals are among those that have at 
various times endorsed the test : 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



State Legislatures. 

Arkansas House of Representatives by a vote of So to 2, January, 1897. 
The Legislature of the State of California. 
The Legislature of the State of Washington. 
The Legislature of the State of Wyoming. 

Associations for Promoting Immigration. 

John M. Haines, Esq., Secretary Idaho Immigration Association. 
Sewell Davis, Esq., Secretary Montana Mining and Immigration Committee, 
Butte, Mont. 

S. W. Narregang, Esq., Secretary South Dakota Immigration Association. 
D. R. McGinnis, Esq., Secretary North Western Immigration Association. 
Sixth Congressional District Immigration Association, Aikin, Minn., March 

17, 18, 1896. 
South Dakota Immigration Association. 

Washington State Immigration Society, Seattle, Jan. 14, 1896. 

Labor Organizations. 

National and International. 

American Federation of Labor, by a vote of 1,858 to 352, Nashville, Dec. 17, 
1897. 

General Assembly, Knights of Labor, Rochester, N.Y., Nov. 14, 1896; 

November, 1897; November, 1901. 
Boiler Makers and Iron Ship Builders of America, December, 1897. 
Carpenters and Joiners National Brotherhood, Cleveland, Sept. 29, 1896. 
Core Makers' International Union, Newark, N.J., Aug. 25, 1897. 
Henry Weil, Esq., Secretary American Diamond Verstellers Union, New 

York. 

Electrical Workers of America, November, 1897. 

Henry White, Esq., General Secretary United Garment Workers of 
America. 

Glass Blowers' Association of America. 
Glass Blowers' Association of United States and Canada. 
Glass Bottle Blowers of United States and Canada. 
Granite Cutters' National Union. 

Horseshoers' International Union, Buffalo, May 30, 1896. 
United Wood Carvers' Association, New York, December, 1896. 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



23 



Local. 

D.C. — Central Labor Union, Washington, 1896 and Dec. 6, 1897. 

" Local Assembly, No. 3672, Knights of Labor, Washington, 
Oct. 11, 1897. 

" Knights of Labor District Assembly, No. 66, Washington. 

III. — Journeymen Tailors' Union, Bloomington. 
" Bridge and Structural Iron Workers' Union, No. 1, Chicago. 
" Carpenters' Union, No. 10, Chicago. 
" Hoisting Engineers' Association, Chicago, March, 1897. 
" Woman's Fed. Labor Union, No. 2703, Chicago, Dec. 3, 1897. 
u Zinc Workers' Protective Association, No. 6500, Collinsville, Sept. 1 1 , 

1897. 

Mass. — Central Labor Union, Brockton. 

14 Lodge No. 21, Amalgamated Association of Iron, Tin, and Steel 

Workers, Cambridge. 
" Workingmen's Protective League, Lowell, Nov. 26, 1897. 

Mich. — Chandelier Workers' Union, No. 6913, Detroit, Sept. 3, 1897. 
" Council of Trades and Labor Unions, Detroit, Feb. 11, 1897. 

Cigarmakers' Local Union, No. 22, Detroit, 1897 ; Dec. 7, 1901. 
" Edison Union, Port Huron. 
" Trades and Labor Council, Port Huron. 
" Longshoremen's Union, Port Huron. 
u Journeymen Barbers' Union, Port Huron. 
u Typographical Union, Port Huron. 

" Cigarmakers' Union, No. 368, Port Huron, November, 1901. 

Minn. — Central Saw Mill Workers' Protective Union, No. 6724, Duluth, 
Sept. 4, 1897. 

N.J. — Screw Makers' Union, No. 6585, Elizabeth, Sept. 27, 1897. 
" Hatters' Union, Newark* December, 1896. 

Typographical Union, Newark, December, 1896. 
" Morocco Dressers' Union, Newark, December, 1S96. 
" Silk Workers' Union, Newark* December, 1896. 
u Central Labor Union, Newark, December, 1896. 

N. T. — Branch No. 1, American Workmen's Protective League, Brooklyn. 
kt Central Labor Union, New Tork City, Jan. 31, 1897. 
,4 Protective Labor Union, New Tork City. 



-4 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



NT — Blacksmiths' Helpers' Union, No. 6931, New Tork City, Sept. 3, 

1897. 

Brass Moulders' Union, New Tork City, December, 1896. 

Stair Builders' Union, New York City, December, 1896. 
s4 Stone Cutters' Union, New York City, December, 1896. 
44 Typographical Union, New Tork City, December, 1896. 
4k United Wood Carvers, New Tork City, December, 1896. 
44 United Garment Workers, Local No. 136, Rochester, Dec. 20, 1S97, 
and Nov. 18, 1901. 

O. — Trades and Labor Assembly of Ohio. 

u Cooperative Trades and Labor Council, Hamilton, Sept. 8, 1897. 
44 Trades and Labor Assembly, Massilon. 
Pa. — Kane Labor League, Kane. 
44 Knights of Labor Social Assembly, No. 1562. 
44 Glass Bottle Blowers, Philadelphia. 

~'^ar Makers' Union, No. 295, Scranton. 

Other Bodies and Individuals. 
National. 

National Board of Trade, Philadelphia. 

American Agents' Association, Louisville, Ky,, Aug. 30, 1897. 
American Agents' Association, Nov. 18, 1901. 
Commercial Travellers of United States. 
Farmers' Congress, Indianapolis, Ind., 1896. 

Local. 

Cal. — A. Eckstrom, Registrar of Associated Charities of San Joaquin 

County, Stockton, Nov. 26, 1901. 
Cot. — Mrs. S. Izetta George, Secretary Charity Organization Society, Den- 
ver, Oct. 28, 1 901. 
Conn. — Associated Charities, Bridgeport, Nov. 11, 1901. 

44 A. S. Finch, Esq., Agent Associated Charities, New Britain, 
Oct. 31, 1901. 

Pla. — L. B. Wombwell, Esq., Commissioner of Agriculture. 
///. — Board of Trade, Chicago, Dec. 15, 1896. 

44 Miss Mary P. Roberts, Superintendent Associated Charities, Jackson- 
ville, Nov. 2, 1 90 1. 
Ind. — C. S. Grout, Esq., General Secretary Charity Organization Society, 
Indianapolis, Oct. 26, 1901. 



Digest of immigration statistics. 



*5 



La. — Michel Heymann, Esq., Superintendent Jewish Orphans' Home, 
New Orleans, Oct. 28, 1901. 
44 Miss Sophie B. Wright, State Secretary, International Order of 
King's Daughters and Sons, New Orleans, Nov. 25, 1901. 
Mass. — State Board of Trade, Jan. 19, 1897. 

44 Associated Charities, Lynn, Nov. 25, 1901. 
u Associated Charities, Salem, Nov. 1, 1901. 
44 Boston Chamber of Commerce, Boston, Jan. 22, 1896. 
14 The Bostonian Club, Boston. 
44 Bostoniana Club of Boston. 
44 Park Street Club, Boston. 
Minn. — Common Council and Mayor of Duluth, March 16, 1896, by a 
unanimous vote. 

44 O. C. Gregg, Esq., Superintendent State Farmers' Institute, Dec. 
10, 1897, Lynde. 

Mo. — J. M. Hanson, Esq., General Secretary Associated Charities, Kan- 
sas City, Oct. 28, 1 90 1. 
Mont. — S. M.Emery, Esq., Director Montana Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

14 Jas. H. Mills, Esq., and J. A. Ferguson, Esq., Commissioners 
Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry, Helena. 
Ned. — The Nebraska Club. 

N.J. — A. W. McDougall, Esq., General Secretary Associated Charities, 
Orange, Oct. 30, 1901. 
" Miss Sarah M. Van Boskerck, Agent Organized Aid Association, 
Plainjield, Oct. 29, 1901. 
N.T. — Daniel O'Leary, Esq., Chief Factory Inspector, State of New York. 
" Dr. J. H. Senner, when United States Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion Port of New York. 
44 Catholic Temperance Society, B uffalo, January, 1898. 
" Hon. John G. Milburn, President of Pan-American Exposition. 

Buffalo, Dec, 1901. 
14 Frederic Almy, Esq., Secretary Charity Organization Society, 

Buffalo, Oct. 24, 1 901. 
44 Charity Organization Society, Castleton, Nov. 14, 1901. 
44 Hon. Chas. Stewart Smith, Ex-President New York Chamber of 

Commerce, New York City. 
44 Mr. Justice Robert C. Cornell, New Tork City. 
k ' Edward T. Devine, Esq., General Secretary of Charity Organization 
Society and Editor of "Charities," New Tork City, Oct. 22, 
1 901. 



26 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



N. T. — Homer Folks, Esq., Secretary State Charities Aid Association, 

New York City, Oct. 23, 1901. 
Ohio. — C. M. Hubbard, Esq., General Secretary Associated Charities, 
Cincinnati, Oct. 26, 1901. 
" Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, Dec. 15, 1896. 
" J. H. Brigham, Esq., President of Trustees of Ohio State Pene- 
tentiary, Delta. 

Ore, — W. R. Walpole, Esq., Secretary Associated Charities, Portland, 
Nov., 1 901. 

Pa. — Association for the Improvement of the Poor, Pittsburg, Nov. 11, 
1 901. 

S.D. — Hon. Thomas Thorson, Secretary of State, Pierre. 

Texas. — W. T. Levy, Esq., U.S. Inspector of Immigration, Galveston. 

Wash. — Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle. 

Wis. — Associated Charities, Milwaukee, Nov. 8, 1901. 

(J.) Restriction Generally. 

A very large number of important names of those favoring measures 
for restricting immigration, though not in terms advocating the educational 
test, may be added to the above. A few of these are : 

Atlantic Coast Seamen's Union, April, 1895. 

National Association of Hatmakers of the United States, New York, 
Jan. 25, 1895. 

Eighty-five local unions of the Journeymen Tailors' Union of America, 

1897. 

E. E. Clark, Esq., Grand Chief of Order of Railway Conductors. 
Secretary Pearce of the United Mine Workers. 

International Convention of Factory Inspectors, Detroit, Sept. 2, 1897. 
Farmers' National Congress, St. Paul, Minn., September, 1897. 
National Prison Reform Association, Austin, Texas, December, 1897. 
Commander Booth-Tucker of the Salvation Army. 
Cal. — Building Trades Council of San Francisco, Nov. 20, 1897. 
Col. — Colorado State Grange, Jan. 12, 1898. 

Conn. — Connecticut Branch American Federation of Labor, Hartford, 
Oct. 14, 1896. 

" Mrs. Mary A. T. Clark, Superintendent Associated Charities, 
Wilmington, Nov. 2, 1901. 
III. — State Branch American Federation of Labor, Bloomington, 
September, 1897. 



DIGEST OF IMMIGRATION STATISTICS. 



2 7 



III. — Ernest P. Bicknell, Esq., General Superintendent Bureau of 

Charities, Chicago, Nov. 4, 1901. 
Ky. — Miss E. A. Gallagher, Secretary Charity Organization Society, 

Louisville, Nov. 16, 1901. 
Mass. — Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1895. 

" International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, Local No. 16, 
Boston. 

" Bricklayers' International Union, Worcester, Jan. 21, 1897. 
44 Clothing Cutters' and Trimmers' Unions, Boston, April 8, 

1895. 

" Brockton Branch of Lasters' Protective Union, Brockton 
(1,100 members). 

" Hon. Roger Wolcott, late Governor of Massachusetts. 

44 Mrs. Lucia T. Ames, Factory Inspector, State of Massachu- 
setts. 

Mont. — Hon. Robert B. Smith, Governor of Montana. 
Nev. — Legislature of the State of Nevada, March, 1897. 
N. Y. — Joint State Convention of Labor Organizations, State of New 
York, January, 1898. 
44 Prof. George Gunton, New York City, Oct. 23, 1901. 
44 Walter Laidlaw, Esq., Secretary of Federation of Churches, 
New York City, Oct. 21, 1901. 
Ohio. — American Federation of Labor, Ohio State Branch, Decem- 
ber, 1897. 

" Trades Assembly, Columbus, November, 1897. 

44 Hon. William Ruhrwein, Labor Commissioner of State of 
Ohio. 

Pa. — Local Assembly 4907, Pittsburg, June, 1897. 
44 George Hoffman, Esq., Examiner of Department of Charities, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Wis. — Mrs. Ivah B. Wiltrout, Secretary Associated Charities, Eau 
Claire, Nov. 11, 1901. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric= 
tion League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary and Treas= 
urer, Fiske Building, Boston. The dues for membership are as 
follows : For annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance 
upon admission and upon January 1st of each year; for life mem= 
bership, ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being 
exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



3M — 12 01. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 31. 

SOME REASONS 



FOR THE 



ADOPTION OF THE EDUCATIONAL TEST 



AS A MEANS OF 



FURTHER RESTRICTING AND REGULATING 
IMMIGRATION. 



The reasons for adopting this test are PRACTICAL and NOT ACA- 
DEMIC. Its adoption is urged because the majority of those who believe 
in limiting immigration, and who have studied the immigration problem 
carefully, have come to the conclusion that this is THE BEST MEANS 
READY AT HAND to accomplish their purpose. Those who believe in 
the educational test do not claim in advocacy of it that the man who 
cannot read will NECESSARILY make a less desirable citizen than the 
man who can read. 

The reasons for adopting this Test are as follows: 

1 . Because it has been found as an actual fact that the classes whom 
we wish to exclude (i.e., those who are ignorant of any occupation, who 
are on the whole incapable of appreciating our institutions and standards 
of living, and who are very difficult of assimilation) contain a very large 
proportion of illiterates, and that by adopting the Educational Test this 
class of immigration can be very greatly reduced. 

2. Because it is exact and definite in operation; and easily and 
simply applied. 

3. Because a preliminary test would be applied by the Steamship 
Companies at the places where the tickets are bought, and in this way 
the hardship of turning back immigrants at our own ports would largely 
be avoided. 



4. Because it does not imply any great change in existing 
machinery, nor any increase in consular service and expense. 

5. Because the ability to read and write is a necessary part of the 
equipment of the ordinary American citizen, and therefore, other things 
being equal, it is distinctly to our advantage, so far as possible, to 
receive only immigrants who can read. 

6. Because it will promote education among those who desire to 
immigrate, and will to that extent improve the social condition of 
Europe. 

7. Because the Educational Test has been endorsed as a practical 
solution of the question by all the leading students of the immigration 
problem ; by ninety per cent, of the press of the United States ; by 
State Legislatures ; by State Associations for promoting Immigration; 
by Labor Bodies, Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade, Charitable 
Societies, and prominent people in all parts of the country. 

Proposed Bill. 

Section One of the Bill proposed by the Immigration Restriction 
League adds to the excluded classes the following: 

All persons over fifteen years of age, and physically capable of 
reading, who cannot read the English language or some other language ; 
but an admissible immigrant, or a person now in or hereafter admitted 
to this country, may bring in or send for his wife, his children under 
eighteen years of age, and his parents or grandparents over fifty years 
of age, if they are otherwise admissible, whether they are so able to 
read or not. 



For publications of and membership in the Immigration Re= 
striction League, address PRBSCOTT F. HALL, Secretary and 
Treasurer, Fiske Building, Boston. The dues for membership are 
as follows : For annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance 
upon admission and upon January 1st of each year; for life mem= 
bership, ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being 
exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and nonrsectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

iM — 272 — E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEA6QE No. 32. 



EFFECT 



OF THE 



EDUCATIONAL TEST B 




UPON 



GERMANS. 



Bills have been introduced into Congress for the restriction of 
immigration by means of an educational test. 

There seem to be prevalent certain misunderstandings as to the 
nature and effect of these bills. 



A Misleading Circular. 

The following circular, issued by an organization in New York called the 
Immigration Protective League, has been recently published in German in 
various German newspapers. It does not appear to have been sent to other 
newspapers : 



CALL TO ARMS. 

An energetic Circular from the "Im- 
migration Protective League." 



The " Immigration Protective 
League " has issued the following stir- 
ring " call to arms " : 

" Again the nativistic serpent raises 
its poisonous head and seeks to press 
through the United States Congress 
some bill to forbid immigration wholly, 
or to limit it to such an extent 
that the coming of your brothers and 



AUFRUF ZUR ABWEHR. 

Ein energise hes Manifest von der „ Im- 
migration Protective League " er~ 
las sen. 



Die „ Immigration Protective 
League " hat „ Zur Abwehr " folgen- 
den geharnischten Aufruf erlassen : 

„ Wieder erhebt die nativistische 
Schlange ihr giftgeschwollenes Haupt 
und versucht im Ver. Staaten Kon- 
gress eine oder die andere Bill durch- 
zudriicken, welche die Einwanderung 
ganz verbieten oder so einschranken 
soli, dass der Zuzug Euerer Briider 



10 



sisters from the old fatherland must 
partly or wholly cease. Do you know 
what this means? Observe the treat- 
ment of the Chinese and negroes in 
this country and you know what lies 
before you. 

" Hundreds of miles of virgin soil 
which has no equal for fertility, inex- 
haustible mines, endless primeval for- 
ests wait for the settling pioneer ; and 
yet Senator Lodge ventures, in spite 
of his earlier defeat, to bring forward 
again the educational test; Graham 
wants to fleece every one out of $20 
even before he leaves the fatherland ; 
Scott, Penrose, and Perkins want, if 
possible, to outdo Lodge, while Con- 
gressmen Kahn, Sherman and Shattuc 
second them. President Roosevelt 
himself is no friend of hyphenated 
Americans. Friends, awake ! Keep a 
sharp eye on your representatives and 
be on the watch before it is too late 
and the ghosts of the old Puritans 
again stalk about. Every moment of 
delay may be fatal. This is no alarm- 
ist outcry and false alarm, but a warn- 
ing entitled to attention." 



und Sch western vom alten Vaterlande 
theilweise oder ganzlich auf horen muss. 
Wisst Ihr, was dies bedeutet ? Seht 
Euch das Los der Chinesen und 
Schwarzen im Lande an, und Ihr 
wisst, was Euch bevorsteht. 

„ Hunderte von Meilen jungfrau- 
lichen Bodens, der an Fruchtbarkeit 
nicht seinesgleichen hat, unerschop- 
fliche Bergwerke, endlose Urwalder 
harren des einwandernden Pioniers ; 
und dar wagt es ein Senator Lodge, 
trotz seiner friiheren Niederlage, 
wieder den Bildungstest vorzu- 
schlagen ; Graham will gar jeden schon 
im alten Vaterlande um $20 schrop- 
fen ; Scott, Penrose, und Perkins 
wollen durch ihre Bills Lodge, wenn 
moglich, iibertrumpfen, wahrend die 
Kongreszleute Kahn (?!), Sherman 
und Shattuc sie sekundiren. Und 
President Roosevelt, er ist kein Freund 
der Amerikaner mit dem Bindestrich 
Freunde, wacht auf ! Seht Euren Ab- 
geordneten auf die Finger und passet 
auf, ehe es zu spat wird und die alten 
Puritaner wieder , umgehen.' Jeder 
versaumte Augenblick kann verhang- 
nisvoll werden. Dies ist kein Alarm- 
ruf und Schreckschuss, sondern eine 
wohlberechtigte Mahnung." — New 
York Staatszeitung, Jan. 4, 1902. 



The statements contained in this circular are either based on a complete 
misunderstanding of the educational test bill or are clearly intended to deceive. 
(1.) " The nativistic serpent." 

Bills providing for an educational test have received the indorsement of all 
the great labor organizations, of nearly all the representatives of labor who 
appeared to testify before the Industrial Commission, of Associated Charities 
throughout the country, of Associations for Promoting Immigration into the 
Western States, and of an almost united newspaper press. 

There has been absolutely no racial, class, creed or party distinction in the 
persons, bodies and papers favoring restriction by this means. 

(2) 



Germans only Slightly Affected. 

(2.) " To forbid immigration wholly or to limit it to such an extent that 
the coming of your brothers and sisters from the old fatherland must partly or 
wholly cease." 

How misleading this statement is can be readily seen from the following 
government statistics : 

In 1901 out of a total immigration of 487,918 there were only 34,742 
Germans; of these 34,742 only 4.1 per cent, were illiterate. 

In 1896 only 1.8 per cent, of Germans were illiterate. 

Thus under the most rigid educational test bill only 1,389 Germans would 
have been debarred. 

(3.) Notice, however, that under the bills now in Congress a large num- 
ber of these 1,389 would be allowed to enter, for the bill prepared by the Immi- 
gration Restriction League provides that 

An admissible immigrant or a person now in or hereafter admitted 
to this country may bring in or send for his wife, his children under eighteen 
years of age, and his parents or grandparents over fifty years of age if 
they are otherwise admissible, whether they are so able to read or not. 

(4.) The bill, then, will not divide families. 

(5.) The bill applies the educational test only to persons over fifteen 
years of age and with the above exceptions. 

Actual Proof of Misunderstanding. 

(6.) The bill does not require reading in English. The immigrant may 
read in German or any language which he chooses to designate. 

The " Courier," of Evansville, Indiana, on January 19, 1897, in speaking 
of the protests against the Lodge Bill from the various branches of the German 
Catholic Central Society of the United States, said : 

" Nearly seven hundred German Catholics of Evansville remon- 
strated against the passage of the Immigration Bill. But they did so 
under a misapprehension. One of the men most prominent in the 
remonstrance said, Tuesday, that had he known the educational quali- 
fication did not require the ability to read and write English he would 
not have signed the remonstrance. Neither would a single society in 
Evansville have taken the action they all did." 

Western Settlers Not Excluded. 

(7.) "Hundreds of miles of virgin soil which has no equal for fertility, 
inexhaustible mines, endless primeval forests, wait for the settling pioneer." 
This statement is misleading. 

The sturdy and valuable citizens who have settled and built up the Western 
States and who are developing the agricultural regions of the Northwest came 

(3) 



largely from the races of Northern Europe and Great Britain and Ireland. This 
bill would hardly affect them. Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe 
do not go West. 

Thus immigrants from Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, 
France, Great Britain, Ireland, and Finland had in 1901 an average illiteracy of 
only 5.6 per cent. In other words, nearly 95 per cent, of immigration from 
these countries would come in under an absolutely rigid educational test bill. Of 
a total immigration in 1901 from these countries of 164,792, less than 8,000 
would have been excluded under such a bill. Note, however, the important 
exceptions in the proposed bill of the League. 

Only the Undesirable Excluded. 

The immigrants from Asiatic Turkey, Russia, Austria-Hungary, South Italy, 
Portugal, Greece, etc., on the other hand, had in 1901 an average illiteracy of 
over 46 per cent. In 1869 these countries furnished almost no immigration, and 
in 1880 less than one-tenth of the total. To-day they furnish more than one-half. 

These do not go West and are not wanted There. 

Of the Russians, Poles, and Italians, three-fifths live in the large cities of 
the East, while the census of 1890 shows that of the Poles, Hungarians, and 
Russians, there are in the southern States or western division altogether less 
than thirty thousand in a population of twenty-three million. 

The reports of the Department of Labor show that the immigration from 
southeastern Europe, which has increased so much in recent years, does not go 
West, but contributes largely to the slums of the large cities on the Atlantic sea- 
board, and contributes the largest proportion to the criminal and dependent 
classes therein. 

In other words, a claim such as is made "by the steamship company cited 
later, that the educational test bill "will deprive the West of agricultural immi- 
gration . . . whether illiterate or not," is false. It is obviously urged to 
excite opposition to the immigration bill in those sections which do not feel the 
burden upon the penal and charitable institutions of the East, caused by the 
recent inferior immigration out of which the foreign steamship companies make 
their profit at the cost of imposing a tremendous burden upon the American 
people. 

The State Immigration Associations of Minnesota, South Dakota, Montana, 
Idaho, Washington, and other States, organizations formed for the purpose of 
promoting immigration into those States, have all been in favor of the illiteracy 
test for immigrants. In 1895 the governors of these States were asked by a 
special commission of the Treasury Department what immigrants they desired. 
There was only one call for immigrants from southern or eastern Europe, viz., 
for Italian farmers with money, intending permanent settlement. 

(4) 



Attack on President Roosevelt. 



(8.) " President Roosevelt himself is no friend of hyphenated Americans." 
Does any one believe this statement to be true ? 

The following is what the President said in his annual message to Congress 
in 1901 : 

" Our present immigration laws are unsatisfactory. We need every 
honest and efficient immigrant fitted to become an American citizen, 
every immigrant who comes here to stay, who brings here a strong body, 
a stout heart, a good head, and a resolute purpose to do his duty well in 
every way and to bring up his children as law-abiding and God-fearing 
members of the community. But there should be a comprehensive law 
enacted with the object of working a threefold improvement over our 
present system. First, we should aim to exclude absolutely not only 
all persons who are known to be believers in anarchistic principles or 
members of anarchistic societies, but also all persons who are- of a low 
moral tendency or of unsavory reputation. This means that we should 
require a more thorough system of inspection abroad and a more rigid 
system of examination at our immigration ports, the former being espe- 
cially necessary. 

" The second object of a proper immigration law ought to be to 
secure by a careful a?id not merely perfunctory educational test some 
intelligent capacity to appreciate American institutions and act sanely as 
American citizens. This would not keep out all anarchists, for many of 
them belong to the intelligent criminal class. But it would do what is 
also in point ; that is, tend to decrease the sum of ignorance, so potent 
in producing the envy, suspicion, malignant passion, and hatred of order, 
out of which anarchistic sentiment inevitably springs. Finally, all per- 
sons should be excluded who are below a certain standard of economic 
fitness to enter our industrial field as competitors with American labor. 
There should be proper proof of personal capacity to earn an American 
living and enough money to insure a decent start under American con- 
ditions. This would stop the influx of cheap labor and the resulting 
competition which gives rise to so much of bitterness in American in- 
dustrial life, and it would dry up the springs of the pestilential social 
conditions in our great cities, where anarchistic organizations have their 
greatest possibility of growth. 

"Both the educational and economic tests in a wise immigration law 
should be designed to protect and elevate the general body politic and 
social. A very close supervision should be exercised over the steamship 
companies which mainly bring over the immigrants, and they should be 
held to a strict accountability for any infraction of the law." 



When he said this, was not the President stating what he believed would 
be for the welfare of all the citizens of this United States, whether German- 
Americans, Irish-Americans, Russo-Americans, Italian-Americans? What is 
for the welfare of the country is for the welfare of every citizen, of whatever 
birth or descent he may be. 

(5) 



German Opposition Often Incited by Steamship 

Agents. 

The "Chicago Tribune " of Jan. 21, 1897, printed an interview with Sen- 
ator Fairbanks, in which he said : 

" I received and am still receiving protests from various societies 
in Indiana. One of them was from a German organization in Jefferson- 
ville. I took the trouble to investigate this and found it had been 
directly instigated by a steamship agent, and that the members of the 
German Aid Society, who ostensibly protested, were led to believe that 
it was a general restriction of immigration and not merely an attempt 
to keep out illiterates, which these very men who protested heartily 
approved of." 



In the Congressional Record, May 19, 1896, p. 5939, appears a speech of 
Hon. William A. Store, Representative in Congress from Pennsylvania (who was 
at that time advocating a bill for the restriction of immigration), in which he 
said : 

" I have tried very hard to ascertain whether there was any real 
opposition to this measure among the Germans, inasmuch as it has been 
charged that there was. I have a large number of German-Americans 
in my district. There are some newspapers there published in German 
that have opposed this bill, one in particular, the proprietor of which — 
the man who furnishes the money to operate it — is and has been for 
many years a steamship agent, selling tickets to persons who wish to go 
to Europe and to the friends of those who wish to come here from 
Europe. I received a telegram from him dated May 7, to which I 
replied. His telegram and my reply were published not only in his 
paper but in nearly all the principal papers of Pennsylvania. And from 
the time of that publication not one person has ever written to me or 
telegraphed me or in any manner to my knowledge raised any objection 
to the restriction of immigration — certainly not one German." 



Mr. Stone's letter to the " Volksblatt " contained the following : 

" I can well understand how one of the proprietors of the. ' Volks- 
blatt,' as agent for several steamship companies engaged in the business 
of bringing immigrants into this country, is opposed to restricting immi- 
gration, and I can see how, through the columns of the ' Volksblatt' 
and other papers similarly interested, many honest Germans are led to 
oppose the restriction of immigration, but I do not believe that the 
majority of the intelligent German-Americans of this country desire to 
see the shipping of such large numbers of undesirable immigrants into 
this country continue. The Germans are a frugal, saving, hard-working 
class, and make good American citizens. The immigrant pauper laborer 
from southern Europe enters into direct competition with the German 
laborer as well as others here, and gluts the labor market. This is what 
keeps the price of common labor down and puts it at the mercy of 
capital. 

(6) 



" I, with many others who have been working to restrict immigra- 
tion, am of German descent, and have a common right to speak for the 
German-Americans. Those engaged in the business of bringing cheap 
labor into this country shrewdly think that if they array the German- 
Americans against the movement to restrict immigration they will so 
frighten the two great parties in this country that they will not dare to 
pass a restrictive law." 

Foreign Steamship Agitation. 

The following is a copy of a telegram which was sent on Jan. 26, 1897, by 
H. C. Claussenius & Co., general western agents for the North German Lloyd 
Steamship Company in Chicago, to F. W. A. Poppe, Milbank, S. Dak. : 

Immigration bill comes up in the House Wednesday ; wire your 
Congressman, our expense, protesting against proposed exclusion and re- 
questing bill be defeated, informing him that vote in favor means defeat 
next election. (Signed) H. CLAUSSENIUS & CO. 

At that time the Lodge bill for the restriction of immigration by means of 
an educational test was pending in the 54th Congress. Mr. Claussenius stated 
in an interview in the "Chicago Times-Herald/' Jan. 28, 1897, that "we sent 
similar messages to more than two hundred men. They are agents of the North 
German Lloyd, who have been appointed to this office, but many of them doubt- 
less represent other lines as well. The immigration bill menaces our business 
and the business of these agents. It also threatens to end emigration to the 
western States. We believe we have a legitimate right to use our influence to 
defeat a measure which may cause such widespread injury, and we acted on the 
assumption that the men we wired felt the same." 

The following letter was sent by the same firm to the steamship agents : 

Chicago, Jan. 25, 1897. 

To Agent's : 

The immigration bill, which is intended to materially restrict immi- 
gration, comes up for final disposition in the House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C., on Wednesday, 27 th instant. 

It is quite clear that immigration will really be restricted almost 
to the extent of total exclusion of immigrants should the bill become a 
law, and every effort should therefore be made to insure the defeat of the 
bill. 

You are directly interested in the defeat of the bill as much as we 
are, and we would respectfully ask you to wire your Representative in 
Congress immediately upon receipt of this to vote against the bill, 
informing him that the measure virtually means exclusion, and that his 
vote in favor of same will mean repudiation by his constituents, and his 
defeat at the next election. 

Trusting that you will not fail to give the matter your prompt atten- 
tion, we are 

Yours respectfully, 
H. CLAUSSENIUS & CO. 

(7) 



With this letter was sent the following slip : 

u Wire your Representative fully, and let us know cost of telegram, and we 
will promptly refund amount to you." 

Mr. Claussenius subsequently said in a formal statement : " Our principal 
objection to the bill is that it would deprive the West of agricultural immigrants 
which the country is sadly in need of, whether they are illiterate or not." 

Mr. Lodge said, without contradiction, in the Senate on Feb. 2, 1897, in 
speaking of these letters and telegrams : 

" To every newspaper in which they have an advertisement they sent 
another telegram, and the hand of that company has been felt in this business 
ever since it looked as if the bill would get upon the statute book. You can 
see it to-day in the newspapers." 

Steamship Agents' Statements Misleading. 

The above statements by the steamship companies were based on the same 
misunderstandings of the bill or were given with the same intent to mislead the 
public and especially the Germans as in the case of the German circular printed 
at the beginning of this pamphlet. 

The statement that " immigration will really be restricted almost to the ex- 
tent of total exclusion of immigrants should the bill become a law" was and is 
false. See paragraphs (2) and (3) of this pamphlet. 

The statement that " it threatens to end emigration to the Western States'" 
was and is false. See paragraph (7). 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric- 
tion League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary and Treasurer, 
Fiske Building, Boston. The dues for membership are as follows: 
For annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon 
admission and upon January 1st of each year ; for life member- 
ship, ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being 
exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly no?i-partisan and non-sectarian organiza- 
tion, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates 
a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immi- 
grants whose character and standards ft them to become citizens. 

1 M - 33-E. 



(8) 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 33. 



v 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION 



BY 

FRANCIS A. WALKER, Ph.D., LL.D. 



Reprinted from the author 's " Discussions in Economics and Statistics" 



(Copyright, 1899, by Henry Holt & Co.) 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 

Whex we speak of the restriction of immigration, at the 
present time, we have not in mind measures undertaken for 
the purpose of straining out, from the vast throngs of foreign- 
ers arriving at our ports, a few hundreds, or possibly thou- 
sands of persons, deaf, dumb, blind, idiotic, insane, pauper, 
or criminal who might otherwise become a hopeless burden 
upon the country, perhaps even an active source of mischief. 
The propriety, and even the necessity, of adopting such 
measures is now conceded by men of all shades of opinion con- 
cerning the larger subject. There is even noticeable a rather 
severe public feeling regarding the admission of persons of 
any of the classes named above ; perhaps one might say, a 
certain resentment at the attempt of such persons to impose 
themselves upon us. We already have laws which cover a 
considerable part of this ground ; and so far as further legis- 
lation is needed, it will only be necessary for the proper 
executive department of the government to call the attention 
of Congress' to the subject. There is a serious effort on the 
part of our immigration officers to enforce the regulations 
prescribed, though when it is said that more than five thou- 
sand persons have passed through the gates at Ellis Island, 
in Xew York harbor, during the course of a single day, it 
will be seen that no very careful scrutiny is practicable. 

It is true that in the past there has been gross and scanda- 
lous neglect of this matter on the part both of government 
and people, here in the United States. For nearly two genera- 
tions, great numbers of persons utterly unable to earn their 
living, by reason of one or another form of physical or mental 
disability, and others who were, from widely different causes, 
unfit to be members of any decent community, were admitted 
to our ports without challenge or question. It is a matter 

437 



438 SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 

of official record that in many cases these persons had been 
directly shipped to us by states or municipalities desiring to 
rid themselves of a burden and a nuisance ; while it could 
reasonably be believed that the proportion of such instances 
was far greater than could be officially ascertained. But all 
this is of the past. The question of the restriction of immi- 
gration to-day does not deal with that phase of the subject. 
What is proposed is, not to keep out some hundreds, or pos- 
sibly thousands, of persons, against whom lie specific objec- 
tions like those above indicated, but to exclude perhaps hun- 
dreds of thousands, the great majority of whom would be 
subject to no individual objections ; who, on the contrary, 
might fairly be expected to earn their living here in this 
new country, at least up to the standard known to them at 
home, and probably much more. The question to-day is, not 
of preventing the wards of our almshouses, our insane asy- 
lums, and our jails from being stuffed to repletion by new 
arrivals from Europe ; ! but of protecting the American rate 
of wages, the American standard of living, and the quality 
of American citizenship from degradation through the tu- 
multuous access of vast throngs of ignorant and brutalized 
peasantry from the countries of eastern and southern Europe. 

The first thing to be said respecting any serious proposi- 
tion importantly to restrict immigration into the United 
States is, that such a proposition necessarily and properly en- 
counters a high degree of incredulity, arising from the tradi- 
tions of our country. From the beginning, it has been the 
policy of the United States, both officially and according to 
the prevailing sentiment of our people, to tolerate, to wel- 
come, and to encourage immigration, without qualification, 
and without discrimination. For generations it was the set- 
tled opinion of our people, which found no challenge any- 
where, that immigration was a source of both strength and 
wealth. Not only was it thought unnecessary carefully to 
scrutinize foreign arrivals at our ports, but the figures of any 
exceptionally large immigration were greeted with noisy 
gratulation.* In those days the American people did not 
doubt that they derived a great advantage from this source, 
* See Note 1, page 450. 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



439 



It is, therefore, natural to ask, Is it possible that our fathers 
and our grandfathers were so far wrong in this matter ? Is 
it not, the rather, probable that the present anxiety and ap- 
prehension on the subject are due to transient causes or to 
distinctly false opinions, prejudicing the public mind ? The 
challenge which current proposals for the restriction of im- 
migration thus encounter is a perfectly legitimate one, and 
creates a presumption which their advocates are bound to 
deal with. Is it, however, necessarily true that if our fathers 
and grandfathers were right in their view of immigration in 
their own time, those who advocate the restriction of immi- 
gration to-day must be in the wrong ? Does it not some- 
times happen, in the course of national development, that 
great and permanent changes in condition require corre- 
sponding changes of opinion and of policy ? 

We shall best answer this question by -referring to an in- 
stance in an altogether different department of public interest 
and activity. For nearly a hundred years after the peace of 
1783 opened to settlement the lands beyond the Alleghanies, 
the cutting away of the primeval forest was regarded by our 
people not only with toleration, but with the highest ap- 
proval. No physical instrument could have been chosen 
which was so fairly entitled to be called the emblem of 
American civilization as the Axe of the Pioneer. As the 
forests of the Ohio valley bowed themselves before the un- 
staying enterprise of the adventurous settlers of that region, 
all good citizens rejoiced. There are few chapters of human 
history which recount a grander story of human achievement. 
Yet to-day all intelligent men admit that the cutting down 
of our forests, the destruction of the tree-covering of our soil, 
has already gone too far ; and both individual States and the 
nation have united in efforts to undo some of the mischief 
which has been wrought to our agriculture and to our climate 
from carrying too far the work of denudation. In precisely 
the same way, it may be true that our fathers were right in 
their view of immigration ; while yet the patriotic American 
of to-day may properly shrink in terror from the contempla- 
tion of the vast hordes of ignorant and brutalized peasantry 
thronging to our shores. 



440 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



Before inquiring as to general changes in our national con- 
dition which may justify a change of opinion and policy in 
this respect, let us deal briefly, as we must, with two opinions 
regarding the immigration of the past, which stand in the 
way of any fair consideration of the subject. These two 
opinions were, first, that immigration constituted a net re- 
enforcement of our population ; secondly, that, in additicn 
to this, or irrespective of this, immigration was necessary, in 
order to supply the laborers who should do certain kinds of 
work, imperatively demanded for the building up of our in- 
dustrial and social structure, which natives of the soil were 
unwilling to undertake. 

The former of these opinions was, so far as I am aware, 
held with absolute unanimity by our people ; yet no popular 
belief was ever more unfounded. Space would not serve for 
the full statistical demonstration of the proposition that im- 
migration, during the period from 1830 to 1860, instead of 
constituting a net re-enforcement to the population, simply 
resulted in a replacement of native by foreign element ; but 
I believe it would be practicable to prove this to the satis- 
faction of every fair-minded man. Let it suffice to state a 
few matters which are beyond controversy. 

The population of 1790 was almost wholly a native and 
wholly an acclimated population, and for forty years after- 
wards immigration remained at so low a rate as to be prac- 
tically of no account ; yet the people of the United States 
increased in numbers more rapidly than has ever elsewhere 
been known, in regard to any considerable population, over 
any considerable area, through any considerable period of 
time. Between 1790 and 1830 the nation grew from less 
than 4,000,000 to nearly 13,000,000,— an increase, in fact, 
of 227 per cent, a rate unparalleled in history. That increase 
was wholly out of the loins of our own people. Each decade 
had seen a growth of between 33 and 38 per cent, a doubling 
once in twenty-two or twenty-three years. During the thirty 
years which followed 1830, the conditions of life and repro- 
duction in the United States were not less, but more, favor- 
able than in the preceding period. Important changes re- 
lating to the practice of medicine, the food and clothing of 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



441 



people, the general habits of living, took place, which were 
of a nature to increase the vitality and reproductive capa- 
bility of the American people. Throughout this period, the 
standard of height, of weight, and of chest measurement was 
steadily rising, with the result that, of the men of all na- 
tionalities in the giant army formed to suppress the slave- 
holders' rebellion, the native American bore off the palm in 
respect to physical stature. The decline of this rate of in- 
crease among Americans began at the very time when foreign 
immigration first assumed considerable proportions ; it 
showed itself first and in the highest degree in those regions, 
in those States, and in the very counties into which the 
foreigners most largely entered. It proceeded for a long 
time in such a way as absolutely to offset the foreign arrivals, 
so that in 1850, in spite of the incoming of two and a half 
millions of foreigners during thirty years, our population 
differed by less than ten thousand from the population which 
would have existed, according to the previous rate of increase, 
without re-enforcement from abroad. These three facts, 
which%iight be shown by tables and diagrams, constitute a 
statistical demonstration such as is rarely attained in regard 
to the operation of any social or economic force. 

But it may be asked, Is the proposition that the arrival of 
foreigners brought a check to the native increase a reasonable 
one ? Is the cause thus suggested one which has elsewhere 
appeared as competent to produce such an effect ? I answer, 
Yes. All human history shows that the principle of popula- 
tion is intensely sensitive to social and economic changes. 
Let social and economic conditions remain as thev were, and 
population will go on increasing from year to year, and from 
decade to decade, with a regularity little short of the marvel- 
lous. Let social and economic conditions change, and popu- 
lation instantly responds. The arrival in the United States, 
between 1830 and 1840, and thereafter increasingly, of large 
numbers of degraded peasantry, created for the first time in 
this country distinct social classes, and produced an altera- 
tion of economic relations which could not fail powerfully to 
affect population. The appearance of vast numbers of men, 
foreign in birth and often in language, with a poorer standard 



442 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



of living, with habits repellent to our native people, of an 
industrial grade suited only to the lowest kind of manual 
labor, was exactly such a cause as by any student of popula- 
tion would be expected to affect profoundly the growth of 
: he native population. Americans shrank alike from the 
social contact and the economic competition thus created. 
They became increasingly unwilling to bring forth sons and 
daughters who should be obliged to compete in the market 
for labor and in the walks of life with those whom they did 
not recognize as of their own grade and condition. It has 
been said by some that during this time habits of luxury were 
entering, to reduce both the disposition and the ability to 
increase among our own population. In some small degree, 
in some restricted localities, this undoubtedly was the case ; 
but prior to 1860 there was no such general growth of luxury 
in the United States as is competent to account for the effect 
seen. Indeed, I believe this was almost wholly due to the 
cause which has been indicated, — a cause recognized by every 
student of statistics and economics. 

The second opinion regarding the immigration of the past, 
with which it seems well to deal before proceeding to the 
positive argument of the case, is that, whether desirable on 
other accounts or not, foreign immigration prior to 1860 was 
necessary in order to supply the country with a laboring class 
which should be able and willing to perform the lowest kind 
of work required in the upbuilding of our industrial and social 
structure, especially the making of railroads and canals. The 
opinion which has been cited constitutes, perhaps, the best 
example known to me of that putting the cart before the 
horse which is so commonly seen in sociological inquiry. 
When was it that native Americans first refused to do the 
lowest kinds of manual labor ? I answer, When the foreigner 
came. Did the foreigner come because the native American 
refused longer to perform any kind of manual labor ? No ; 
the American refused because the foreigner came. Through 
nil our early history, Americans, from Governor Winthrop, 
through Jonathan Edwards, to Ralph Waldo Emerson, had 
done every sort of work which was required for the comfort 
of their families and for the upbuilding of the state, and had 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



443 



not been ashamed. They called nothing common or un- 
clean, which needed to be done for their own good or for the 
good of all. But when the country was flooded witli ignorant 
and unskilled foreigners, who could do nothing but the low- 
est kind of labor, Americans instinctively shrank from the 
contact and the competition thus offered to them. So long 
as manual labor, in whatever field, was to be done by all, each 
in his place, there was no revolt at it ; but when working on 
railroads and canals became the sign of a want of education 
and of a low social condition, our own people gave it up, and 
left it to those who were able to do that, and nothing better. 

We have of late had a very curious demonstration of the 
entire fallacy of the popular mode of reasoning on this sub- 
ject, due to the arrival of a still lower laboring class. Within 
a few years, Harper's Weekly had an article in which the 
editor, after admitting that the Italians who have recently 
come in such vast numbers to our shores do not constitute 
a desirable element of the population, either socially or po- 
litically, yet claimed that it was a highly providential ar- 
rangement, since the Irish, who formerly did all the Work of 
the country in the way of ditching and trenching, were now 
standing aside. We have only to meet the argument thus in 
its second generation, so to speak, to see the complete fallacy 
of such reasoning. Does the Italian come because the Irish- 
man refuses to work in ditches and trenches, in gangs ; or 
has the Irishman taken this position because the Italian has 
come ? The latter is undoubtedly the truth ; and if the 
administrators of Baron ^Hirsch's estate send to us 2,000,000 
of Russian Jews, we shall soon find the Italians standing on 
their dignity, and deeming themselves too good to work on 
streets and sewers and railroads. But meanwhile, what of 
the Republic ? what of the American standard of living ? 
what of the American rate of wages ? 

All that sort of reasoning about the necessity of having a 
mean kind of man to do a mean .kind of work is greatly to be 
suspected. It is not possible to J^^a man who is too good 
to do any kind of work which tl^^BKreof his family and 
of the community requires to'^Se^^^^^So long as we were 
left to increase out of the' loins of o^^fcople, such a senti- 



444 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



ment as that we are now commenting upon made no 
appearance in American life. It is much to be doubted 
whether any material growth which is to be secured only 
by the degradation of our citizenship is a national gain, even 
from the most materialistic point of view. 

Let us now inquire what are the changes in our general 
conditions which seem to demand a revision of the opinion 
and policy heretofore held regarding immigration.* Three of 
these are subjective, affecting our capability of easily and 
safely taking care of a large and tumultuous access of foreign- 
ers ; the fourth is objective, and concerns the character of the 
immigration now directed upon our shores. Time will serve 
for only a rapid characterization. 

First, we have the important fact of the complete exhaus- 
tion of the free public lands of the United States. Fifty \ 
years ago, thirty years ago, vast tracts of arable land were 
open to even* person arriving on our shores, under the Pre- 
emption Act, or later, the Homestead Act. A good 
farm of one hundred and sixty acres could be had at 
the minimum price of $1.23 an acre, or for merely the 
fees of registration. Under these circumstances it was 
a very simple matter to dispose of a large immigration. 
To-day there is not a good farm within the limits of the 
United States which is to be had under either of these acts. 
The wild and tumultuous scenes which attended the opening 
to settlement of the Territory of Oklahoma, a few years ago, 
and, a little later, of the so-called Cherokee Strip, testify elo- 
quently to the vast change in our national conditions in this 
respect. This is not to say that more people cannot and will 
not, sooner or later, with more or less of care and pains and 
effort, be placed upon the land of the United States; but it does 
of itself alone show how vastly the difficulty of providing for 
immigration has increased. The immigrant must now buy 
his farm from a second hand, and he must pay the price 
which the value of the land for agricultural purposes deter- 
mines. In the case of ninety-five out of a hundred im- 
migrants, this necessity puts an immediate occupation of the 
soil out of the question. 

* See Note 2, page 450. 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



445 



A second change in our national condition, which impor- 
tantly affects our capability of taking care of large numbers of 
ignorant and unskilled foreigners, is the fall of agricultural 
prices which has gone on steadily since 1873. It is not of 
the slightest consequence to inquire into the causes of this 
fall, whether we refer it to the competition of Argentina and 
of India or to the appreciation of gold. We. are interested 
only in the fact. There has been a great reduction in the cost 
of producing crops in some favored regions where steam- 
ploughs and steam-reaping, steam-threshing, and steam-sack- 
ing machines, can be employed ; but there has been no re- 
duction in the cost of producing crops upon the ordinary 
American farm at all corresponding to the reduction in the 
price of the produce. It is a necessary consequence of this, 
that the ability to employ a large number of uneducated 
and unskilled hands in agriculture has greatly diminished. 

Still a third cause which may be indicated, perhaps more 
important than either of those thus far mentioned, is found 
in the fact that we have now a labor problem. We in the 
United States have been wont to pride ourselves greatly ■ 
upon our so easily maintaining peace and keeping the social 
order unimpaired. We have, partly from a reasonable pa- 
triotic pride, partly also from something like Phariseeism, 
been much given to pointing at our European cousins, and 
boasting superiority over them in this respect. Our self-grat- 
ulation has been largely due to overlooking social differ- 
ences between us and them. That boasted superiority has 
been owing mainly, not to our institutions, but to our more 
favorable conditions. There is no country of Europe which 
has not for a long time had a labor problem ; that is, which 
has not so largely exploited its own natural resources, and 
which has not a labor supply so nearly meeting the demands 
of the market at their fullest, that hard times and periods of 
industrial depression have brought a serious strain through 
extensive non-employment of labor. From this evil con- 
dition we have, until recently, happily been free. During the 
last few years, however, we have ourselves come under the 
shadow of this evil, in spite of our magnificent natural re- 
sources. We know what it is to have even intelligent and 



446 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



skilled labor unemployed through considerable periods of 
time. This change of conditions is likely to bring some 
abatement to our national pride. Xo longer is it a matter of 
course that every industrious and temperate man can find 
work in the United States. And it is to be remembered that, 
of all nations, we are the one which is least qualified to deal 
with a labor problem. We have not the machinery, we have 
not the army, we have not the police, we have not the tra- 
ditions and instincts, for dealing with such a matter, as the 
great railroad and other strikes of the last few years have 
shown. 

I have spoken of three changes in the national condition, 
all subjective, which greatly affect our capability of dealing 
with a large and tumultuous immigration. There is a fourth, 
which is objective. It concerns the character of the foreign- 
ers now resorting to our shores. Fifty, even thirty, years ago, 
there was a rightful presumption regarding the average im- 
migrant that he was among the most enterprising, thrifty, 
alert, adventurous, and courageous, of the community from 
which he came.* It required no small energy, prudence, fore- 
thought, and pains to conduct the inquiries relating to his 
migration, to accumulate the necessary means, and to find 
his way across the Atlantic. To-day the presumption is com- 
pletely reversed. So thoroughly has the Continent of Europe 
been crossed by railways, so effectively has the business of 
emigration there been exploited, so much have the rates of 
railroad fares and ocean passage been reduced, that it is now 
among the least thrifty and prosperous members of any 
European community that the emigration agent finds his best ( 
recruiting-ground. The care and pains required have been 
reduced to a. minimum; while the agent of the Red Star Line 
or the White Star Line is everywhere at hand, to suggest 
migration to those who are not getting on well at home. The 
intending emigrants are looked after from the moment they 
are locked into the cars in their native village until they 
stretch themselves upon the floors of the buildings on Ellis 
Island, in New York. Illustrations of the ease and facility 
with which this Pipe Line Immigration is now carried on 
* See Note 3, page 451. 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



447 



might be given in profusion. So broad and smooth is the 
channel, there is no reason why every foul and stagnant pool 
of population in Europe, which no breath of intellectual 
or industrial life has stirred for ages, should not be decanted 
upon our soil. Hard times here may momentarily check the 
flow ; but it will not be permanently stopped so long as 
any difference of economic level exists between our population 
and that of the most degraded communities abroad. 

But it is not alone that the presumption regarding the 
immigrant of to-day is so widely different from that which 
existed regarding the immigrant of thirty or fifty years ago. 
The immigrant of the former time came almost exclusively 
from western or northern Europe. We have now tapped 
great reservoirs of population then almost unknown to the 
passenger lists of our arriving vessels. Only a short time ago, 
the immigrants from southern Italy, Hungan^, Austria, 
and Eussia together made up hardly more than one per cent 
of our immigration. To-day the proportion has risen to 
something like forty per cent, and threatens soon to become 
fifty or sixty per cent, or even more. The entrance into our\' 
political, social, and industrial life, of such vast masses of 
peasantry, degraded below our utmost conceptions, is a mat- 
ter which no intelligent patriot can look upon without the 
gravest apprehension and alarm. These people have no his- 
tory behind them which is of a nature to give encourage- 
ment. They have none of the inherited instincts and ten- 
dencies which made it comparatively easy to deal with the 
immigration of the olden time. They are beaten men from 
beaten races ; representing the worst failures in the struggle 
for existence. Centuries are against them, as centuries were 
on the side of those who formerly came to us. They have 
none of the ideas and aptitudes which fit men to take up read- 
ily and easily the problem of self-care and self-government, 
such as belong to those who are descended from the tribes 
that met under the oak-trees of old Germany to make laws 
and choose chieftains. 

Their habits of life, again, are of the most revolting kind. 
Read the description given by Mr. Riis, of the police driving 
from the garbage dumps the miserable beings who try to 



44S 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



burrow in those depths of unutterable filth and slime in order 
that they may eat and sleep there ! "Was it in cement like 
this that the foundations of our republic were laid ? What 
effects must be produced upon our social standards, and upon 
the ambitions .and aspirations of our people, by a contact so 
foul and loathsome ? The influence upon the American rate 
" of wages of a competition like this cannot fail to be inju-i 
rious and even disastrous. Already it has been seriously felt 
in the tobacco manufacture, in the clothing trade, and in 
many forms of mining industry ; and unless this access of 
vast numbers of unskilled workmen of the lowest type, in a 
market already fully supplied with labor, shall be checked, it 
cannot fail to go on from bad to worse, in breaking down 
the standard which has been maintained with so much care 
and at so much cost. The competition of paupers is far more 
telling and more killing than the competition of pauper- 
made goods. Degraded labor in the slums of foreign cities may 
be prejudicial to intelligent, ambitious, self-respecting labor 
here ; but it does not threaten half so much evil as does de- 
graded labor in the garrets of our native cities. 

Finally, the present situation is most menacing to our peace 
and political safety. In all the social and industrial disorders 
of this country since 1877, the foreign elements have proved 
themselves the ready tools of demagogues in defying the law, 
in destroying property, and in working violence. A learned 
clergyman who mingled with the socialistic mob which, two 
years ago, threatened the State House and the governor of 
Massachusetts, told me that during the entire disturbance he 
heard no word spoken in any language which he knew, — 
either in English, in German, or in French. There may be 
those who can contemplate the addition to our population 
of vast numbers of persons having no inherited instincts 
of self-government and respect for law ; knowing no restraint 
upon their own passions but the club of the policeman or 
the bayonet of the soldier ; forming communities, by the tens 
of thousands, in which only foreign tongues are spoken, and 
into which can steal no influence from our free institutions 
and from popular discussion. But I confess to being far less 
optimistic. I have conversed with one of the highest officers 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



449 



of the United States army and with one of the highest officers ' 
of the civil government regarding the state of affairs which 
existed during the summer of 189-1 ; and the revelations they 
made of facts not generally known, going to show how the 
ship of state grazed along its whole side upon the rocks, were 
enough to appall the most sanguine American, the most 
hearty believer in free government. Have we the right to 
expose the republic to any increase of the dangers from this 
source which now so manifestly threaten our peace and 
safety ? 

For it is never to be forgotten that self-defence is the first 
law of nature and of nations. If that man who careth not 
for his own household is worse than an infidel, the nation 
which permits its institutions to be endangered by any cause 
which can fairly be removed is guilty, not less in Christian 
than in natural law. Charity begins at home ; and while the 
people of the United States have gladly offered an asylum to 
millions upon millions of the distressed and unfortunate of 
other lands and climes, they have no right to carry tlieir 
hospitality one step beyond the line where American insti- s ^ 
tutions, the American rate of wages, the American standard 
of living, are brought into serious peril. All the good the 
United States could do by offering indiscriminate hospitality 
to a few millions more of European peasants, whose places at 
home will, within another generation, be filled by others as 
miserable as themselves, would not compensate for any per- 
manent injury done to our republic. Our highest duty to 
charity and to humanity is to make this great experiment, 
here, of free laws and educated labor, the most triumphant 
success that can possibly be attained. In this way we shall 
do far more for Europe than by allowing its city slums and 
its vast stagnant reservoirs of degraded peasantry to be 
drained off upon our soil. Within the decade between 1880 
and 1890 five and a quarter millions of foreigners entered 
our ports ! No nation in human history ever undertook to 
deal with such masses of alien population. That man must 
be a sentimentalist and an optimist beyond all bounds of 
reason who believes that we can take such a load upon the 
national stomach without a failure of assimilation, and with- 



450 



SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



out great danger to the health and life of the nation. For 
one, I believe it is time that we should take a rest, and give 
our social, political, and industrial system some chance to 
recuperate. The problems which so sternly confront us to- 
day are serious enough, without being complicated and aggra- 
vated by the addition of some millions of Hungarians, Bo- 
hemians, Poles, south Italians, and Russian Jews. 

1. My subject, this evening, is Restriction of Immigration. That such 
a subject should be taken for discussion before a company of Americans 
is proof that a very considerable change has of late.come over the public 
mind. Can one conceive a company like this gathered twenty years 
ago, to listen to a paper in favor of restricted immigration ? Why, it 
was about that time, as I remember it, that a number of gentlemen in- 
terested in the American Social Science Association, were at pains to 
collect a large body of formal statistics and of more general statements 
relating to the industries and resources of different parts of the United 
States, and to compile these into a handbook for intending immigrants, 
to guide them in their choice of homes within our territory. "Nor was 
the handbook in question designed solely, or chiefly, to aid those who 
had already made up their minds to seek larger opportunities in the 
New World. The work was professedly undertaken for the purpose of 
inducing immigration. To this end it was translated into several 
European languages, and our Department of State assisted in its distri- 
bution, through American consuls and ministers abroad. Probably not 
a member of the American Social Science Association at that time enter- 
tained a doubt of the desirability of promoting the movement of popula- 
tion to this country. 

Even longer ago, the sentiment in behalf of immigration was even 
stronger, still. From early times, our people had looked upon im- 
migration as one of the chief sources of our strength and prosperity. 
Boundless — it seemed so — agricultural and mineral wealth was spread all 
around; and the help of every newcomer was welcome in the work of 
gathering it up. The more came, the more there would be, for each 
and for all. Great and grave political problems confronted the new 
nation, and our fathers felt that they would be stronger, whether against 
domestic sedition or against a foreign foe, the more rapidly the outlines 
of the country were filled with population.— From Lecture delivered ia 
New York, 1892. 

2. As early as 1892, in an article in the Yale Review, vol. 1, p. 129, Mr. 
Walker wrote : 

For myself, strongly as I feel the evils of the existing situation, I 
have little hope of their early correction by law. On one or two occa- 
sions, when I have been called to speak in public upon this theme, I 
have seen how much more taking is the appeal to sentiment than the 
address to reason, in this matter; how great is the controversial advan- 



RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



451 



tage of him who speaks in favor of the complete freedom of entrance 
•which has characterized our career thus far; how strong is the instinc- 
tive dislike of an Americau audience for any scheme of restriction or 
exclusion, in the face of the clearest considerations of expediency and 
even of national safety. Of this I make no complaint. I would not 
have it otherwise. It is natural and right that the sentiment of frater- 
nity and hospitality should assert itself vigorously against any proposed 
departure from our traditional policy, and should only yield to clear, 
sound, strong reasons; reasons which make that departure highly desir- 
able, almost to the point of absolute necessity. 

3. Take the Irish, for example. The conditions under which they had 
been born and brought up were generally of the most squalid and de- 
grading character. Their wretched hovels, thatched with rotting straw, 
scantily furnished with light, hardly ventilated at all, frequently with 
no floor but the clay on which they were built, were crowded beyond 
the bounds of comfort, health, or, as it would seem to us, of simple 
social decency; their beds were heaps of straw or rags; their food con- 
sisted mainly of buttermilk and potatoes, often of the worst, and com- 
monly inadequate in amount , their clothing was scanty and shabby. 
Yet a few years later, and the children, born and reared in hovels like 
these, were found in America, demanding and achieving a scale of liv- 
ing not greatly below that of our own native people of the manual- 
laboring class; working hard and long, that they might attain the de- 
sired comforts and decencies. They proved, indeed, in general, less 
exacting as concerned the externals of their houses, and even as con- 
cerned light and air within; but they yielded to none in the matter of 
the abundance and quality of the food they exacted, or in their disposi- 
tion to dress their wives and daughters comfortably and decently for 
church and school, and to lay by provision for future wants and neces- 
sities. With a spirit like this animating our new citizens, the painful 
and shameful deficiencies of early life and breeding were soon made up, 
at least to a great degree. Some temporary impairment there was of 
the general standard of social decency in the communities in which they 
placed themselves; some immediate political disadvantages were suffered 
by the republic through the access of so many persons not born on our 
soil, taught in our schools, or trained under our laws; and, as I have 
before intimated, some, and no inconsiderable, shock was administered 
to the principle of population among the native people. But, on the 
whole, the republic bore itself nobly under this tremendous, this unprec- 
edented strain; while, on their part, the newcomers rose, with marvel- 
lous energy and ambition, towards, if not to, the height of the opportu- 
nities offered them in their new homes. — Yale Review, vol. 1 (1892), p. 
131. 



By FRANCIS A. WALKER 

Late President Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY HOLT &• CO., NEW YORK 

DISCUSSIONS IN ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS 

Edited by Prof. D. R. Dewey. 2 vols. 8vo. $6.00 net. 
DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION 

Edited by J ames Phinney Mi nroe. 8vo. $3.00 net. 
INTERNATIONAL BIMETALLISM 

i2tno. $125. 
THE WAGES QUESTION 

A Treatise on Wages and the Wages Class. lamo. $2.00. 
MONEY 

12010. $2 00. 

MONEY IN ITS RELATIONS TO TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

umo. $1.25. 
POLITICAL ECONOMY 

Advanced Course, $2.00 net, 
POLITICAL ECONOMY 

Briefer Course. $1.20 net* 
POLITICAL ECONOMY 

First Lessons. % 1.00 net. 

PUBLISHED BY LITTLE, BROWN 6r CO., BOSTON 

LAND AND ITS RENT 

i8mo. 75 cents. 



PUBLISHED BY CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 
NEW YORK 

HISTORY OF THE SECOND ARMY CORPS, 

in the Army of the Potomac. 8vo. $2.00. 
THE MAKING OF THE NATION 
izrao. $1.25 net. 



PUBLISHED BY D. A PPL ETON & CO., NEW YORK 

GENERAL HANCOCK 

i2ino. $1.50. 

1 



( 



!)\\<iM H,^ » 2.. *S 
PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No. 34. 

WHENCE OUR immiGRHNTS CORIE, 
AND WHERE THEY GO. 

Census Figures of 1890 and 1900. 



Foreign=Born in the United States. 

The total foreign-born population of the United States in 1890, exclud- 
ing Alaska, was 9,249,547. In 1900, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, it was 
10,356,644. Since, however, the children of immigrants, born in this 
country, are counted among the native born, the proportion of the foreign- 
born to the whole population diminished slightly during the decade. It was 
14.77 P er cent - i n 1890 and 13.74 P er cent « in 1900. 

The following table shows the composition of this foreign-born popula- 
tion, according to nativity, and the proportions of the several nationalities, 
both in 1890 and in 1900. So far as a classification of nationalities has been 
attempted, that of the census of 1890 has been followed. The Scandinavian 
nations include Norway, Sweden, and Denmark ; the Slav nations, Russia, 
Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and Finland. Natives of Finland are returned 
separately in the census of 1900, but seem to have been included among 
natives of Russia in that of 1890. 

Foreign=born in the United States, 1890 and 1900, by 

Birthplaces. 

1890. 1900. 





Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


North and South America . 


1,088,245 


II.76 


1,318,913 


12.73 


Great Britain and Ireland 


3,122,911 


33-76 


2,788,304 


26.92 


Germany .... 


2,784,894 


30.II 


2,666,990 


25-75 


Scandinavian nations . 


933*249 


IO.09 


1.064,309 


10.28 


Slav nations 


510,625 


5-52 


1,173,210 


"•33 


Italy ..... 


182,580 


1.98 


484,207 


4.67 


Asiatic nations 


113*383 


1.23 


120,862 


1. 17 


All others .... 


513,660 


5-55 


739*849 ' 


7.i5 


Total . 


9,249,547 


100.00 


10,356,644 


100.00 




10 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



te following table gives the increase and the decrease, from 1890 to 
f persons in the United States, born in certain countries and groups 
tries ; the increase of the natives of the several countries and groups 
ries, per centum of the number found in the United States in 1S90; 
proportion which the increase of the . natives of each country or 
' countries bears to the aggregate increase of foreign-born persons 
in the United States. 



Increase of Foreign=born, by Birthplaces, 1890 to 1900. 







Per cent, of 


Per cent, of 






mirnhpr fmm/1 






Number. 


in 1890. 


of foreign-born. 


North and South America 


230,668 


21.2 


20.8 


Great Britain and Ireland . 




0)/o.7 


(a)30.2 


Germany ..... 




(a) 4.2 


(a) 10.6 


Scandinavian nations 


131,060 


14.0 


11.8 


Slav nations .... 


662,585 


129.8 


59-8 


Italy 


301,627 


165.2 


27.2 


Asiatic nations .... 


7479 


6.6 


0.7 


All others .... 


226,189 


44.0 


20.4 


Total increase, excluding United 








Kingdom and Germany 


i,559^o8 






Decrease, United Kingdom and 








Germany . 


452,5n 






Net increase 


1,107,097 







Note: that the natives of Slavic countries increased 130 per cent., and 
the natives of Italy 165 per cent., while the natives of Scandinavian countries 
increased 14 per cent., the natives of Germany actually diminished 4 per 
cent., and the natives of the United Kingdom diminished over 10 per cent. 

Note: that the increase of Italians amounted to more than a quarter of 
the aggregate increase of the foreign-born, and the increase of natives of 
Slavic countries amounted to 60 per cent, of the aggregate ; while there was 
a decrease of natives of Germany to the extent of 10 per cent, of the aggre- 
gate increase of the foreign-born, and a decrease of natives of the United 
Kingdom to the extent of 30 per cent, of the aggregate increase of the 
foreign-born. 



(a) Decrease. 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



3 



Note : that the increasing influx of low-wage workers — 44 cheap labor" 
— from Italy and the Slavic countries is accompanied with a falling off of 
the higher-grade workers from Germany and the United Kingdom. The 
superior decline to face the competition of the inferior. 

Distribution of Foreign=born. 

If persons at military stations abroad, not credited to any particular 
State, are excluded from consideration, as well as those in Alaska and Hawaii, 
ihe increase of foreign-born persons in the United States between 1S90 and 
1900 was 1,091,716. The following table shows how this increase was 
apportioned among the geographical divisions. 

The North Atlantic division embraces New England, New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania ; the North Central, the States from Ohio to the 
Dakotas and Kansas, including Missouri; the Western, all west of the 
Dakotas, Kansas, and Texas ; the South Atlantic, West Virginia, the District 
of Columbia, and all the States south of Pennsylvania which touch the At- 
lantic coast ; the South Central, the remainder of the Southern States. 



Increase of Foreign=born, 1890 to 1900, by Geographical 

Divisions. 





Number- 


Per cent, of number 


Per cent, of total 




found in 1890. 


increase in U.S. 


North Atlantic 


874,619 


22.5 


80.I 


South Atlantic 


7.505 


3.6 


0.7 


North Central 


98,360 


2.4 


9.0 


South Central 


35.821 


II. I 


3-3 


Western 


75*4" 


9.8 


6.9 


United States 


1,091,716 


11.8 


100.0 



Note : that So per cent, of the whole increase of the foreign-born is 
concentrated in the North Atlantic division. 

The following table shows the increase of the foreign-born in certain 
manufacturing and mining States, and the proportion which the increase in 
those States bears to the aggregate increase in the country. It will be seen 
that five States on the Atlantic coast, together with the one interior State of 
Illinois, received an increase of foreign-born population amounting to S6 per 
cent, of the whole increase in the United States. 



4 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



The whole share of Illinois, with more besides, crowded into its one great 
city. While the foreign-born population of Illinois increased 124,400, that 
of Chicago increased 136,446. The foreign-born population of Illinois, out- 
side of Chicago, decreased 12,046. 

Increase of Foreign=born in Certain States, 1890 

to 1900. 

Per cent, of total increase 
Number, in United States. 



New York 3 2 9>375 3 - 1 

Massachusetts .... 189,187 17.3 

Pennsylvania .... I39?530 12.8 

Illinois ..... 124,400 11.4 

New Jersey 102,909 9.4 

Connecticut ..... 54^609 5.0 



Total, 6 States . . . 940,010 86.9 



The following table shows the percentage of the natives of certain coun- 
tries, living in the United States, who were found in the several geographical 
divisions, both in 1890 and in 1900. The figures are compiled from the re- 
ports of the census of 1890, Population, Part I., page cxxxvi, and from the 
reports of the census of 1900, Volume I., page clxxiv. 



Distribution of Foreign=Born, by Birthplaces and 
Geographical Divisions. 



North Atlantic. South Atlantic. North Central. South Central. Western. 



Great Britain 


1890. 


1900. 


1890. 


1900. 


1890. 


1900. 


1890. 


1900. 


1890. 1900. 


and Ireland, 


59-5 


61.6 


2-5 


2-3 


27.6 


25.6 


2.4 


2.2 


7.9 8.1 


France, 


36.0 


40.6 


2.2 


2.3 


34-i 


29.4 


12.7 


II. 2 


14.9 16.5 


Germany, 


32.2 


33-2 


2.9 


2-7 


56.4 


54-9 


4-i 


4.1 


4-3 5-i 


Bohemia, 


10.4 


14.1 


1.4 


2.0 


84.3 


75.8 


3.1 


6.9 


0.8 1.2 


Scandinavia, 


12.7 


16.6 


0-3 


O.4 


76.0 


70.9 


0.8 


I.I 


10. 10.9 


Austria, 


49.9 


62.0 


i-7 


1.4 


318 


25-5 


8.4 


3-7 


8.1 7.4 


Hungary, 


72.9 


73-o 


1.8 


1.4 


22.2 


22.6 


1.4 


i-3 


1.6 1.7 


Italy, 


65.0 


72.7 


2.7 


2.2 


12.0 


II.4 


6. 7 


5-4 


13-7 8.3 


Poland, 


38.4 


51.2 


i.7 


i-7 


57-o 


44.9 


i-7 


1.4 


1.2 0.8 


Russia, 


50-9 


65-9 


3-2 


3-9 


38.2 


25-4 


*-5 


2.1 


6.1 2.7 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



5 



Note: that only 3.9 per cent, of the Poles, 4.4 per cent, of the Hunga- 
rians, and 8.7 per cent, of the Russians live in the Southern States or in the 
Western division ; only 58,471 in all, scattered among a total population of 
nearly 29,000,000. 

Note : that the Atlantic States gain only 30 per cent, of the Germans and 
Scandinavians, but are burdened with almost three-quarters of the Russians, 
Hungarians, and Italians. 

From the following table it will be seen that the local congestion of the 
most undesirable nationalities tends to increase rather than to diminish. 
The North Atlantic division received more than three-fourths of the increase 
of natives of Italy and Russia during the decade, nearly three-fourths of the 
increase of natives of Hungary, and three-fifths of the increase of natives of 
Poland. 

Increase of Natives of Certain Countries, 1890 to 1900, 
in each Geographical Division, per centum of the 
Whole Increase in the United States. 1 





North 


South 


North 


South 






Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Central. 


Central. 


Western. 


Hungary, 


73-o 


1.2 


22.g 


1.2 


1-7 


Italy, 


77-4 


1.9 


II. 


4.6 




Poland, 


59-1 


i-7 


37-3 


1.2 


0.7 


Russia, 


77.2 


4-5 


15.6 


2.6 


O.I 



It is sometimes said that the farms of the West have room for an unlim- 
ited number of immigrants. The preceding tables show that the national- 
ities which are now contributing most to the increase of our foreign-born 
population Co not go to the West. The table below shows that they do not 
go to the farms. 

Of a total foreign-born population of 10,356,644, in 1900, 5,130,281, or 
49.5 per cent., were found in the 160 cities of more than 25,000 inhabitants. 
The proportions of the different nationalities which settle in the cities vary 
widely, however ; and they are greatest for the nationalities which are most 
undesirable on other grounds as well as on this. 



1 Compiled from Census Reports, 1890, Population, Part I., pp. 606-609; Census 
Reports, 1900, Vol. I., pp. clxxii-clxxiv. 



6 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



Proportion of the Natives of Certain Countries, living 
in the United States, found in the 160 Principal 

Cities. 1 





Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Norway, 


22.4 


England, 


46.3 


Denmark, 


28.I 


Germany, 


50.2 


Wales, 


32.3 


Ireland, 


62.0 


Switzerland, 


35-3 


Italy, 


62.4 


Sweden, 


36.3 


Poland, 


62.6 


Holland, 


44.1 


Russia, 


74-9 


Scotland, 


46.0 







In 1890 there were in this country 147,440 persons born in Poland; 
in 1900 there were 383,407. In 1890 the three Atlantic States of New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts had 34.6 per cent, of the natives of Poland 
in the country; in 1900 they had 43.8 per cent. These three States, to- 
gether with the three interior States of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, 
had 76.9 per cent, in 1890 and 77» 3 P er cent, in 1900. The three interior 
States had 42.1 per cent, in 1890 and 33.4 per cent, in 1900. 

Almost three-fifths of the whole increase during the decade went to 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. Pennsylvania received 21.7 per cent., 
New York 20 per cent., and Illinois 16.6 per cent. Nine-tenths of the in- 
crease in Illinois was in the city of Chicago. 



Natives of Poland in Certain States. 

1890. 1900. 







Per cent, of 




Per cent, of 




Number. 


all in U.S. 


Number. 


all in U.S. 


New York . 


22,718 


15-4 


69,755 


18.2 


Pennsylvania 


25,191 


17. 1 


76,358 


19.9 


Illinois 


28,878 


19.5 


67,949 


17.7 


Michigan 


15,669 


10.6 


28,286 


7-4 


Wisconsin . 


17,660 


12.0 


31,789 


8-3 


Massachusetts 


3,341 


2.3 


21,503 


5-7 


Total, six States 


"3,457 


76.9 


295,640 


77.2 



The distribution of the natives of Poland within these States is indicated 
below. 



Census Reports, 1900, Vol. I., p. clxxvi. 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



7 



Natives of Poland in Certain Cities and Urban 

Counties. 



Illinois : 

Cook County (Chicago) 

Michigan : 

Wayne County (Detroit) 



1890. 1900. 

Per cent, of Per cent, of 

Number, all in State. Number, all in State. 



25>33 6 87.7 62,008 



5.599 



35.7 14,236 



9i.3 



50.3 



Massachusetts : 
Boston . 

Cities above 25,000 inhabitants 

in 1890 . . . 
Cities above 25,000 inhabitants 

in 1900 1 . 



y54 
i'3i5 



28.6 
39-4 



3,832 
10,367 
10,449 



17.8 

48.3 
48.6 



New York : 

New York City 8 . ; 

Erie County (Buffalo) 

Cities above 25,000 inhabitants 

in 1890 ..... 
Cities above 25,000 inhabitants 

in 1900 1 . 



8,929 
19,426 



39-3 
85-5 



32,873 
19,776 

57^95 
58,220 



47.1 
28.4 

81.9 
83.5 



Wisconsin : 

Milwaukee Countv 



10,066 57.0 17*644 



55-5 



There were 182,580 Italians in the United States in 1890, and 484,703 
in 1900. The number in certain States in each of these years was as follows : 

1 The number of foreign-born inhabitants, in 1890, of cities which had not then 
25,000 people, is not obtainable. 

2 The number of foreign-born inhabitants, in 1890, of the present area of New York 
city, cannot be determined. 



s 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS GOME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



Natives of Italy in Certain States. 





1890. 












Per cent, of 




Per cent, of 




Number. 


oil in 7T C 

eii m u .0, 


Number. 


_ n • tt 

an m u .0. 


New York 


64,141 


35-i 


182,248 


37-6 


Pennsylvania . . 


24,662 


13-5 


66,655 


13.8 


New Jersey 


12,989 


7-i 


41,865 


8.6 


Massachusetts . . . 


8,066 


4.4 


28,785 


5-9 


Connecticut 


5.285 


2.9 


19.105 


4.0 


Illinois .... 


8,035 


4.4 


23.523 


4.8 


Total, six States 


123,178 


67.4 


362,181 


74-7 


California . . ♦ . 


15.495 


8.4 


22,777 


4-7 


Louisiana .... 


7.767 


4.2 


I7.43I 


3-6 


Ohio . . ■ . 


3.857 


2.1 


11,321 


2.3 


Total, three States 


27,119 


14.7 


• 51.529 


10.6 



Note: that the five Atlantic States of New York, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, together with Illinois, contained 
two-thirds of the Italians in 1890, and their share had risen to three-quarters 
in 1900. The three non-Atlantic States of California, Louisiana, and Ohio 
contained a seventh of the whole in 1890 ; but in 1900 their share had fallen 
to hardly more than a tenth. 

Four-fifths of the increase of our Italian-born population was in the six 
States first mentioned. 

The congestion of Italians in urban districts is indicated in the following 
table : 



Natives of Italy in Certain Cities and Urban 

Counties. 



Connecticut : 

Cities above 25,000 in- 
habitants in 1890 

Cities above 25,000 in- 
habitants in 1900 

Illinois : 

Cook County (Chicago), 



1890. 1900. 

Per cent, of Per cent, of 

Number. all in State. Number- all in State. 



2,723 51.5 10,657 55-8 
10,832 56.7 



5.734 



71.4 16,915 72.0 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



9 



1890. 



1900. 







Per cent, of 




Per cent, of 




Number. 


all in State. 


Number. 


all in State. 


Massachusetts : 










JJUolLMl • • • • 


4,710 






4/*7 


Cities above 25,000 in- 










habitants in 1890 


5.936 


73-6 


18,592 


64.6 


Cases above 25,000 in- 










habitants in 1900 1 * 






19,442 


67-5 


New Jersey : 










Essex County (Newark, 










etc.) .... 


3.598 


27.7 


11,896 


28.4 


Hudson County (Jersey 










City, etc.) . 


3.039 


23-4 


9,646 


23.0 


Passaic County (Pater- 










son, etc.) . 


1,198 


9.2 


5.798 


13.8 



New York : 

New York City 1 . 
Cities above 25,000 in 

habitants in 1890 
Cities above 25,000 in 

habitants in 1900 1 



53.533 



83.5 



145.433 
157.856 

158,463 



79.8 
86.6 
87.0 



There were 182,644 natives of Russia in the United States in 1890 and 
424,096 in 1900. The following table shows the proportion gathered in half 
a dozen States : 



Natives of Russia in Certain States. 



1690. 



1900. 







Per cent, of 




Per cent, of 




Number. 


all in U.S. 


Number. 


all in U.S. 


New York . 


58,466 


32.O 


165,610 


39-o 


Pennsylvania 


17.315 


9-5 


50,959 


12.0 


Massachusetts 


7.325 


4.0 


26,963 


6.4 


New Jersey 


5.320 


2.2 


19.745 


4-7 


Connecticut 


3.027 




11,404 


2.9 


Illinois 


8,407 


4.6 


28,707 


6.8 


Total, six States 


99,860 


54-o 


303,388 


71.8 



Note: that while these six States had 54 per cent, of all the natives of 
Russia in the country in 1890, they had 71.6 per cent, in 1900. 



1 See notes at bottom of page 7. 



IO 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



Of the increase during the decade, these States suffered 84.3 per cent. 

Nearly two-thirds of these natives of Russia, or 279,230, were found in 
the North Atlantic States in 1900, and three-quarters of the rest, or 107,529, 
in the North Central States. 

In 1SS0 the 50 principal cities of the country contained only 8,967 
natives of Russia. In 1890 the 50 principal cities contained 98,736. In 
1900 the 50 principal cities contained 290,790. 

The following table gives further indication of the tendency of our 
Russian-born immigrants to the cities : 



Natives of Russia in 


Certain 


Cities 


and 


Urban 


Counties. 










1890- 


1900. 






Per cent, of 


Per cent, of 




Number. 


all in State. Number, all in State. 


Connecticut : 










New Haven . 


1 , 1 60 




0. A yo 


28.O 


Hartford 


492 


16. 3 


2,260 


19.8 


Cities above 25,000 in 1S90 


1,879 


62. 1 


7.237 




Cities above 25,000 in 1900 1 







8,030 


70.4 


Illinois : 










Chicago .... 


7.683 


91.4 


24,178 


84.2 


Massachusetts : 










Boston .. 


4.305 


58.8 


i4<995 


55.6 


Cities above 25,000 in 1890 


5.831 


79.6 


23,819 


88.3 


Cities above 25,000 in 1900 1 






24,170 


89.7 


New Jersey : 










Essex County (Newark, etc.) 


1.348 


25-3 


5.877 


29.8 


Hudson County (Jersey City, 










etc.) . 


869 


16.3 


4.592 


23-3 


Passaic County (Paterson, etc.) , 


546 


10.3 


2,422 


12.3 


Union County (Elizabeth, etc.) , 


364 


6.8 


1,251 


6.3 


New York : 










New York City 1 






155.201 


93- 7 


Cities above 25,000 in 1890 


56,076 


95 9 


161,354 


97-4 


Cities above 25,000 in 1900 1 






161,491 


97-5 


Pennsylvania : 










Philadelphia . 


7.879 


45-5 


28,951 


56.8 



1 See notes at bottom of page 7. 



WHENCE OUR IMMIGRANTS COME, AND WHERE THEY GO. 



I I 



Naturalization. 

According to the census of 1900, Volume L, p. ccix, 28.3 per cent, of 
all foreign-bom males over twenty-one years of age are not naturalized. 
Five per cent, of the whole male population of the United States over 
twenty-one years of age are aliens. Of the 1,004,217 adult male aliens in 
the United States, 34 per cent, do not speak English. 

The following table gives the proportions of the natives of various 
countries who were still aliens, according to the census of 1900 : 



Percentage of Aliens among Males of Voting Age, 
born in Certain Countries, 1900. 1 



Slav 

Latin 

Asiatic 



36.0% 

47.1 

84.2 



British 
Germanic . 
Scandinavian 



11.1% 
11.9 
11. o 



Average . . 45 . 3 Average . . 11.5 

Average of 

Slav and Latin, 40.5 



At the census of 1S90, 54.4 per cent, of the adult male aliens had been in 
the country long enough to be naturalized. In 1900, with the increasing in- 
flux of natives of Latin and Slavic countries, the proportion had risen to 
68.4 per cent., or more than two-thirds. 2 



1 Census of 1900, Vol. I., p. ccxvii. 

2 Census of 1900, Vol. I., p. ccxx. 



For publications of and membership in the Immigration Re- 
striction League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary and 
Treasurer, Fiske Building, Boston. The dues for membership are 
as follows : For annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance 
upon admission and upon January 1st of each year; for life mem= 
bership, ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being 
exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



2 M — 402 K. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No, 36, 



immigration Figures lor 1908. 

(From data furnished by the Commissio?ier-General of Immigration.} 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1901 and 1902. 



Total immigration ...... 

Percentage of increase over 190I' 
Percentage of increase over 1900 
Percentage of increase over 1S99 
Percentage of increase over 1S9S 
Number debarred from entrance and returned withi 
one year after landing .... 

Per cent, debarred and returned 
Total number of illiterate .... 

Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 
14 years of age ..... 

Per cent, of total immigration coming from Austria 

Hungary, Italy, and Russia . 
Total immigration from Eastern Europe, excepting 
Hebrews. \_See note."] 
Per cent, of total immigration 

Eastern Europe, excepting Hebrews 
Per cent, of total immigration coming from the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany, and 
Scandinavia ....... 

Total immigration from Western Europe, excepting 
Hebrews. [See note.~\ . 
Per cent, of total immigration coming- from 
Western Europe, excepting Hebrews . 
Total immigration from Asia ..... 

Total Hebrew immigration ..... 

Per cent, of total immigration who were He- 
brews . ' . . . ... 

Average money brought by immigrants, in dollars . 
Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 
United States before ..... 



coming from 



1901. 

487,918 

9 
57 
"3 

3.879 
0.8 

"7.645 
28.4 

68.6 

248,203 

50.8 

22.5 
164,792 

33-7 
13.698 
58,098 

11.9 
15 

11.9 



1902. 
648,743 

33 
45 
208 
283 

5.429 
0.8 
165,105 

28.7 

70.6 

353.896 

54-6 

20.3 
209,918 

32-4 
22,271 
57.688 

8.9 
16 

9-5 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric= 
tion League, address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, 
Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : For annual mem = 
bership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon 
January 1st of each year ; for life membership, ten dollars, payable 
upon admission, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, hit not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



M — 702 E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 37. 



The Present Status of the Immigration Problem, 



The session of Congress just ended has furnished several forcible and in- 
teresting illustrations of the way in which a small minority of the American 
people can bring influence to bear on a few members of Congress, and 
of how these few members can absolutely prevent legislation. There is no 
better concrete example of this sort than the immigration bill, for while nom- 
inally a bill was enacted into law, essentially the measure was defeated. It is 
important to emphasize this at the outset, as the public, having no expert 
knowledge of the subject, is likely to be deceived and to suppose that something 
important has been accomplished in the way of regulating immigration. 

History of Legislation. 

In order to understand the present situation, it is necessary to look back 
and to see what has been accomplished along the lines of the proper 
restriction of immigration. The first general immigration act was passed in 
18S2 and fixed the head tax at fifty cents; the contract labor acts in 18S5 and 
1887 ; another general act in 1891 ; an administrative act in 1893 ; the head tax 
raised to one dollar in 1895 ; a general codifying act in 1903, raising the head 
tax to two dollars. Now immigration legislation may be divided into two 
parts — that defining what classes of immigrants shall be excluded, and that 
providing the machinery whereby the exclusion is accomplished. 

Classes of Immigrants now Excluded. 

Let us consider the excluded classes. (1.) The act of 1862 prohibited 
the importation of " coolie" labor from oriental countries, and was, therefore, 
broader than the later " Chinese Exclusion Acts," which have always been 
considered as distinct from " immigration acts," and which have superseded the 
coolie provisions. The act of 1875 added (2) convicts, except those guilty of 
political offences, and (3) women imported for immoral purposes. The act 
of 1882 added (4) lunatics, (5) idiots, (6) persons unable to care for them- 
selves without becoming public charges. The act of 1S85 impliedly and the 
act of 1887 expressly added (7) contract laborers. The act of 1891 added 
(8) paupers, (9) persons suffering from loathsome or dangerous contagious 
diseases, (10) polygamists, (11) ''assisted" immigrants, /.<?., those whose 
passage has been paid for by others unless they show affirmatively that they are 
otherwise admissible* The act of 1903 added (12) epileptics, (13) persons 
who have been insane within five years previous, (14) professional beggars, 
(15) anarchists, or persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by force 




10 



or violence of the government of the United States or of all government or of 
all forms of law, or the assassination of public officials, (16) persons attempt- 
ing to bring in women for purposes of prostitution, (17) persons deported 
within a year previous as being contract laborers. 

Present Laws not Adequate. 

For a long time prior to 1891, and still more strongly after that date, there 
was a widespread feeling that the laws as framed were entirely inadequate to 
accomplish their purpose, and that not only was the machinery defective, but 
the material of immigration was full of undesirable elements. Numerous 
reports upon the matter were made by Congress and special commissions, but 
the enemies of restriction claimed that the trouble lay wholly with the adminis- 
trative features of the law. To improve the machinery the act of 1893, a 
purely administrative act, was passed, and it soon became apparent th°t the 
trouble lay much deeper, and that some further additions to the exc uded 
classes were desirable. A largely increased head tax was advocated ; also a 
system of consular inspection of immigrants in the foreign countries. The 
former method never found much favor, and the latter method has long since 
been abandoned as impracticable by every one familiar with the subject. From 
a statistical and practical study of the immigrants themselves it came to be 
recognized that there is a close correspondence between ignorance of language 
and the other chief undesirable qualities. These qualities are, in general, 
ignorance of a trade, lack of resources, criminal tendencies, aversion to country 
life and the tendency to congregate in the slums of large cities, a low standard 
of living and lack of ambition to seek a better, lack of disposition to assimilate 
and to have any permanent interests in this country. The facts and statistics 
of these matters have been frequently published and are collected in concise 
form in the various documents issued by the Immigration Restrietion League 
since 1894. 

History of the Illiteracy Test. 

Observing this connection between ignorance of language and other unde- 
sirable qualities, most students of the immigration problem have come to 
believe that the next addition to the excluded classes should be made by means 
of an " illiteracy " or "educational" test. In 1895 a bill to exclude illiterates 
was introduced into both Houses of the 54th Congress at the request of the 
League. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, of Massachusetts, presented the bill in 
the Senate, and the bill has since been generally known as the " Lodge Bill." 
It passed the House May 20, 1896, by a vote of 195 to 26, and the Senate* 
Dec. 17, 1896, by a vote of 52 to 10. A conference report subsequently 
passed the House Feb. 9, 1897, by a vote of 217 to 37, and the Senate on Feb. 
17, 1897, by a vote of 34 to 31. Unfortunately, an amendment had been tacked 
on to the bill in the House at the instance of Representative Corliss, of Michi- 
gan, against the protests of the friends of the bill, which was calculated to 

2 



make trouble with Canada. On March 2, 1897, the bill was vetoed by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, largely because of this amendment. 

President McKinley, in his inaugural message, strongly emphasized the 
need of further restriction, and the same bill, without the Corliss amendment, 
was promptly introduced into the 55th Congress and passed the Senate Jan. 
17, 1898, by a vote of 45 to 28. Then the steamship companies caused 
numerous telegrams to be sent to the Representatives, stating that a vote for 
the bill meant defeat at the next election ; and other persons interested in 
defeating legislation succeeded in stirring up a certain factitious opposition 
among certain German societies by means of false and misleading circulars. 
The Representatives therefore resolved not to take up the measure until after 
the elections. Meanwhile the Spanish War broke out, and on Dec. 14, 1898, 
the bill was refused present consideration in the House by a vote of 103 to 100. 
It is needless to add that pressure of matters arising out of the war prevented 
its cc sideration later in the session. 

In the 56th Congress a similar bill was favorably reported by the Senate 
Coi miittee on Immigration, Jan. 15, 1900, but pressure of Philippine and other 
business prevented further action. 

A similar bill was introduced into both Houses of the 57th Congress. 
President Roosevelt strongly advocated the educational test in his message to 
Congress. It so happened that the government was preparing at the same time 
a general codification of the immigration laws, embodying many desired ad- 
ministrative changes. This bill (H.R. 12199) was originally drafted by the 
United States Industrial Commission acting in consultation with the officers of 
the Treasury Department. Modifications were made at the suggestion of the 
Immigration Restriction League and of a conference of the various commission- 
ers of immigration. The bill was reported to the House, March 18, 1902. 
The League's bill, embodying the illiteracy test, was added to the general bill 
by amendment in the House, May 22, 1902, by a vote of 86 to 7, becoming, 
with some additions, Section 3 of the bill. On June 23, 1902, the bill was 
favorably reported to the Senate. Then the same influences which are always 
working against this sort of legislation put in a little underground work, with 
the result that the bill went over till the fall session. 

In his message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1902, the President renewed his 
recommendation for immigration legislation. On Dec. 8, 1902, the bill was 
further amended by the Senate sitting in Committee of the Whole. Although 
the bill had been reported, the Senate Committee continued its hearings, and it 
is most important to notice who opposed and who favored the pending bill. 
The only opposition which openly appeared came from the International Navi- 
gation Company, the Polish National Alliance, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad Company, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, and the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. One individual opposed Section 3 of 
the bill. In favor of the bill arguments were made by several of the principal 
officials of the immigration service, the New York State Lunacy Commission, 



the Washington Government Insane Hospital, the American Federation of 
Labor, the organized railroad employees of the United States, and the Immigra- 
tion Restriction League. The League presented a list of petitions to the first 
session of the 57th Congress in favor of the educational test, which when 
printed covered fifty-seven printed pages of the report of the committee, and a 
further list of endorsements covering fourteen pages of the report. These en- 
dorsements included a large proportion of the Boards of Associated Charities 
of the principal cities of the United States ; all the organizations formed to 
promote immigration into the Northwestern States ; a large number of Chambers 
of Commerce and Boards of Trade ; the American Federation of Labor ; the 
Knights of Labor ; the Legislatures of Arkansas, California, Washington, and 
Wyoming. There were 5,082 petitions in favor of further restriction of immi- 
gration sent in to the first session of the 57th Congress, and only 22 petitions 
against. 

Nature of the Opposition to the Test. 

Everything looked favorable for the prompt passage of the bill. The 
steamship companies, of course, opposed the educational test, but most of the 
railroad companies declared their neutrality, providing the test were not applied 
against Canadians. Then came the deadlock over the " omnibus statehood 
bill " ; the weeks passed rapidly, and finally, when it became evident that one 
or two Senators would kill the whole bill unless it were amended, the Senate 
Committee agreed to drop the educational test, which Senator Lodge described 
in debate as the " only really valuable part of the bill," and to make certain 
other amendments weakening its efricienc}\ In its emasculated form it was 
passed by both Houses in the closing hours of the session and became law. 
Two amusing incidents relieved slightly the general disappointment. The bill 
as passed contained no recognition of the fact that the Immigration Bureau had, 
during the session, been transferred to the Department of Labor and Com- 
merce, so that a special resolution was needed to rectify the error. Also, 
although one chief merit of the bill was supposed to be the fact that it was a 
codification, for some unknown reason the contract labor provisions were taken 
out, leaving that matter to be governed by the preceding acts. 

Now this act, while good as far as it goes, is practically futile. It is not 
in the least degree a fulfilment of the pledges of the Republican party for leg- 
islation along the lines of the educational test, nor of Democratic pledges to 
exclude the cheap labor of Europe and Asia. It is no answer to the popular 
demand, repeatedly and emphatically expressed for the last dozen years. No 
one supposes for a moment that the $2 head tax will operate as a restrictive 
provision. It is singular that since 1S96 bills embodying the educational test 
should have passed the House of Representatives four times and the Senate 
three times, only to be defeated from causes not affecting the merits of the prop- 
osition, — the first time, a hostile amendment; the second, the Spanish War; 
the third and last time, the desire to admit to statehood a few hundred thousand 

4 



people, a matter of far less consequence to the public welfare than the yearly 
admission of hundreds of thousands of far less desirable people into the North- 
ern and Eastern States. 

What opposition there is to further restriction outside of a few laissez faire 
doctrinaires is solely that of parties interested for pecuniary gain. There are 
the steamship companies with almost unlimited resources, which maintain 
constantly a lobby at Washington. There are certain railroad corporations 
which want the cheapest labor they can get, although it is fair to say that most 
of the railroads have, openly at least, remained neutral, asking only that all 
be treated alike. Finally, there are some mine owners and contractors who 
are also indifferent to the moral and social welfare of the public if only they 
can get their k ' instruments of production," their human picks and shovels, a 
bit cheaper. How long are the American people going to stand dictation from 
this small interested minority? 

It is a great piece of good fortune that President -Roosevelt has given the 
immigration service a thorough overhauling and appointed such capable, honest, 
and trustworthy officials as the present Commissioner-General and the Commis- 
sioner at New York. Too much praise cannot be given to the latter for the 
reforms inaugurated at Ellis Island and the discovery of extensive frauds in the 
landing of immigrants. 

Effects of Unrestricted Immigration. 

Space will not suffice to give in detail the reasons why a further regulation 
of immigration is needed, and why the educational test is the best remedy thus 
far suggested for present evils. These matters have been fully set forth in 
the publications of the Immigration Restriction League. There is, however, 
one effect of immigration which has not received the attention it deserves, 
namely, its effect in causing what President Roosevelt has forcibly described as 
44 racial suicide" on the part of the earlier settlers and their descendants; or, in 
other words, race substitution in this country. 

In his report for 1902 the Commissioner at the Port of New York says : 

44 Last year over two thousand cases of aliens who had arrived within the 
past twelve months and in the meantime become destitute were reported to the 
outdoor poor department of the city of New York. . . . From my own 
observation while travelling abroad, as well as from information received, I am 
satisfied that much of the present immigration is not spontaneous, but assisted 
or encouraged. ... It must be clear to all that had our early immigration 
proceeded from those portions of eastern and southern Europe which are now 
sending us such large numbers of aliens, this country would not enjoy its 
present civilization. The constantly deteriorating quality of the recent immi- 
gration is a well-established fact, and calls for the execution of existing laws in 
the most stringent manner. . . . The effect of [the tide of undesirable 
immigration], if unchecked, will be to dilute and debase the elements which 
in the past have made this country great." 

5 



Gen. Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the Censuses of 1870 and 
1SS0, explains how the immigration of inferior sorts has lowered the birth-rate 
of those already in this country. In his " Discussions in Economics," Vol. II., 
pp. 417-426, he says: 

u The American shrank from the industrial competition thus thrust upon 
him. He was unwilling himself to engage in the lowest kind of day labor 
with these new elements of population ; he was even more unwilling to bring 
sons and daughters into the world to enter into that competition. . . . The 
great fact protrudes through all the subsequent history of our population that 
the more rapidly foreigners came into the United States, the smaller was the 
rate of increase, not merely among the native population, but throughout the 
population of the country as a whole, including the foreigners. ... If 
the foregoing views are true, or contain any considerable degree of truth, 
foreign immigration into this country has, from the time it assumed large 
proportions, amounted not to a re-enforcement of our population, but to a re- 
placement of native by foreign stock." (See articles in " Forum," 189T, pp. 
634-743; reprinted in ''Discussions in Economics and Statistics," Vol.11., 
pp. 417-426; also article in "Atlantic Monthly," Vol. 77, p. 822, June, 
1896.) 

The United States Industrial Commission says in its report, p. 277 : "It 
is a hasty assumption which holds that immigration during the nineteenth cen- 
tury has increased the total population." 

R. R. Kuczynski, in the " Quarterly Journal of Economics" for November, 
1901, and February, 1902, has shown that in Massachusetts the average number 
of children born to every foreign born married woman is two-thirds higher than 
for the natives, and the number of children living three-fifths higher. He says : 
" It is probable that the native population cannot hold its own. It seems to be 
dying out." 

President Eliot, of Harvard, has recently found that of the graduates of the 
classes from 1872 to 1877, twenty-eight per cent, are unmarried, and the mar- 
ried average only two surviving children. 

Undoubtedly other causes besides immigration have played their part in 
the lowering of the native birthrate. But, admitting the fact, is it not the 
strongest of reasons for using our best judgment in the artificial selection of the 
individuals and races which shall preserve and carry on the great traditions of 
our past? The immigration problem is not a question of to-day alone, but of 
our country long after we are dead. We are trustees of our civic ideals and in- 
stitutions for the benefit of future generations. As Phillips Brooks said : "If 
to this particular nation there has been given the development of a certain part 
of God's earth for universal purposes ; if the world is going to be richer for the 
development of a larger type of manhood here, then for the world's sake, for 
the sake of every nation that would pour in upon that which would disturb that 
development, we have a right to stand guard over it." 



MD — 603 



6 



foj. * P^^P ft 2 ^ 7 3 * 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMI6RATI0N RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 38. 

immigration Figures ror 1903. 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner- General of Immigration.} 

Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1902 and 1903. 

*M 





1902. 


1903. 


Total immigration ....... 


648,743 


857,046 


Percentage of increase over 1902 




32 


Percentage of increase over 1901 


33 


76 


Percentage of increase over 1899 


108 


175 


Percentage of increase over 1 89S 


183 


274 


Number debarred from entrance and returned within 






one year after landing . . • . 


5.429 


9,3*6 


Per cent, debarred and returned 


0.8 


1.1 


Number of illiterates over 14 years of age. \_See 






Note /.] 


165,105 


189,008 


Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 






14 years of age ...... 


28.7 


25.0 


Immigration from countries of Northern and West- 






ern Europe. [See Note 2.~\ 


138,700 


203,689 


Per cent, of total immigration .... 


21.4 


23.8 


Immigration from countries of Southern and Eastern 






Europe. [See Note 2.~] 


480,331 


610,813 


Per cent, of total immigration . . . . 


74.0 


7i-3 


Immigration from Asia ...... 


22,271 


29,966 


Per cent, of total immigration .... 


3-4 


3.5 


Average money brought, in dollars 


16 


19 


Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 






United States before ..... 


9-5 


89 


Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 






tion, including women and children 


23.6 


23-3 


Per cent, of total immigration who were farm-labor- 






ers, laborers, or servants .... 


60.6 


57-3 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 






States of 111., Mass., N.Y., and Pa. . 


67.8 


654 



NOTE 1. — Although the percentage of illiteracy shows an improvement this year over last, 
it should be remembered that these figures are based upon the manifests, which in turn are made 
up from the statements of the immigrants. One test recently made at New York showed that 



immigrants listed as able to read and write were, in fact, illiterate. The recent agitation for an 
educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the latter more disposed to assert their 
ability to read and write'. 

NOTE 2. — " Northern and Western Europe" includes the United Kingdom, France, 
Germany, Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands, and Switzerland. 

"Southern and Eastern Europe'''' includes Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, 
Portugal, Greece, Turkey, and the Balkan States. 

GENERAL REflARKS. — Immigration has reached the high=water mark 
during the past year, exceeding that of the largest previous year (1882) by 
nearly 70,000. It is gratifying to note an increase of over one=third in the 
proportion of those debarred and returned, and to testify to the great im= 
provement in the efficiency of the service since the present Commissioner 
General took office. Attempts are also being made to secure an adequate 

>f Canada and riexico, and steps are being now 
the aliens in our penal and charitable institu = 

Uh uaiiu, wiuie there has been some increase in the immigra= 

tion from Northern and Western Europe, the great proportion of immigra= 
tion has come as usual from the less desirable races of Southern and Eastern 
Europe, and there has been a considerable influx of illiterate Japanese. 

Hon. William Williams, Commissioner at New York, says in his report : 
" Without the proper execution of [the present laws] it is safe to say that 
thousands of additional aliens would have come here last year. But these 
laws do not reach a large body of immigrants who, while not of this class, 
are yet generally undesirable, because unintelligent, of low vitality, of poor 
physique, able to perform oniy the cheapest kind of manual labor, desirous 
of locating almost exclusively in the cities, by their competition tending to 
reduce the standard of living of the American wageworker, and unfitted 
mentally or morally for good citizenship. It would be quite impossible to 
accurately state what proportion of last year's immigration should be classed 
as 'undesirable.' I believe that at least 200,000 (and probably more) aliens 
came here who, although they may be able to earn a living, yet are not 
wanted, will be of no benefit to the country, and will, on the contrary, be 
a detriment, because their presence will tend to lower our standards; and if 
these 200,000 persons could have been induced to stay at home, nobody, not 
even those clamoring for more labor, would have missed them. Their com= 
ing has been of benefit chiefly, if not only, to the transportation companies 
which brought them here." 



The largest elements 


in recent in 


nmigratio 


n were : 








1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Southern Italian 


65,639 


84,346 


115,704 


152,915 


196,117 


Polish 


28,466 


46,938 


43,617 


69,620 


82,343 


Scandinavian 


23,249 


32,952 


40,277 


55,780 


79,347 


Hebrew 


37,415 


60,764 


58,098 


57,688 


76,203 


German 


26,632 


29,682 


34,742 


51,686 


71,782 


Irish .... 


. 32,345 


35,607 


30,404 


29,001 


35,366 


Slovak .... 


15,838 


29,243 


29,343 


36,934 


34,427 


Croatian and Slovenian 


. 8,632 


17,184 


17,928 


30,233 


32,907 



ILLITERACY. 



Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write or cannot read and write their own language, from those races 
{not nations} which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during any of the past four fiscal years : 



Western Europe. 


1900. 


1 901. 


I902. 


1903. 


Scandinavian . 


0.9 


0.8 


o-5 


0.6 


Scotch 




1 .2 


1.2 


1.2 


Bohemian and Moravian 


3-0 


i-5 


1.6 


1.6 


"Rncrlish 

UllgllOil • • • • • 


0.2 


1.8 


t n 
x.y 


1.6 


Irish ...... 


3-3 


3-2 


3-9 


3-8 


Finnish . 


2.7 


2.2 


1.4 


2.2 


French . 


3-9 


3-9 


4.8 


3-8 


German . . . 


5-8 


4.1 


5-4 




Dutch and Flemish 


9.6 


7.8 


7.6 


6.9 


Italian (North) . 


11. 2 




14.4 


12.7 


Average of above . • • 


-*:. J; 


5.6 


4.4 




Eastern Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 










Spanish . 


— 


— 





8.9 


Magyar . 


16.8 


7-5 


13-3 


10.5 


Roumanian . . . . . 




— 


28.3 


21.5 


Slovak ...... 


27.9 


30-7 


25-9 


21.6 


ijrieeK ...... 


17. 1 


2 5-9 


30.0 


27.7 


Russian . 








3i-9 


Polish 


31.2 


37-5 


38.4 


32.1 


Croatian and Slovenian 


37.4 


30. 7 


42.2 

T 




Rn1o*arian Sprvinn TYTonfpn pen-in 








A<1 7 


T .ifl~mfinian 

1 J ILL l XACllllCXLL . . . . . 


3 17 


AO 8 




46.6 


Ruthenian . . . 


40. 




50.0 


40. 4 


Italian (South) . 


^4.6 


^Q. I 


«?6.4 
J u "r 


5 1 .4 


Portuguese . 




6q.8 


71.6 




Average of above 


39.8 


4G.O 


44.3 


39.7 


Other Races. 










Cuban ...... 


6.8 




8.0 


4.2 


Chinese . . 




6. 9 




12.9 


Hebrew . 


22.9 


23 6 


28.6 


26.5 


Japanese . 


8.9 


6.7 


1.2 


27.0 


African (black) . 








32.5 


Syrian . 


55-9 


56.1 


5i-o 


53-8 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restrio 
tion League address Prescott F. Hall, Secretary, Fiske Building, 
Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : For annual mem= 
bership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon 
January 1st of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable 
upon admission, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a stricter 
regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants whose 
character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



3 M — 1103 E. 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 40. 



BURDENS OF RECENT IMMIGRATION 



Is Illustrated In the State of New York, 



BY 



FRANK H. AINSWORTH. 



Composition of Present Immigration. 



Since 1880 there has been an average annual immigration of about 474,380 
persons. The greatest number of persons who came in any one year was 
857,046, in the fiscal year 1902-1903. Of this number 254,665, or nearly one- 
third, were destined to New York State, the Italians numbering 101,226, the 
Hebrews, 50,945, and the Poles, 16,018. There were in all about 195,000 
from eastern and southern Europe, while the remainder were from western 
Europe. By eastern and southern Europe is meant Russia, Austria-Hungary, 
Italy, Turkey, Bulgaria, Servia, etc., and by western Europe, Great Britain, 
Scandinavia, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal. 

The financial condition of those who came to New York may be estimated 
by referring to the report of the U. S. Industrial Commission, page 284, from 
which it appears that south Italians brought on an average $8.84, Hebrews, 
$8.67, and Poles, $9.94 each. It must be conceded that this is not a large 
amount for a person to live on in New York while looking for work. Another 
very significant fact is that while of the total immigration last year, 71.3 
per cent, came from eastern and southern Europe and 23.8 per cent, from 
western Europe, out of the total immigration destined to New York State 
nearly SO- per cent, was from eastern and southern Europe, while about 20 
per cent, was from western Europe. This is unanswerable evidence that the 
former peoples tend to seek settled and, in many instances, overcrowded 
centres of population, while the latter class are more inclined to distribute 
themselves. 



There are few, if any, who wi41 not agree that we should rigorously 
exclude criminals, paupers and those who are physically incapacitated. LaAvs 
to that effect have been on the statute books for some time. In 1875, convicts 
and immoral women were prohibited; in 1882, lunatics, idiots and persons 
unable to care for themselves; in 1891, paupers and persons suffering from 
loathsome and contagious disease ; and in 1903, epileptics, persons who have 



The Present Laws Inadequate. 




been insane within five years previous, professional beggars and anarchists 
were prohibited. It would therefore seem that there has for some time been 
no possibility of the admission of these three general classes of aliens, viz., 
criminals, paupers and those physically incapable. Yet what is the actual 
condition in this State? According to the New York Press, March 2, 1904, 
Dr. Petersen and Mr. Lockwood of the New York State Lunacy Commission 
appealed to the Secretary of the Department of Commerce and Labor for aid 
in keeping alien insane from becoming a burden to the State. These gentle- 
men are reported as stating that New York is expending the enormous sum 
of $10,000,000 annually for the support of alien-born insane; that 60 per 
cent, of the inmates of the insane asylums of the State were of alien birth, 
and that no less than 150 insane aliens who had been inmates of foreign 
insane asylums now awaited deportation. Is not this an astounding con- 
dition, and is it not sufficient ground of itself for a more severe scrutiny of 
incoming aliens than the present law directs ? This tax of a dollar a year for 
each resident of New York State to maintain alien insane is by no means all 
of the burden. Dr. George F. Shrady writes : 

" Look at the constant stream of immigrants coming to this port. 
Two-thirds of the patients in our hospitals are foreigners." 

There recently appeared a statement which has not been contradicted, 
to the effect that twenty of the principal New York City hospitals had an 
annual aggregate deficit of about $450,000, and various methods were suggested 
by which this deficit could be met. If Dr. Shrady's statement is a fact, and 
an inspection of the reports of several hospitals indicates that it is, would not 
the solution of this problem be in this very immigration question that we are 
considering ? Is it not manifestly the proper thing to do to see that no more 
such aliens come ? 

The Burden of Supporting Foreign Delinquents and Dependents. 

In the 35th annual report of the Presbyterian Hospital, one of the best 
we have, it appears, page 16, that the total operating expenses were $213,539.86, 
and that of 3,026 patients cared for, 1,417, or nearly half, were of alien birth. 
This hospital has a deficit of $58,504.88, or about 25 per cent, of the total 
cost of operation. The question is, then, if there had been no applicants for 
free treatment, other than citizens of this city, would not this particular 
hospital not only be free of debt but have a surplus? Would not those who 
so generously maintain it have cause to congratulate themselves that all the 
needy were being properly cared for ? The burden is increasing, because 
we are being deluged with a flood of weaklings from European countries 
whom we shall soon have to support. We are now living in the "seven years 



of plenty " and contributions are freely made, but what will be the situation 
during a period of hard times when we shall still have the same number to 
care for, but with a much diminished revenue ? Another illustration of the 
burden imposed by undesirable aliens is found in the report of the Lying-in 
Hospital, from which it appears that, out of '2,595 out-door patients treated, 
but 315 were native born, and of 696 in-door patients, 260 were born in the 
United States. The cost of this attendance was $78,659.12. These ligures 
are from the report of the 104th year of the Society. For the last year there 
is reported a deficit of $88,477.63. Is it not a fair conclusion that if there 
were not a very large number of aliens in this city who could not support 
themselves, there would be but little need of this institution ? There can be 
no more noble purpose for which wealth can be used than for the relief of 
suffering humanity, but there is a great danger of abuse in this matter, and 
there are tokens that such danger is upon us. The eminent statistician, 
Mr. Henry Gannett, writes : 

" The evidence on record is that this country supports the greatest 
eleemosynary work known to history." 

This would be good if it tended only to strengthen the weak and to build up 
character and self reliance, but if it tends to lessen thrift and industry, and 
encourage shiftlessness it is a menace. One of the managers of the " House 
of Refuge " writes : 

"I notice the large number of children that are placed in charitable 
institutions for no crime or misdemeanor, but to relieve their parents of 
their support. They are principally from southern and eastern Europe.''' 1 
[The italics are the writer's.] 

Thus it is evident that the aliens who are diseased and cared for in 
public and private institutions are an enormous tax upon the commonwealth. 

Serious Danger from Diseased Immigrants. 
Trachoma. 

There are many immigrants, who, although they are not supported by others, 
constitute a menace to the communities in which they reside, because they 
are afflicted with disease in primary stages which does not interfere with their 
ability to do certain kinds of work. The most important of these diseases are 
trachoma, syphilis and tuberculosis. Take, for example, the present condition 
of persons afflicted with trachoma, of whom there are said to be 40,000 in this 
city alone, where practically none existed live years ago. The Board of 
Education and the Board of Health have found it necessary to examine the 
pupils in the public schools at frequent intervals in order to check the spread 
of trachoma among children. This disease has been introduced and extended 



almost entirely by aliens from southern and eastern Europe. The report of 
Special Inspector Marcus Braun, contained in the Report of the Commis- 
sioner-General of Immigration for 1903, contains the following : 

" In Hungary this disease [trachoma] has assumed such proportions 
that the government encounters great difficulty in some counties to 
muster the required men for military service, trachomatic people belong- 
ing to the class who are rejected for the army. To combat and, if 
possible, stamp out the disease, the Hungarian government maintains a 
special medical corps, consisting of fifty physicians who constantly travel 
to and fro, in certain respective districts to which they are assigned, it 
being the duty of every person to submit to an examination for such disease 
and, if found afflicted therewith, to present himself or herself for gratuitous 
treatment twice a week until cured. . . . Although this rule is strictly 
enforced, people intending to emigrate rarely observe it [italics are the 
writer's], and in order to be able to give the Department more definite 
information on this subject, 1 accompanied Dr. Simon Buchwald, one of 
the physicians appointed by the government of Hungary for the district 
of Lipto-Szt. Miklos, on one of his tours through the villages of his 
district, and was present at the examinations and treatment conducted by 
him. I succeeded in obtaining from Dr. Buchwald an extract of the 
official record of 35 persons of the age ranging from 17 to 42 years, who 
had left the district for the United States and were afflicted with trachoma, 
had been treated by him, and at the time of their departure were not cured. 
Only four of these emigrants returned to their respective homes, having been 
refused at the medical examination regularly held at the control stations of 
the North German Lloyd and Hamburg American Lines at the Austro- 
Prussian border, upon the ground of this very affliction. . . . [Italics are the 
writer's.] There are at least 60,000 persons in the Kingdom of Hungary 
suffering from trachoma. The worst conditions in this respect prevail in 
Eussia, where at least 30 per cent, of the army are afflicted with this 
dread disease, who, after their discharge from the army, spread the 
affliction in all parts of the empire." 

On page 6 of the report of the Commissioner- General it is stated that 
572,726 aliens came from Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia, the very 
countries which Mr. Braun reports as being particularly affected by trachoma. 
The present law prohibits any person having this disease from landing. Of 
the number of persons deported last year,. 748 were afflicted with trachoma. 
During the voyage from Europe these persons were in close association with 
their fellow passengers. How close that association is, only those who have 
visited the steerage quarters and seen 200 or more men, women and children 
in one open compartment, with no privacy, can realize. This contact is 
maintained from six to fifteen days, according to the time the vessel occupies 
on the voyage. From the nature of the case, no positive evidence can be 
submitted, but it is not unreasonable to say that each of the 748 innoculated 
at least one other person on the ship. Upon being inspected at Ellis Island, 



4 



this would not be apparent because the period of incubation is not passed. 
As a result, probably 748 or more cases of trachoma were introduced into our 
midst last year, and we have no protection against it. 

Tuberculosis. 

Tuberculosis is a disease that is becoming more prevalent, especially in 
the overcrowded portions of New York City. At the Tuberculosis Exposition 
held in Baltimore last January it was stated that 30,000 persons were affected 
in New York City; that 8,500 died from its effects last year, and 13,000 new 
cases were reported to the Health Department during the same period. The 
following statement was made at that time by Dr. Herman N. Biggs, chief 
bacteriologist of the Health Department, according to the press reports : 

"The $500,000 expended by the municipality each year for the care 
and treatment of tuberculosis patients is estimated as only 2 per cent, of 
the actual loss to the city from this scourge. It kills or incapacitates the 
young and the most useful members of society and costs the city at least 
$25,000,000 each year." 

In immigrants of low vitality we have the very class of people who, by 
reason of their physical condition and habits of crowding in unsanitary quar- 
ters are in a position to become easy victims of consumption. Dr. Henry L. 
Shively, of New York, says : 

"Infection from trachoma and favus is readily traced to immigrant 
sources ; in tuberculosis the course of the disease is slow and insidious, 
and immediate sources of infection are less readily recognized. It is per- 
haps for this reason that the danger of the tuberculous immigrant tft the 
health of the community has not been emphasized as it should be. . . . 
Their gregariousness causes them to herd together in thickly-populated 
urban communities of their own nationality, thereby lowering the stan- 
dard of living among the city poor, and making their own education in 
the elementary principles of hygiene slow and difficult." 

Here we see the professional man and the public official pointing out 
almost exactly the same objectionable class from totally different view points 
and entirely independent of one another. Having this testimony that many 
immigrants seek crowded quarters let us hear what the Church Association for 
the Improvement of Labor has to report on the actual conditions in these 
quarters. Referring to some of the tenement houses this report is made : 

" Under these conditions children work from early morning until late 
at night. Women work from morning to midnight, and on Sundays. The 
average wage is $3.00 per week. Trousers are finished for less than five cents 
a pair and it takes two hours to make one pair. Not only 80 per cent, of 
the clothing sold in New York City but many other articles are made in 
tenement sweat shops. One man was seen covering boxes with paper and 
using sputum to fasten it on. These boxes were for wedding cake.' 1 ' 1 



5 



Is there any language too strong to point out the danger resulting from 
this condition of living to which such numbers of immigrants flock ? This 

Society goes on to state : 

" Tuberculosis, diphtheria, smallpox, scarlet fever, measles, and affec- 
tions of the eyes and skin are propagated in the rooms of the tenement 
house dweller, in which besides the family itself with an occasional 
lodger or two, assemble day by day, in defiance of law, as large a crowd of 
workers as can be packed into them. The atmosphere, already fetid 
enough by mere presence of those who fill it, is rendered still more 
oppressive and unwholesome by the heat of the stove and the irons 
required in the business, besides being highly seasoned by the malodor- 
ous preparations which enter into the cooking arrangements. Every piece 
of furniture, even the floor space, is utilized. If the children are in bed or 
in their cradles it makes no difference, the clothing, finished or unfinished, 
lies heaped up until it is taken back to the contractor. If the children 
have any contagious disorder it is of no consequence ; the garments im- 
pregnated with disease germs go out all the same, carrying with them 
their seeds of sickness and death. It may be that candy or medicine 
boxes pass through the hands of the workers, some of whom may be 
afflicted with tuberculosis. It is all the same. The edges of the boxes 
are smeared with the germ-laden saliva and the boxes themselves are 
sent off to some candy or drug store, the bearers, possibly, of mortal dis- 
ease to some unsuspecting victim." 

One or two cases taken from the report of the Lying-in Society may 
further illustrate the condition that city-destined immigrants develop. 

"Seventh child: Italians; man, a laborer out of work for past four 
monlihs. Woman very ill, evidently overworked; had finished clothing 
at home working early and late for 40 cents per day, etc." 

"Fourth child: Family two weeks in America; very destitute ; man 
learning the trade of presser, not under wages. No clothing for baby, 
same not being used in Russia, etc." 

" Fifth child: Woman lying in filthy sweatshop ; several girls and old 
woman working in room. No clothing for bed or patient, etc." 

This report goes on to state that : 

" The demands on charitable institutions in this city increase from 
year to year, in caring for, and giving to many of these people who remain 
here, proper medical service." 

Is any further evidence necessary to prove that we do not want any more 
of this class of immigrants who are destined to the cities ? 

Crime and Pauperism. 

In the year 1900 the foreign-born population of the city of New York 
was 1,270,080 out of a total of 3,437,202, or a little over one-third. During 
tin year L902 in the City Magistrates' Court of the first division, out of 55,125 



6 



persons held for trial or summarily tried and convicted, 27,031 were born in 
foreign countries. Of these, it is remarkable to note that in 1900 the total 
Greek population of New York is given as 1,309, while in the year 1902 
1,678 Greeks were held in these courts as above described. These arrests 
were largely for violation of corporation ordinances, and not of a serious 
nature, but nevertheless it is a remarkable indication of ignorance of, or indif- 
ference to, the law. In the report of the Five Points House of Industry, Vol. 
XL VI., p. 12, it is stated that of 378 cases, the parents of 116, or less than 
one-third, were of American birth, while in 262 instances the parents were of 
alien birth. The report of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile De- 
linquents (House of Refuge) for the 78th year shows that 430 children were 
received, of whom 135 were American (94 white and 41 colored), the remain- 
der being of foreign birth. It might be interesting to know how many of 
those classified as Americans were of American-born parents. The Seventh 
Annual Report of the TJ. S. Commissioner of Labor shows, that the proportions 
of those of foreign birth or parentage to the total population in the slums of 
Baltimore was 77 per cent., in Chicago 90 per cent., in New York 95 per cent., 
and in Philadelphia 91 per cent. This report also shows that 51.11 per cent, 
of the slum population of New York is from eastern and southern Europe. 

The following case may also serve to illustrate the existence of undesirable 
aliens. Annie Ventre, 12 years old, small for her age, was found working in 
the Chelsea Jute Mills, Greenpoint. She had been employed upon presenta- 
tion of the affidavit of her father. Her mother testified that the child was 
twelve years old and had been working in the mill for nearly one year. Her 
father, Rafael Ventre, said that he had come to this country two years before 
the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge (1884). Annie, he said was born in this 
country, but he could not remember the year. 

"Did you swear that Annie was born on April 4, 1887 ?" 

" Yes, I put my cross to it." 

" And did you know what it was ? " 

" I signed it after it had been drawn up and read to me in both English 
and Italian. I understood that it was all right. I never went to school." 

When placed on the stand a second time the father admitted that he 
stated that Annie was sixteen years old so that she could get work and help 
him to run the house. Are any such immigrants wanted ? 

A story is told by one of the managers of the House of Refuge who 
examined boys to be paroled. The person applying for the boy, of whom the 
story is told, was a well-dressed man who wore considerable jewelry and had 
a handsome overcoat with a fur collar. When asked his interest in the boy 
he replied that he was the father. Asked if he had any more children, stated 
that he had seven more, all in public institutions where he expected to leave 
them until they were old enough to take care of themselves. 



A city magistrate writing on this subject says : 

" I have been particularly disturbed by the growth of faginism 
of children on the east side. Some of these children are immigrants and 
some are the children born here from immigrants. It has been particu- 
larly severe in that section of the city among the Jews, Eoumanians, and 
Poles, and I do not find it existing in any other part of the city." 

Fraudulent Naturalization. 

Still another feature that is developing into alarming proportions in con- 
nection with immigration is the fraudulent naturalization of aliens. This, it 
has been truly said, is the fault of ourselves and of our incomplete laws on the 
subject. However that may be, let us briefly examine some of the results. 
It has been estimated that there are 50,000 fraudulent citizenship papers held 
in New York City alone. This is indeed difficult of verification, but the 
wholesale resignations from the Street Cleaning Department last year, when 
the matter was being investigated, give some color to the estimate. District 
Attorney Burnet is reported as saying that one agency in this city sold 4,000, 
and another 2,000 naturalization papers last year. From the testimony in the 
trial of J. W. E. York, former clerk in the United States Court, it appears 
that this man sold citizenship papers, made out in blank, and with forged sig- 
natures, at from five to ten dollars each! Giovanni Morrelli, an Italian miner 
from Butte, Montana, is reported to have testified before the authorities at 
Ellis Island that he had been in this country but three years and had full 
citizenship papers apparently issued by the County Court of Butte, Montana. 
Before United States Commissioner Shields, Morrelli swore that he knew hun- 
dreds of Italians in Butte who had full citizenship papers and had been in 
America two or three years. In connection with some arrests recently made 
it was asserted that one-fourth of the Italians in the Street Cleaning Depart- 
ment have obtained their positions by means of fraudulent papers. All those 
arrested voted last fall as citizens and declared that they were able " to get 
their fraudulent papers through the assistance of political ward heelers." 
The Schuylkill County (Pa.) courts recently refused citizenship to a number 
of applicants because ' they did not know whether they came to this country 
before they were 18 years old. 



If you think further regulation of immigration 
is needed, please communicate with the IMMIGRA= 
TION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, Boston, Mass. 



504-3M. E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE. NO. 41 



THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION 



By ROBERT DeC. WARD 



Reprinted from 
The North American Review. 



NEW YORK: 

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW PUBLISHING CO. 



lip rf» V- 

(Reprinted from The North American Review) 

Copyright, 1904, by the 
North American Review Publishing Company 

All Rights Reserved. 



THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



BY ROBERT DE C. WARD. 



In the April number of the Keview, Mr. 0. P. Austin answers 
in the negative the question, " Is the New Immigration Dangerous 
to the Country?" and arrives at his conclusions by an analysis of 
numerous statistics, of which he is a well-known and acknowl- 
edged master. Mr. Austin says that it is hard "to apply the 
statistical measuring rod with an assurance of obtaining exact 
results in the way of conclusions." To this the present writer 
cordially agrees, for he is convinced that the immigration problem 
is so vast and so complex that present statistics cannot give any 
satisfactory solution of it. This problem, however difficult it 
may be for us to deal with here and now, is essentially a problem 
not of the present, as most writers assume, but of the future. 
And because the problem is of the future rather than of to-day, 
present statistics of immigration, of the character of our immi- 
grants, and of their relation to pauperism and crime, cannot 
furnish satisfactory answers to questions arising out of this prob- 
lem. Again, the assimilation of our immigrants cannot possibly 
be treated by means of statistics alone. Whether our recent immi- 
grants are or are not becoming satisfactorily assimilated can only 
be determined by those who have constant close personal relations 
with them. 

Thus we are ready to take up the first of the conclusions 
reached by Mr. Austin, "that the present immigration, large as 
it is, is not beyond our power of assimilation, and probably of 
healthful assimilation." The first comment which suggests itself 
in this connection concerns the numbers, not of last year's immi- 
gration, nor of this year's, but of the immigration of 1925, 1950, 
and of other years still farther off in the future. It is perfectly 
certain that emigration to this country will not decrease in the 



THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



future, except during occasional periods of financial depression, 
but that it will and must increase, unless the United States take 
some steps towards further restriction. No one who has watched 
the trend of passenger-steamship traffic between the United States 
and European ports within the past few years, and especially 
within the past year, can have failed to be impressed by the in- 
crease in the number of sailings in general, and especially by the 
marked increase in the number of sailings to and from Mediter- 
ranean ports. Within a few months the White Star Line has 
inaugurated a new service between Mediterranean ports and the 
United States; the Cunard Line has entered into competition for 
the steerage traffic from southern Europe, northern Africa and 
Asia, and has closed a contract with the Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment by which the Cunard ships are guaranteed 30,000 emi- 
grants from Austria-Hungary every year ;* a new line of steamers 
has been established between Odessa and New York; the Austro- 
American steamers which formerly plied as cargo-boats between 
Trieste and Central America have been transferred to run as pas- 
senger-ships between Trieste and New York; the number of 
Mediterranean sailings of the Hamburg-American, North Ger- 
man Lloyd and other companies, has been largely increased. 
All this is evidence of a very large growth in the steerage-pas- 
senger traffic from southern and eastern Europe and from Asia. 
The building of new railroads in Asia; the easier communication 
with the sea thus resulting; the increase in the number of steam- 
ship agents all over eastern Europe, northern Africa and Asia 
Minor — all this likewise means more immigrants.-!* 

Our fathers, who witnessed a total immigration of 128,393 in 
the decade 1820-1830, would probably have thought it beyond the 
range of human possibility to have 1,000,000 people brought 
across the ocean in a year. Yet, in view of the rapid increase in 
the size of ocean steamships, some of which now accommodate 
over 2,000 immigrants at once, may we not with reasonable cer- 

* That part of the contract which concerns the guarantee of 30,000 
emigrants annually has since been modified, according to cabled re- 
ports from Europe. 

f The competition between the rival steamship lines has recently re- 
sulted in a rate-war, and in an accompanying reduction of the cost of 
a steerage passage from many Europeans ports to the United States to 
ten dollars, and even less. The natural consequences have been an in- 
crease in the number of immigrants, and a marked deterioration in 
their quality. 



THE -NORTE AMERICAN REV I EVP. 

tainty expect an annual immigration of 2,000,000 within ten or 
fifteen years? Do any statistics as to numbers of foreign-born 
now here help us to solve the immigration problem of the future, 
which is going to be so immeasurably more difficult? Further- 
more, the new immigration from Austria-Hungary, Italy, Kus- 
sia, Poland, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Syria, etc., which has 
only just begun, will continue to increase with increasing facility 
of transportation. If we have an Italian slum problem, and a 
Jewish slum problem now, what shall we have when perhaps 
3,000,000 Eussian Jews have come to us, and when 5,000,000 
Italians are living here? Not only so, immigration from Asia 
has only just begun. Within a few years it may increase 
until we have more Asiatic immigrants in a year than we 
now have Italians. Is this not reasonably certain, and was 
not the late General Francis A. Walker right when he said 
that the tide of immigration will flow on as long " as there is any 
difference of economic level between our own population and 
that of the most degraded communities abroad " ? This, it seems 
to the writer, is the view of the future which ought to be taken 
by every one who thinks seriously of this vast problem of immigra- 
tion. J ames Bryce was not far wrong when he spoke of the more 
and more thorough " drainage " of the inland regions of Europe 
which is illustrated for us in the new immigration, and General 
Walker's apt phrase, " Pipe-Line Immigration," is as true as it is 
suggestive; for, although many thousands of immigrants still 
come here every year who may be ranked with the pioneers who 
came fifty years ago, when the journey was long, hard and expen- 
sive, a very large number now come because they are persuaded to 
come by some steamship agent; or because they find it easier to 
leave their home problems and take a fresh start, or indeed be- 
cause their own communities make it easy for them to leave for 
the good of those communities. It appears, then, that statistics 
of present immigration are of little help in a broad view of the 
immigration problem of the future. 

As to the assimilation of our alien population, that, likewise, 
cannot be expressed statistically. In this matter, there has been 
no more authoritative expression of opinion, by a large body of 
competent judges, than is contained in a series of resolutions sent 
to the last Congress from most of the Boards of Associated Chari- 
ties throughout the United States. These resolutions, which em- 



TEE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



bodied the views of voluntary and paid charity workers who every 
day are brought into close contact with the immigrant, and who, 
if anything, are prejudiced in his favor, held that " it is impossible 
to make the conditions of the very poor substantially better when 
every arriving steamer brings more of the ignorant and unskilled 
to compete for the employments that are open only to the ignorant 
and unskilled"; and that "the difficulty of securing universal 
education is greatly increased when every year sees landed an 
army of one hundred thousand illiterates, whose children will 
start upon their career as American citizens from ignorant homes, 
under practically foreign surroundings." It is significant to find 
in the last Annual Eeport of the Associated Charities of Boston 
the following : 

" With an immigration as unrestrained as at present, we can have 
little hope of permanent gain in the struggle for uplifting the poor of 
our cities, since newcomers are always at hand, ignorant of American 
standards." 

Again, in the 27th Annual Eeport of the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties of New York, after statistics concerning pauperism, is the fol- 
lowing : 

"It is unnecessary to introduce . . . the causes that underlie these 
conditions. The horrible congestion in which so many of our coreligion- 
ists live, the squalor and filth, the lack of air and sunlight. . . . Even 
more pronounced are the results accruing from these conditions: the 
vice and crime, the irreligiousness, lack of self-restraint, indifference to 
social conventions, indulgence of the most degraded and perverted appe- 
tites, which are daily growing more pronounced and more offensive." 

It is clear that we are not properly assimilating our foreign popu- 
lation when a judge in New York State rejects the naturalization 
papers of sixty persons, on the ground that "when a man has 
been in this country five years, and is unable to speak our lan- 
guage, ... he is not fitted to be admitted to citizenship;" or, 
when we find in the factories of the Empire State young men and 
women of seventeen to twenty who have lived here since they were 
four or five and who cannot yet understand or speak English. It 
must, furthermore, always be remembered that even if all the 
" unabsorbed " immigrants are brought to the point of demanding 
the same standards of living as those of the older part of the popu- 
lation, there is, as the late Professor Eichmond Mayo-Smith so 



THE WORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

clearly pointed out, an inexhaustible supply behind, which in its 
turn must also be raised up. 

Thus, there are two sides to the question, Has the new immigra- 
tion become assimilated ? Whatever may have been our success in 
assimilating those who have come in the past, it must be remem- 
bered that our work thus far is small compared with what is 
before us. No wonder that General Walker, who had intimate 
acquaintance with this problem through his work as Superin- 
tendent of the United States census, wrote : 

" That man must be a sentimentalist and an optimist beyond all bounds 
of reason who believes that we can take such a load upon the national 
stomach without a failure of assimilation, and without great danger to 
the life and health of the nation." 

In connection with assimilation, Mr. Austin makes use of the 
argument that, " while the immigration is larger now than ever 
before, it is no larger in proportion to the population than on 
many former occasions." The difficulty about this argument is 
that, whereas in the early days of the " new " immigration, twenty 
years or so ago, the " new " immigrants found themselves merged 
in a great mass of many millions, consisting almost wholly of 
Anglo-Saxons, it is becoming increasingly true that our new ar- 
rivals from southern and eastern Europe and from Asia come less 
and less in contact with the older part of our population. Wbat 
difference does it make to the 200,000 Italians, Hebrews and 
Poles who were last year destined to New York State, and mostly 
to New York City, that there is a total population in the country 
of 80,000,000 ? The path of an immigrant is very easy from his 
European village to a settlement of his own countrymen in some 
American city. He naturally goes where his relatives and friends 
have already settled; he may live for years in an American com- 
munity without coming very directly in contact with the older 
portion of the population, and sometimes even without finding 
any necessity of learning the English language. Thus it appears 
that statistics of annual immigration, in its relation to the total 
population of the country, cannot give any idea of the capacity of 
our people for the assimilation of the million of immigrants who 
came last year, nor of the possible future assimilation of the 
millions who will later come to us. 

In regard to Mr. Austin's second conclusion, "that the so- 



THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



called ' objectionable class ' is not the class which is filling the 
jails and almshouses," it should be noted that the census statistics 
of criminality are defective in that they do not make adequate dis- 
tinction between criminals of foreign birth and of foreign parent- 
age, and that crimes are not properly classified in respect of their 
being petty or serious. Secondly, it is yet too early to determine 
statistically what the relation of the new immigration to crime 
and pauperism will be, there being a good deal of evidence that 
the children of our recent immigrants are less law-abiding than 
their foreign-born parents. Thus, in the Final Keport of the 
United States Industrial Commission, page 967, it is stated that 
"the second generation, t. e., the native children of foreign 
parents, furnish the largest proportion of commitments and 
prisoners of all race elements in the population." Thirdly, a 
good deal of evidence can be adduced to show that the new immi- 
gration is a good deal of a financial burden, after all. In New 
York City there is, of course, the greatest congestion of recent 
immigrants, and here the rest of the country may well learn a 
lesson as to the conditions which are pretty certain to prevail else- 
where, as our other cities become more and more filled with the 
" Pipe-Line " immigrants from the slums of Europe and of Asia. 
One of the managers of the " House of Kefuge " in New York 
City says: 

" I notice the large number of children that are placed in charitable 
institutions for no crime or misdemeanor, but to relieve their parents 
of their support. They are principally from southern and eastern 
Europe." 

There are estimated to be 4.0,000 cases of trachoma in New York 
City, imported almost entirely by aliens from southern and east- 
ern Europe, and this danger is so great that the Boards of Edu- 
cation and of Health have found it necessary to examine the pupils 
in the public schools at frequent intervals, in order to check the 
spread of this disease among the children. Dr. H. J. Shively 
says: 

"Infection from trachoma and favus is readily traced to immigrant 
sources; in tuberculosis the course of the disease is slow and insidious, 
and immediate sources of infection are less readily recognized. It is 
perhaps for this reason that the danger of the tuberculous immigrant 
to the health of the community has not been emphasized as it should be." 



THE -NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

When all has been said, pro and con, it still remains a fact that, 
whether the new immigration does or does not add unduly to the 
number of criminals and dependents, it certainly adds consider- 
ably to them, and finally, that the present gives but little idea of 
what the future will bring forth. The fact that our newer immi- 
grants have so far not furnished a disproportionately large num- 
ber of paupers is doubtless in part due to their lower standards of 
living. But, meanwhile, these same lower standards of living 
work detrimentally with regard to the community as a whole. 

Mr. Austin's third conclusion as to the "new" immigrants is 
" that, while they are somewhat deficient in the matter of educa- 
tion, that of their children is likely to compare favorably with that 
of our own population, and that they will thus contribute a safe 
and valuable element to the future population of the country." 
This opinion is based on the fact that a larger percentage of the 
children of immigrants go to school during the years between five 
and fourteen than of the children of native whites, and that the 
percentage of illiterates among children born in the United States 
of foreign parents is smaller than among the children of native 
whites. These facts are well known, and are among the most 
hopeful and most encouraging signs for the future. On the other 
hand, however, ought we to make our already heavy burden of 
native illiteracy any heavier by adding to it several hundred 
thousand foreign illiterates, for the reason, forsooth, that the 
children of these foreign illiterates will form " a safe and valu- 
able element " in the population ? We have the burden of native 
illiteracy, adult and child; we have the burden of negro education. 
Our first duty is, obviously, to our own people. Shall we de- 
liberately add to these burdens the education of the illiterate 
millions who are coming and will continue to come from foreign 
lands ? Miss Adele Marie Shaw, who has recently made a thorough 
study of the New York City public schools, concludes that the 
only remedies for the conditions there existing are the restriction 
of foreign immigration and a vast increase in expenditure — 
" larger than any yet dreamed of." " With eighty-five per cent, 
of its population foreign or of foreign parentage, its salvation de- 
pendent upon the conversion of a daily arriving cityful of Eus- 
sians, Turks, Austro-Hungarians, Sicilians, Greeks, Arabs, into 
good Americans ... the city has a problem of popular education 
that is staggering." Furthermore, it is to be remembered that 



TEE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 

the very statistics which show the small illiteracy of the children 
of foreign-born immigrants also show a high percentage of 
criminality of these same children when they grow up. 

Fourthly, regarding the relation of the newer immigrants of 
the " objectionable class " to politics, it is claimed by Mr. Austin 
" that they are not, as a class, as dangerous an element in politics 
as has been frequently asserted." To confirm this view, statistics 
are given to show that the recent immigrants from southern and 
eastern Europe have not, as a whole, become naturalized to any 
great extent, and hence do not exert a bad political influence, be- 
cause they do not vote. This is a curious argument, from an 
American point of view: that there is no objection to having a 
large number of immigrants of certain races in our population as 
long as these people do not vote. Can that be a very desirable 
class of immigrants which we are anxious to have remain outside 
the body politic ? The fact that many electoral votes against free 
silver in 1896 came from States having a large number of foreign- 
born voters is not an argument against the further restriction of 
the immigration of races least closely allied to us, for these 
foreign-born voters were almost altogether from northern and 
western Europe, the others, as Mr. Austin himself points out, not 
generally being naturalized. 

Mr. Austin's last conclusion is "that they are an important 
factor in the development and wealth-producing power of the 
country," and this conclusion he supports by means of ^statistics 
showing that in the States having a large proportion of foreigners 
there has been a very great production of wealth. « No one can, or 
would, deny the fact that recent immigrants have contributed to 
the wealth of the country, but to argue from bare statistics that, 
because these States have witnessed a very large production of 
wealth, therefore the "new" immigration should be allowed to 
continue practically as at present, is rather illogical. Cheap labor 
is usually considered by the capitalist to be an advantage, and 
large employers of labor have always used their influence in Con- 
gress to ward off impending immigration legislation. But, as Mr. 
Edward T. Devine, Secretary of the Charity Organization Society 
of New York, has recently well said : 

" While it is true that cheap labor may be profitable from the em- 
ployer's point of view, it does not follow that those who are considering 
the interests of the community as a whole can look with favor upon 



J THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

it. .(. . The effect of utilizing underpaid immigrant labor under condi- 
tionj which, in order to afford a living at all, make excessive demands 
upon adult men, and lead irresistibly to the employment of women and 
children, is directly to increase the number who sooner or later require 
relief. . . . The plain tendency is to augment the number of those who 
break down prematurely; of those who in advanced years have made no 
provision for their own maintenance; of the children whose support 
must be supplied by others than their own parents, and of those who, 
meeting with unexpected misfortunes of any kind, have no resources 
except the generosity of strangers." 

In other words, labor which is economically "cheap " is not 
socially " cheap." Concerning the character of much of our 
present immigration we have the testimony of the Commissioner 
of Immigration at New York, one of the most efficient, capable 
and honest officers who have ever been in the Government service, 
who holds that " capital cannot, and would not if it could, em- 
ploy much of the alien material that annually passes through Ellis 
Island." These people " are neither physically nor mentally fitted 
to go to the undeveloped parts of our country." 

"At least 200,000 (and probably more) aliens came in (last year) 
who, although they may be able to earn a living, yet are not wanted, 
will be of no benefit to the country, and will, on the contrary, be a 
detriment, because their presence will tend to lower our standards; and 
if these 200,000 persons could have been induced to stay at home, nobody, 
not even those clamoring for more labor, would have missed them. 
Their coming has been of benefit chiefly, if not only, to the trans- 
portation companies which brought them here." 

The writer is not a believer in the total prohibition of immigra- 
tion, nor even in a large measure of restriction; he realizes that 
good immigration always has been and always will be an advan- 
tage to this country ; he does not for a moment wish to appear as 
opposing Italian immigration, or Jewish immigration, or Hun- 
garian immigration as a whole ; he has come into too close contact 
with many of our newer immigrants to have failed to see the 
many excellent qualities which distinguish large numbers of these 
people. He merely wishes to present, for the consideration of the 
readers of the Review, the other side of the conclusions which Mr. 
Austin has reached. He feels that any one who makes a thorough 
study of the whole immigration problem, — not of a few alien 
families in one city only — without the prejudice of mere sentiment 
or of selfish and pecuniary interests, and who looks to the future 



THE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 

rather than at the present, must reach the conclusion that some 
reduction in the volume of immigration is necessary, if American 
standards of living, and American ideals generally, are to be main- 
tained for all time. This reduction may be accomplished by 
means of a law limiting the number of immigrants from different 
countries who shall come here each year, as has been suggested by 
Congressman Eobert Adams, Jr., of Pennsylvania; or, less arbi- 
trarily, by means of the illiteracy test, which has the support of 
President Eoosevelt, of the Commissioner of Immigration, and of 
a large majority of those who have given the subject serious 
thought. This test is in line with our ideas of universal educa- 
tion; will enormously stimulate the demand for popular educa- 
tion in Europe ; will reduce the number of immigrants to a volume 
which there is some possibility of our being able to assimilate; 
will, with reasonable exceptions to prevent the separation of 
families, admit those only who, possessing the rudiments of an 
education, will certainly have a valuable asset in the struggle for 
existence. 

After all, the fundamental question which underlies everything 
else in this immigration problem has not even been alluded to in 
Mr. Austin's article. No statistical study of immigration can 
ever be complete because there is one element, more important 
than all the others, concerning which no statistics can ever be com- 
piled. That element is the number of American children who, be- 
cause of the pressure of foreign immigration, have never been 
born. Back of all statistics of the criminality, pauperism, assimi- 
lation, illiteracy, naturalization and economic value of immi- 
grants, lies the great question of the effect of immigration upon 
our native, or older, stock. No discussion of this question can be 
at all complete which leaves this out of consideration. The immi- 
gration of the last fifty years has contributed millions to our popu- 
lation; has undoubtedly added enormously to the wealth of the 
country, but these things have been accomplished at the expense 
of the native stock. The decreasing birth-rate of our native popu- 
lation, the complex resultant, without doubt, of many factors, has 
been very largely due to the effect of foreign immigration. The 
late General Walker first advanced this view; that, as newer and 
lower classes of immigrants came to this country, Americans 
shrank more and more from the industrial competition which was 
thus forced upon them: they became unwilling to subject their 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



sons and daughters to this competition, and hence these sans and 
daughters were never born. The stronger the competition, the 
greater the effort to maintain and raise the standard of living and 
the social position above that of the majority of recent immi- 
grants ; and the greater this effort, the greater the voluntary check 
to population. This competition is most serious in its conse- 
quences when it is due to the immigration of races which are able 
and content to live under wholly inferior conditions, and when 
this immigration continually feeds the lower strata of the popula- 
tion, however rapidly the intermediate strata may be raised in 
their standards of living. The question is a race question, pure 
and simple. Many of our recent immigrants, not discouraged by 
the problem of maintaining high standards of living with their 
many children, are replacing native Americans. It is fundament- 
ally a question as to what kind of babies shall be born ; it is a ques- 
tion as to what races shall dominate in this country. The Amer- 
„ ican birth-rate is decreasing. Mr. E. E. Kuczynski, after a very 
careful study of the population statistics of Massachusetts, con- 
cludes that the native population is dying out. General Walker 
believed that foreign immigration into this country has, from the 
time it assumed large proportions, not reinforced our population, 
but replaced it. The United States Industrial Commission, which 
made one of the most thorough studies of immigration ever under- 
taken, says in its Final Eeport that "it is a hasty assumption 
which holds that immigration during the nineteenth century has 
increased the total population.' 5 In his new book, " The Slav 
Invasion and the Mine Workers," Dr. P. J. Warne says that the 
coming of the Slavs into the mining districts of Pennsylvania 
since 1880 has determined the number of births in the older, 
English-speaking portion of the population. More recently still, 
Mr. Henry Gannett, well known for his statistical work in con- 
nection with the Census, in a hitherto unpublished statement, 
-says: 

" I do not think that our population has been materially, if at all, 
increased by immigration. On the contrary, I think that our population 
would be almost, if not quite, as numerous if the great flood of immigra- 
"tion which began in 1847 had never reached our shores." 

Mr. Gannett believes that the mixture of our blood with that of 
Germany, Ireland and Scandinavia has been an advantage, but he 



TEE RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION. 



also believes that a mixture with the blood of the " new " immi- 
gration " can have only a bad effect." Finally, in a recent article, 
Mr. Robert Hunter, of the University Settlement in New York, 
puts the case very clearly as follows : 

" The fathers and mothers of the American children can be chosen, 
and it is in the power of Congress to decide upon what merits. . . . 
No nation has ever had a social responsibility of greater magnitude. 
The future of American society, industry, religious faith, political in- 
stitutions, may be decided in a way quite marvellous by the governing 
powers of this country. The worst aspect of the whole matter is that 
the selfish forces interested in promoting immigration in every con- 
ceivable way, are deciding all these questions for us. The ones who 
come and the numbers who come depend largely upon the steamship 
companies. Whether we have more Hungarians than Italians, or Syrians 
than Greeks, or Scandinavians than Slavs, depends to a very large ex- 
tent upon their ports, their passage rates and their success in adver- 
tising and soliciting. ... I believe that this country may be ruined by 
leaving the volume and quality of immigration almost entirely to the 
decision of the steamship companies. . . . The skill of their agents de- 
cides whether we shall have one race or another come in great masses 
to our shores. ... If we let the steamship companies and the railroads, 
wanting cheap labor, alone, we shall not decide what immigrants will 
be better for coming, and what ones the country needs. They will de- 
cide it for us. . . . Our governing bodies ... in the past . . . have failed 
to consider the welfare of the people, either immigrants or Americans. 
The decision has been made as a result of pressure brought to bear 
upon public officials by private and selfish interests. Our national char- 
acteristics may be changed; our love of freedom, our religion, our in- 
ventive faculties, our standard of life., All of the things, in fact, for 
which America has been more or less distinctive among the nations, may 
be entirely altered. Our race may be supplanted by another, by an 
Asiatic one, for instance, and not because it is better so, nor because it 
i3 for the world's good.. On the contrary, it is in order that individuals 
interested in steamships may be benefited, and in order that employers 
may have cheaper labor. These selfish forces may be disguised, but they 
are there." 

Robert DeC. Ward. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 42. 

Immigration Figures for 1904 

( From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration.) 

Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1 903 and 1 904 





1903. 


1904. 


Total Immigration ....... 


857,046 


812,870 


Number debarred from entrance and returned within 






one year after landing [See Note /.] . 


9,316 


8,773 


Per cent, debarred and returned 


I.I 


1.1 


Number of illiterates over 14 years of age. [See 






Note 


189,008 


172,856 


Per cent, of illiterate in total immigration over 






14 years of age ...... 


25.O 


24.6 


Immigration from Northern and Western Europe, 






1903, Teutonic and Keltic races, 1904, [See 






% Note &] 


203,689 


203,022 


Per cent, of total immigration 


23.8 


36.1 


Immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, 






1903, Slavic and Iberic races, 1904, [See 






Note ""> 


610,813 


459,003 


Per cent, of total Immigration 


71.3 


56.5 


Immigration from Asia ..... 


29,966 


26,186 


Per cent, of total immigration 


3.5 


3-2 


Average money brought, in dollars 


19 


26 


Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 




United States before ..... 


8.9 


12.8 


Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 




tion, including women and children 


23-3 


26.4 


Per cent, of total immigration who were farm-labor- 


ers, laborers or servants .... 


57.3 


49.4 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 






States of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. 


65-4 


64.6 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the 


Southern and Western States 




IO.I 



NOTE r. — The figures for 1Q04 include aha those immigrants returned ici'hin three yea^s 
after lauding, under the Act of March j, 1Q03, but do not include 68j6 debarred at ports on the 
Canadian and Mexican borders. 

NOTE 2. — Although the percentage of illiteracy shows an improvement this year over last, 
it should be remembered that these figures are based upon the manifests, which in turn are made 
up from the statements of the immigrants. One test recently made at New York showed that 
173 immigrants listed as able to read and write were, in fact, illiterate. The recent agitition for 
an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the latter more disposed to assert their 
ability to read and write. 

NO TE j. — '■''Northern and Western Europe" includes the United Kingdom, France, Germany , 
Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland. This group is the same as "Teutonic and 
Keltic races" with the exception that the latter group includes Northern Italians, and does not 
inchcde Bohemians and Moravians. 

NOTE 4 — "Southern and Eastern Europe" includes Austria- Hungary, Italy, Poland, 
Russia, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and the Balkan States. This group is the same as 
"Slavic and Iberic races," except that the latter does not include A T orthern Italians, Migyars 
or Turks. 



LARGEST ELEMENTS IN RECENT IMMIGRATION. 



Southern Italian 


1902. 
152,915 


1903. 
196,117 


1904. 
159 329 


Hebrew ..... 


57,688 


76,203 


106,236 


German . . 


51,686 


71,782 


74,790 


Polish . . . . . 


69,620 


82,343 


67,757 


Scandinavian .... 


55'78o 


79>347 


6l,029 


IMMIGRATION OF 


1904 BY RACIAL 


DIVISIONS 










Per cent. 






Number 


of Total 








Immigration 


Slavic . 




272,396 


33.5 


Teutonic ..... 




195,287 


24.O 


Iberic . 




186,607 


22.9 


Keltic 




98,635 


121 


Mongolic ..... 




20,6l6 


2.5 


All others .... 




39>329 


4-8 



The Burdens of Immigration. 

[Compiled from Commissioner-General's Report f or S904.] 



ALIEN INMATES OF PENAL, REFORHATORY AND CHARITABLE 
INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Penal Institutions ....... 9,825 

Insane Institutions ....... 19,764 

Charitable Institutions ...... 15,396 

Total 44,985 



Note that these figures include only inmates of institutions supported by 
the public, and do not include foreign-born citizens. 

Note that of these 44,985 alien dependents and delinquents, 26,890 or 
more than half were found in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and 
Illinois. 

Although Slavic and Iberic immigration (from Southern and Eastern 
Europe) is of relatively recent arrival, its proportion of criminals among 
all alien inmates of penal, reformatory and charitable institutions, and the 
proportion of all alien inmates for the different racial divisions was as follows: 



Race Division 

Iberic 
Slavic 
Teutonic 
Keltic 



Average 



Proportion 
of all alien 
Inmates 


Proportion of 
alien Inmates who 
are criminals 


Proportion of alien 
Inmates arrived 
within 3 years 


9 


39 


47 


14 


25 


40 


38 


17 


15 


33 


15 


7 




22 


23 



These figures show that the recent immigration furnishes the largest 
proportion of criminals among its dependent and delinquent classes; also that 
the races constituting the bulk of the recent immigration becomes dependent 
and delinquent sooner than the other races. 

The average cost of supporting a dependent or delinquent is not far from 
$150.00 per year. At this figure our alien dependents and delinquents in 
public institutions alone cost us $6,750,000 per year; and as their average 
expectation of life is about 12 years, their total cost, if they all remained for 
life in these institutions, would be about $75,000,000. A large proportion of 
them will spend the rest of their lives or a considerable part of their lives in 
these public institutions. 

Considering only the insane and charitable institutions, il 
alien population which is only 1.3 per cent of the total popu 
12 per cent of the inmates of these institutions. If we consic 
born, it appears that they furnish 8 per thousand while the native-born 
furnish only 2 1-2 per thousand to these institutions. 

ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of 
age who, according to their own statement, cannot write, or cannot read and 
write, their own language, from those races {not nations) which contributed 
upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during any of the past 
three fiscal years : 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) 1902 1903 1904 

Scotch I>2 M 0<6 

Scandinavian ...... 0-5 o-6 0.7 

English 1.9 1.6 1.3 

Bohemian and Moravian .... j.6 j.g 

Finnish I<4 2 . 2 2 .y 

French 4 .g 3.8 3 . 2 

Irish • • 39 3-8 3-4 

Dutch and Flemish ..... 7.6 6 9 4.1 

German ....... 5.4 4 .6 4.8 

Italian (North) I4>4 12 .j j2 .q 

Average of above .... 4.4 3.9 4.0 



Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic) 

Spanish — 8.9 9.8 

Magyar 13-3 10.5 14.1 

Greek ....... 30.0 27.7 236 

Russian ........ — 21-9 26-0 

Slovak 2 ij.9 21-6 27.9 

Roumanian ....... 2 8-3 21-5 31-7 

Dalmatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian . — — 25 6 

Polish 38-4 321 35-8 

Croatian and Slovenian .... 422 35.2 36.1 

Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin . . — 44 .y 45.4 

Lithuanian 5 4<I 4 6.6 54.1 

Italian (South) 564 51.4 542 

Ruthenian 500 494 58-8 

Portuguese 71..6 73.2 67.5 

Average of above . . . . 44.3 39.7 42.6 



Other Races. 

Chinese — I2 9 8-2 

Cuban 8.0 42 87 

Japanese ....... x-2 270 216 

Hebrew 286 265 233 

African (black) ...... — 32.5 23-7 

Sy rian 5i-o 53-8 54-7 



1M--206-E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 43. 



The Immigration Restriction League was organized for the purpose of 
improving and regulating alien immigration into the United States. 

NOTE:— The following extracts are from an article by Mr. 
Broughton Brandenburg, published in Charities (New York), Vol. 
14, pp. 896-9, July, 1905. Mr. Brandenburg has made detailed 
personal studies of alien immigration, and is the author of a 
book, Imported Americans, published by F. A. Stokes Co., New 
York. 

Underground Immigration. 

Ignorance on the part of resourceful people is bad; short-sightedness is 
worse. The short-sightedness displayed by prominent foreign-born Americans 
in the matter of immigration is one of the most discouraging things I have 
encountered in a purely impersonal attempt to better alien conditions. The 
influential Italian believes in keeping out all the trachomatous Jews, immoral 
French, physically deficient Hungarians, but cannot see why the cousin of his 
brother-in-law should not come into the United States just because he "got into 
a little trouble in the old country and went to jail for ten years." The influen- 
tial Jew thinks all the murderous Italians, dissolute Slavs, contract laborers 
from Hungary, etc., should be barred, but the poor, broken, worthless, spiritless 
Jew of his tribe should be let through, even if the first Jew pays $10,000 a year 
to help support the societies that bring him. The French liquor dealer who 
heads the little sub rosa syndicate for the distribution of immoral women, raves 
over the terrible damage being done to this country by the influx of a million 
people a year. One and all forget the proverb of the goose and the gander. 

The decent foreign-born Americans should combine to keep out the unde- 
sirable regardless of nationality, family relations, or business interests, because 
in the long run the reactionary effect strikes first the foreign-born citizen. The 
Jewish charities carry an awful burden rather than see some of their people 
uncared for. The great mass of the hard-working and honest Italians suffer 
black opprobrium because they have helped to get the thieves, murderers and 
Mafiusi into the country and now the leeches are preying upon them. Just so 
it goes. 

The vile parasites prey first on the people of their own blood. If the 
Italians, Jews, Hungarians and all the others would stop trying to run their 
friends and relatives through by the underground railway, would inform on 
those already illegally here, the situation could be clarified. But that is hope- 



less. It is a voluntary movement which is nearly impossible. The only thing 
to do is to close off the avenues with a strong hand. 

If a water pipe had burst in my house I should not dance about pointing 
to the damage it was doing, or try to stop the leak with chewing gum and blot- 
ting paper; I should go into the basement and turn off the water. . . . 

In this brief article I wish particularly to summarize some known things 
about underground immigration and to give the result of some of my recent 
investigations. . . . With but twelve million foreign-born out of eighty 
million people in the United States, in round numbers, more than half of the 
objects of charity are aliens by birth. At present immigration is responsible 
for seventy-four per cent, in the increase in population, and ninety-five per 
cent, of the beggars rounded up on the streets in Philadelphia were found to 
be aliens. Nothing more need be said to command the alert attention of hon- 
est charity. 

Last winter when the steerage rate war was on, the greatest masses of scrap 
material for nation building reached this country that were ever loaded upon 
a good-natured government. But they, as a first effect, were as nothing to the 
greater effect of that rate war, and Roosevelt's election, combined with the Russo- 
Japanese struggle. A mighty impetus was given to a body of millions of immi- 
grants who have not as yet begun to arrive. For years they have been intend- 
ing to come to America, but the rate war, Roosevelt's election and the troubles 
in Russia have precipitated them, and they would be swelling the tide this very 
minute if the rise in rates and the absolute refusal of sub-agents to sell tickets 
to less desirable persons until the annual rush of Italians is over, had not tem- 
porarily checked them. By the same process of calculation based on informa- 
tion from foreign correspondents, which allowed me to predict last fall that 
this year's immigration would run to a million, a statement generally ridiculed 
at the time but verified since, I am convinced that there is going to be a heavy 
fall rush of the poorest immigrants we have ever received, with a sustaining 
of the winter traffic and another big year in 1906 if industrial prosperity in the 
United States continues. 

First I should state what I mean by a "good" or "poor" immigrant. An 
immigrant is more or less good according to his or her ability and willingness 
to earn his or her own living, now or in the future, and obey the laws. That 
covers the whole case. That shuts out the criminal, diseased, physically and 
mentally deficient, immoral and politically undesirable classes. Every poor im- 
migrant is sooner or later, directly or indirectly, certain to become a charge 
upon society. While two-thirds of our national material resources remain un- 
developed there should be no thought of shutting out good immigrants who 
are willing to assist in the development of them. . . . 

So it is not on the man who is willing and able to work and attend to his 
own affairs that attention must be centered. It is to his crippled brother and 



his thieving cousin to whom he sends prepaid tickets in the days of his pros- 
perity, that we must turn an anxious eye. During the past eight months I have 
watched with concerned interest the visible day by day increase in the foreign 
quarters to which I am accustomed to going in eastern cities, of the crippled, 
club-footed, cross-eyed, one-eyed, anemic, scrofulous, decrepit, hollow-chested, 
and variously diseased recruits to the colony. Where I see eight on Wednesday 
I see ten on Saturday. They are not at this moment paupers as a rule. They 
have relatives who have stated to the immigration authorities that they, the 
relatives, have means and are willing to care for and support these unfortunate 
newcomers, who even though they may now be able to make their own way, 
come to us as ready-made subjects for our charitable care should their relatives 
cast them off after they have been here long enough to obtain a legal residence. 
These physically deficient persons cannot enter the country unless their rela- 
tives and friends show that they are not going to allow them to become public 
charges. But what happens if misfortune overtakes the bread-winner of the 
family or he grows tired of his burden ? It is off to the almshouses, asylums and 
hospitals for the helpless relatives. 

The bringing in of physically deficient immigrants whose shortcomings are 
not easily detected in the hasty examination that can be given them is one 
method of underground immigration, but the most vicious form is the careful 
preparation for concealment which is done abroad. I had a case under exami- 
nation not long since of a middle-aged German woman with a dropsical affec- 
tion. She had been in free clinics and wards in Frankfort, and in some way 
was supplied with the means to come to the United States on a "two-pound" 
ticket. A young German posed as her son when she passed through Ellis Island. 
The poor creature underwent an operation a week before she sailed that re- 
duced her distension sufficiently for her to pass the doctors, but she became 
worse after the temporary relief, went to a Baltimore hospital and died there. 
Just a few weeks ago a Russian Jew, three weeks in the country, went to Belle- 
vue Hospital in New York to be treated for eczema. After he had exposed sev- 
eral persons in the hospital, and no one knows how many outside, to contagion, 
he was found to have leprosy. It was the first case at the hospital in years. On 
being questioned he said he had been coached to conceal the signs of his terrible 
malady w T hen passing through Ellis Island. How many people did he con- 
taminate in the closely crowded quarters of the steerage? 

A number of times I have made statements concerning the sheltering, doc- 
toring up and coaching of poor Jews in London and on the continent, only to 
have those statements indignantly repudiated by Jews in a position to know 
whether they were true or not. Some months since, at a conference of Jewish 
societies at Frankfort-on-the-Main these operations were as openly discussed 
as the sending of missionaries would be by a Methodist conference. No less a 
person than Arnold White, after an investigation, finds that London is but a 



3 



way station for thousands of indigent and physically deficient Jews, who re- 
main long enough to be put in shape for the examination at Ellis Island. They 
are looked after by the international Jewish organizations. Hear the Jew3 
protest: "we take care of our own." All credit for that, but we do not want 
people who have to be taken care of. They are not good stock, they are not 
good stuff, and I do not care how well-intentioned or how eminently respectable 
the people are who are supporting this underground immigration of the poor 
Jews. They are breaking the laws of the United States. 

Through western Pennsylvania scores of cases have been cropping up of 
insane and idiotic Hungarians and Austrians found wandering about the towns 
and villages. Investigation proved that nearly all had been in the country less 
than eight months, that many had been insane for years, and the conclusion 
was that they were part and parcel of thousands of insane and idiotic persons 
turned over to the Cunard Line to fill the contract which the Hungarian gov- 
ernment secretly made with it, to supply all Hungarian immigrants to the line 
with an alleged minimum number of 30,000. This contract was disclosed by 
Marcus Braun, special immigration inspector in Europe. 

On my second visit to Naples, I found such unmistakable evidences of un- 
derground immigration that I could not see how it was possible for the opera- 
tives to go long undiscovered. I suceeded in breaking up one gang of twenty 
confining its efforts to the purely local operation of getting immigrants from 
all of the disease-laden centers of southern Europe aboard ship without having 
their baggage inspected and fumigated, and from time to time have sent a keen 
correspondent tips to lead him to tap the main line of the underground railway. 
About May 12 the grand disclosure came. Forty-two immigrant lodging-house 
keepers were found to have formed a pool, and sent out clever agents to all parts 
of Italy to recruit the epileptic, periodically insane, crippled, trachomatous, 
and criminal persons who desired to come to the United States and had feared 
to attempt it, or had been debarred at Naples or Ellis Island. For from $40 
to $160, the amount dependent on how difficult the case was or how much money 
the emigrant and his relatives could raise, the agents guaranteed to get them 
into this country. Hundreds of them had been despatched, after being doc- 
tored up, coached, prepared and even fitted with papers, and all would have 
worked well if the crowds on the steamers had not been so great that the steam- 
ship companies got shiploads of sound immigrants without bringing the de- 
crepit, and so the engineers of the underground were compelled to wait. Some 
of the people they were shipping grew suspicious at the delay, complained to 
the police, and the police after some sleuthing arrested the promoters, not for 
smuggling emigrants, but for failing to "deliver the goods." These arrests 
will not interfere with the resumption of the undergrounding. 

While making investigations in Mexico in February and March as to why 
the tide of undesirable immigrants that had been stopped from coming in over 

4 



> 



the Canadian border by the work of Commissioner Kobert Watchorn, had taken 
to the Mexican border, I found one of the main lines of underground for the 
very worst immigrants. For weeks I cross-hatched Vera Cruz and Mexico City 
knowing that the line must run there if it existed. At last, while in the east- 
ern part of the city one evening, I saw a long file of immigrants issuing from 
the station of the Tnteroceanic Railway. Following them on foot, I found they 
were led to a house, normally an ill-named establishment at No. 11 Cerca San 
Lorenzo. In that place and the one adjoining I found more than one hundred 
men, women and children, including idiots, leperoids, trachomatous persons, 
etc., and proved the establishment to be the central station on the underground 
from which the people were smuggled over the Rio Grande in small parties. 
To make this impossible it would require a staff of five hundred mounted in- 
spectors on the border. 



NOTE.— The foregoing account, embodying the results of the 
author's personal investigations, shows the need of amending 
our immigration laws in two very important respects. 

1. THE HEAD-TAX SHOULD BE RAISED. A head-tax of fifty cents 
on each immigrant was imposed by act of Congress in 1882. It was later raised 
to one dollar, and the act of March 3, 1903, increased it to two dollars. This 
money is paid by the steamship companies and is simply added to the price of 
the passage ticket. The immigrant himself knows nothing of the payment. 
The head-tax is paid into the United States treasury, forming what is known as 
the "immigrant fund," and is spent in maintaining the immigration service. 
This head-tax should be increased to twenty-five dollars. The chief reason for 
advocating such an increase is that we have no other means of keeping the 
steerage passage rate to the United States at a figure which brings it some- 
where near the rate to South America and other countries to which immigrants 
are likely to go. When a steamship war is on, the steerage rates may drop to 
ten dollars, or even less, as they did in the summer of 1904, and as they seem 
likely to do again. Such a reduction immediately brings a large influx of des- 
perately poor and generally undesirable aliens, as was the case last year. An 
increased head-tax means a larger "immigrant fund," and that means more 
effective administration of existing laws, and better care of the immigrants. It 
is objected to an increased head-tax that the honesty and character of an immi- 
grant do not depend upon his ability to pay a certain sum of money, and that 
undesirable persons, criminals for example, might easily pay the tax. In answer 
to this objection it need only be pointed out that the higher head-tax is not to 
be substituted for the other restrictive clauses of existing law; it is to be added 
to them. Criminals are already excluded by law. They would be excluded — if 

5 



detected— even if they could pay the extra passage money necessitated by a 
larger head-tax. An increased head-tax is intended as a means— the only means 
within our reach— of keeping the steerage passage above the level of pauper 
rates, and is one of the few practicable methods of reducing the flow of unde- 
sirable immigration to a point where it can be properly assimilated. The 
United States should not be chosen by an immigrant, as it now often is, because 
it is the cheapest country to go to. It should be selected because it is the best, 
and by those who want the best. A head-tax of twenty-five dollars was not de- 
sirable years ago. It becomes more and more necessary as the increasing 
facilities of land and water transportation make it easier and cheaper to come 
here. The tax would not act as a permanent and insuperable barrier to de- 
sirable aliens, for any hard-working and ambitious man or woman who wanted to 
come here could earn the extra money. It would doubtless deter many of the 
shiftless and incompetent, and it would prevent such shipments of paupers and 
criminals as are now known to have been made with the connivance, if not at 
the expense, of the authorities abroad. 

2. WE SHOULD EXCLUDE ALIENS OF POOK PHYSIQUE. 1 It is 
high time that aliens of poor physique should be debarred from our shores. 
When we raise horses, or cattle, or dogs, or sheep, we select good, strong, 
healthy stock. If we have any concern for the physical development of our 
race, we should certainly be no less careful in the selection of our human 
stock. With the change in the racial character of our immigration in recent 
years there has come a marked deterioration in the general physique of the 
immigrants. At the present time our medical inspectors record thousands of 
aliens as being of such poor physique that their ability to earn a living is 
thereby interfered with, yet most of these are admitted because there is no 
specific clause in our existing immigration law under which they can clearly and 
surely be excluded, and because the proffered financial assistance of a friend 
or relative is allowed to offset the fact of poor physique. The physique of an 
immigrant is a matter of the very highest importance for the health and future 
of the race. It is the aliens of poor physique who usually shun the country, 
and crowd into city tenements, "where they become ready victims of diseases 
and establish in these crowded quarters dangerous foci for the dissemination of 
disease." "The real danger to the public health, and to the future of our stock, 
lies in that class of immigrants whose physique is much below American 
standards." 



1 A certificate of poor physique " implies that the alien concerned is afflicted with a hody but illy 
adapted not only to the work necessary to earn his bread but is also but poorly able to withstand the 
onslaught of disease. It means that he is undersized, poorly developed, with feeble heart action, 
arteries below the standard size ; that he is physically degenerate, and as such not only unlikely to 
become a desirable citizen, but also very likely to transmit his undesirable qualities to his offspring, 
should he, unfortunately for the country in which he is domiciled, have any."— [Official definition of 
poor physique.] 



6 



Our best insurance against race decadence is to be sought in the selection 
of good, strong, healthy stock. We want none but honest, industrious, healthy 
and fit immigrants, and we can get them if we exclude the others. We 
want them sound in body and sound in mind. We have by law debarred 
those of unsound mind. Our next step should be to debar those of poor 
physique. A reasonable, wise and necessary addition to our immigration 
laws would be the exclusion of persons physically weak or defective so 
that they are wholly or partially disabled from manual labor, or so that 
their ability to earn a living in any trade or occupation upon which such 
persons are dependent is thereby affected, whether that trade or occupation 
involves hard physical effort or not. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restrict 
tion League, address PRESCOTT F. HALL, Secretary, 60 State St., 
Boston. The dues for membership are as follows : For annual 
membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and 
upon January 1st of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, 
payable upon admission, life members being exempt from annual 
dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organ- 
ization, with members from all parts of the United States. It advo- 
cates a stricter regulation of immigration, but not the exclusion of 
any immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become 
citizens. 



7 



I 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE Wo. 44. 

Immigration Figures for 1905 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration?) 

Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1 904 and 1 905 

1904. 1905 



Total Immigration. [See Note i] . . 812,870 1 026,499 

Number debarred from entrance and returned within 



one year after landing 


8,773 


12,724 


Per cent, debarred and returned 


I.I 


12 


Number of illiterates over 14 years of age. [See 






Note 


172,856 


239,091 


Per cent. 01 illiterate m total immigration over 






14 years of age ...... 


24.6 


20*2 


Immigration of "Teutonic and Keltic races," 






cnielly from "Northern and Western Europe, 






' [See Note 3.] 


293,922 


345.237 


Per cent, of total immigration , 


36.1 


34-6 


Immigration 01 "Slavic and 1 bene races, cnieily 






from "Southern and Eastern Europe," [See 






Note 4-] 


459,003 


598,480 


Per cent, of total Immigration 


56.5 


583 


Immigration from Asia ..... 


26,186 


23,925 


Per cent, of total immigration 


3-2 


2-3 


Average money brought, in dollars 


26 


24 5° 


Per cent, of immigrants who have been in the 






United States before ..... 


12.8 


17.1 


Per cent, of total immigration having no occupa- 




tion, including women and children 


26.4 


22. 6 


Per cent, of total immigration who were farm-labor- 




ers, laborers or servants .... 


49.4 


541 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the four 


States of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. . . 


64.6 


65-3 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the states 


east of the Mississippi River and north of the 






Potomac and Ohio Rivers .... 


89.9 


91-3 


Per cent, of total immigration destined for the 


Southern and Western States 


IOI 


8.7 



NOTE I. — The figures for f<?oj do no: include 126,296 persons admitted as citizens, 
nor JJ,2j6 " aliens in transit." 

A r TE 2. — // should be remembered thai the figures of illiteracy are based upon the mani- 
fests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. One test recently made 
at New York showed that 175 immigrants listed as able to read and write were, in fact, illiterate. 
The recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the latter more 
disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

A T OTE 3. — The group "Teutonic and Keltic Races" is the same as the group " Northern 
and Western Europe" with the exception that the former includes Northern Italians, and does 
not include Bohemians and Moravians. The latter group is composed of the United Kingdom 
France, Germany, Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland. 

NOTE 4. — The group "Slavic and Iberic Races " is the same as "Southern and Eastern 
Europe' 1 '' except that the former does not include Northern Italians, Magyars or Turks. The 
latter group embraces Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Greece, 
Turkey, and the Balkan States. 



LARGEST ELEMENTS IN RECENT IMMIGRATION. 



TQ02. 


1903. 


1Q04. 


1905. 


Southern Italian . 152,915 


196,117 


159,329 


l85 5 445 


Hebrew . . . 57,688 


76,203 


106,236 


129,910 


German . . . 51,686 


71*782 


74,790 


82,360 


Polish . . . 69,620 


82,343 


67,757 


102,437 


Scandinavian , . 55>78o 


79>347 


61,029 


62,284 


IMMIGRATION OF 1905 BY RACIAL 


DIVISIONS. 










Per cent. 






Number 


of Total 








Immigration. 


Slavic 




384,679 


37-3 


Teutonic ...... 




221 OI9 


21 5 


Iberic . . 




213,801 


20 8 


Keltic 




I24,2l8 


121 


Mongolic ...... 




17,921 


i-7 


All others 




64,861 


63 



The Burdens of Immigration. 

[Compiled from Commissioner-General 's Report for /goj.] 



ALIEN INMATES OF PENAL, REFORiTATORY AND CHARITABLE 
INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Penal Institutions 
Insane Institutions 
Charitable Institutions 

Total 



9,825 
19,764 

i5'396 

44,985 



Note that these figures include only inmates of institutions supported by 
the public, and do not include foreign-born citizens. 

Note that of these 44,985 alien dependents and delinquents, 26,890 or 
more than half were found in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and 
Illinois. 

Although Slavic and Iberic immigration (from Southern and Eastern 
Europe) is of relatively recent arrival, its proportion of criminals among 
all alien inmates of penal, reformatory and charitable institutions, and the 
proportion of all alien inmates for the different racial divisions was as follows: 



Froportion Proportion of Proportion of alien 

Race Division of all alien alien Inmates who Inmates arrived 

Inmates are criminals within 5 years 

Iberic 9 39 47 

Slavic ..... 14 25 40 

Teutonic ..... 38 17 15 

Keltic 33 15 7 

Average ... 22 21 



These figures show that the recent immigration furnishes the largest 
proportion of criminals among its dependent and delinquent classes; also that 
the races constituting the bulk of the recent immigration becomes dependent 
and delinquent sooner than the other races. 

The average cost of supporting a dependent or delinquent is not far from 
$150.00 per year. At this figure our alien dependents and delinquents in 
public institutions alone cost us $6,750,000 per year; and as their average 
expectation of life is about 12 years, their total cost, if they all remained for 
life in these institutions, would be about $75,000,000. A large proportion of 
them will spend the rest of their lives or a considerable part of their lives in 
these public institutions. 

Considering only the insane and charitable institutions, it appears that an 
alien population which is only 1.3 per cent of the total population furnishes 
12 per cent of the inmates of these institutions. If we consider the foreign- 
born, it appears that they furnish 8 per thousand while the native-born 
furnish only 2 1-2 per thousand to these institutions. 

ILLITERACY. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of 
age who, according to their own statement, cannot write, or cannot read and 
write, their own language, from those races (not nations) which contributed 
upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during any of the past 
three fiscal years : 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) 


1903 


1904 


1905 


ocotcn ....... 


1-2 


06 


0.7 


OCd.U<_llIl<i\ ldU . . 3 . . 


00 


0.7 


0.0 


TTn <vl 1 o Vi 

Mi 11 1 1 ii ...... 


I-D 


i-3 




Bohemian and. Moravian 


i-6 


z-8 


i-7 


TTi n n i oil 

-T 111 11 loll ...... 


2«2 


2.7 


1.0 


French . . . ... 


3.8 


3-2 


2.7 


Irish ....... 


3.8 


3-4 


3.8 


Dutch and Flemish .... 


69 


4.1 


5-3 


German ...... 


4-6 


48 


4.2 


Italian (±\iorin^ ..... 


12-7 


126 


14.0 


Average of above 


3.9 


4.0 


3.7 


Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic) 








Snan lsVi 

kj ijdiii ifji-i ...... 


59 


9-8 


10. 1 


Magyar . . . . . 


10.5 


I4.I 


11. 


Greek ...... 


27.7 


_ c 

23. 


22.4 


XVUDoloiIl ...... 


3 J -9 


20'0 


30.0 


oio v aK ...... 


210 


27.9 


25.0 


1 } r\ n tv-> nrilQTi 

11U {JLU-LaillLaill ...... 


21- 5 


3*7 


2o. 


J_/£llIUd; LI till, _DUoIll<All dllU. XJ-tJI Zit!y U V lllldill 




35-0 


384 


JL UlloJJ. ....... 


321 


35 8 


39-0 


v>"J ifdiliLdill dillKX ioIU V tJllld/H ... 


35' 2 


30.1 


_ O _ 
38-2 


Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin 


44.7 


45-4 


^8-Q 


Lithuanian ...... 


46.6 


54-i 


569 


Italian (South) ..... 


514 


54 2 


56-4 


Ruthenian ...... 


494 


58-8 


62.6 


X vl UCoC ..... • 


73* 2 


67-5 


0o-7 


Average of above 


. 39.7 


42.6 


42.2 


Other Races. 








v^iiiiicot; ...... 


129 


o-2 


5-° 


Cuban 


42 


8.7 


7.7 


Japanese ...... 


27 


21- 6 


39-3 


Hebrew ...... 


26.5 


233 


23-3 


African (black) ..... 


32.5 


23-7 


15-8 


Syrian ...... 


53-8 


54.7 


53-6 



G^|if^i^pt> 10 

10ft— 6M. 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE NO. 45 

Synopsis of Certain Immigration Bills in the 

59th Congress 



The Dillingham Bill (Senate Bill 4403, Report No. 2186), 

to amend the Immigration Act of March 3, 1903, passed the 

Senate May 23, 1906. The principal changes which it makes in the 

present law are as follows : — 

Section 1 increases the duty on alien passengers, except 
citizens of the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, Mexico and 
Cuba, from two dollars to five dollars. 

Section 2 adds to the excluded classes, among others, — 
(<z) imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics ; 
(&) "persons not comprehended within any of the foregoing 
excluded classes, who are found to be and are certified by the examin- 
ing surgeon as being mentally or physically defective, such mental 
or physical defect being of a nature which may affect the ability of 
such alien to earn a living." 

NOTE. — This is what is usually called the " poor 
physique" clause. Its adoption has been urged 
by immigration officials, and by the National 
Conference on Immigration in New York, 
December, 1905. 

(r) Children under 17 years of age, unaccompanied by their parents, 
unless coming to join parents, or, if the parents are dead, brothers or 
sisters who are ready and able to support them. 



THE SENATE BILL 




NOTE.— This is intended to prevent the impor- 
tation of boys to work under the padrone system 
and of girls for immoral purposes. 

(d) Those assisted by others to come, unless they prove they are not 
within the other excluded classes : 1 ' but this section shall not be held 
to prevent citizens of the United States, or persons living in the United 
States who have declared their intention to become citizens of the 
United States, or women who have acquired a domicile in the United 
States, from sending for parents, wife, husband, children, brothers or 
sisters who are not of the foregoing excluded classes." 

NOTE. — Probably about one half of all immi- 
grants do not pay their own passages, i. e., are 
assisted to come. The object of this clause is 
to limit the privilege of "assisting" to such rel- 
atives as are likely to show an interest in the 
immigrants and to be responsible for their wel- 
fare after they arrive. It is believed that this 
provision would do much to diminish the num- 
ber of those who become public charges. 

Section 20 extends the time within which those becoming pub- 
lic charges may be deported to three years (it is now two years), the 
same as in the case of persons entering in violation of law. 

Section 29 adds to the excluded classes ' ' all persons over six- 
teen years of age and physically capable of reading, who cannot read 
the English language or some other language ; but an admissible immi- 
grant or a person now in or hereafter admitted to this country 
may bring in or send for his wife, his children under eighteen years of 
age, and his parents or grandparents over fifty years of age, whether 
they are so able to read or not." 

NOTE. — The statistics show that in general 
there is a close correspondence between igno- 
rance of language and ignorance of a trade, 
poverty, tendency to settle in the slums of large 
cities, failure to settle permanently or to become 
naturalized, and general difficulty of assimilation. 
The illiteracy test has passed the House four 
times and the Senate three times in recent years. 
It has been recommended by Presidents McKinley 
and Roosevelt and by the Commissioner General 
of Immigration, and over 4,000 petitions in its 
favor were sent to the 57th Congress. 



THE HOUSE BILL 



The Gardner Bill, H. R., 18,673, was reported by the Committee 
on Immigration and Naturalization, April 27, 1906. This bill also 
raised the duty on alien passengers to five dollars. It excluded epi- 
leptics, feeble-minded persons, imbeciles and unaccompanied children, 
and those whose passage was paid by any corporation, association, 
society, municipality or government. It extended the period of 
deportation for public charges to three years, excluded illiterates, and 
defined as liable to become public charges those not having in their 
possession certain amounts of money. 

As this bill was passed by the House, the illiteracy and money 
tests and the increase of the duty were omitted. 

Both bills are now before the Conference Committee, which is 
expected to report in December next. 

For the text of these bills address the File Clerk, House of Representatives, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

for other information address the Immigration Restriction League, 60 State Street, 
Boston, Mass. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No, 46. 



ALIEN DEPENDENTS AND DELINQUENTS. 



Male Prisoners 

Per Million of Voting Population* 1890. 

Native white, native parents .... 2,282 
Native white, foreign parents .... 6,742 
Foreign white 3> 2 7° 

rNote : that the foreign whites are nearly one and one half times 
as criminal as the native whites of native parentage ; and that the 
second generation of immigrants are three times as criminal as the 
native whites of native parentage and more than twice as criminal 
as the foreign whites. 

Male Juvenile Prisoners 

Per Million of Male Population of School Jlge in 
North Atlantic 'Division. 

Native white, native parents .... 855 
Native white, foreign parents .... 2,740 
Foreign white . . . . . . . 2,252 

Note ; that the foreign whites are nearly three times as criminal 
as the native whites of native parentage, and that the native-born 
children of immigrants are one fourth more criminal than the immi- 
grants themselves, and nearly three and a half times as criminal as 
the children of natives. 

New York. 

In 1906, 60 per cent of the population of Elmira Reformatory 
were foreign-born, the foreign-born being only 26 per cent of the 
population of the State. 



In 1892 the foreign-born constituted 39 per cent of all persons 
in the penitentiary; 74 per cent of those in the city prison; 59 per 
cent of those in the workhouse. In 1890 the proportion of foreign- 
born in the city was 42 per cent. The superintendent of the work- 
house estimated that 90 per cent of the native-born in the workhouse 
were of foreign parentage. 

Massachusetts. 

In 1895 the commitments to all prisons were: — 

Native birth, native parents .... 4,087 
Foreign birth, foreign parents .... 12,781 
Foreign birth, total ...... 22,134 

Note: that the foreign-born, who in 1890 were less than one 
third of the total population, furnished three times as many prisoners 
as those of native birth and parentage ; and that the foreign element 
furnished five and a half times as many prisoners as the native 
element. 

Insanity and Disease. 

In 1890 a total foreign-born population, which was 14.77 P er 
cent of the total population, furnished 33.2 per cent of the insane in 
the United States, or two and one third times its normal proportion. 

The thirty-fifth report of the Presbyterian Hospital (New York 
City) showed that 1,417 out of 3,026 patients, or nearly one half, 
were of foreign birth. The one hundred and fourth report of the 
Lying-in Hospital (New York City) showed that of 2,595 out-door 
patients 2,280 were foreign-born. 

Pauperism. 

In 1890 those of foreign white parentage, who were 38 per cent 
of the total white population, furnished 58 per cent of the white 
paupers of the United States. In 1890, of male paupers per million 
of voting population in the North Atlantic Division, 2,096 were native 
whites of native parentage, as compared with 6,435 °f foreign birth 
or parentage. 



In 1904, a foreign-born population which was 15.3 per cent of 
the white general population furnished 43.2 per cent of the white 
pauper population. The native white paupers of foreign or mixed 
parentage admitted to all the almshouses of the United States during 
1904 were 26.8 per cent of the total paupers as compared with 19.4 
per cent among the inmates enumerated December 31, 1903. 



ALIEN INMATES OF PENAL, REFORMATORY AND CHARITABLE 
INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1904. 



Penal Institutions 9,825 

Insane Institutions 19,764 

Charitable Institutions 15,396 

Total 44,985 



Note : that these figures include only inmates of institutions sup- 
ported by the public, and do not include foreign-born citizens. 

Note : that of these 44,985 alien dependents and delinquents, 26, 890, 
or more than half, were found in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Illinois. 

Although Slavic and Iberic immigration (from Southern and 
Eastern Europe) is of relatively recent arrival, its proportion of crimi- 
nals among all alien inmates of penal, reformatory and charitable 
institutions, and the proportion of all alien inmates for the different 
racial divisions was as follows : — 



Race Division 


Proportion 
of all Alien 
Inmates 


Proportion of 
Alien Inmates who 
are Criminals 


Proportion of Alien 
Inmates Arrived 
within 5 years 


Iberic . 


9 


39 


47 


Slavic 


14 


25 


40 


Teutonic 


■ 38 


17 




Keltic 


33 


15 


7 


Average . 




22 


21 



These figures show that the recent immigration furnishes the 
largest proportion of criminals among its dependent and delinquent 
•classes ; also that the races constituting the bulk of the recent immi- 
gration become dependent and delinquent sooner than the other 
races. 



The average cost of supporting a dependent or delinquent is not 
far from $150.00 per year. At this figure our alien dependents and 
delinquents in public institutions alone cost us $6,750,000 per year; 
and as their average expectation of life is about 12 years, their total 
cost, if they all remained for life in these institutions, would be about 
$75,000,000. A large proportion of them will spend the rest of their 
lives, or a considerable part of their lives, in these public institutions. 

Considering only the insane and charitable institutions, it appears 
that an alien population which is only 1.3 per cent of the total popu- 
lation furnishes 12 per cent of the inmates of these institutions. If 
we consider the foreign-born, it appears that they furnish eight per 
thousand while the native-born furnish only two and a half per thou- 
sand to these institutions. 

For further information address the 

Immigration Restriction League, 

60 State Street, Boston, Mass. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE NO. 47. 



BRIEF IN FAVOR OF SENATE BILL 4403. 



To amend an Act entitled " An Act to regulate the immigration of aliens into the 
United States," approved March third, nineteen hundred and three. 



Senate Bill 4403 (Report No. 2186), commonly known as the 
Dillingham Bill, passed the Senate without division May 23, 1906; and, 
in June, went to conference between the two houses of Congress. 

Senator Dillingham, chairman of the Senate Committee on Immigra- 
tion, said of this measure, in the Senate, on May 22, 1906, that it 

"will go a long way in the direction of making perfect the already 
excellent Immigration Act of 1903, and I believe that it will not only 
eliminate from the class of aliens now coming pretty nearly all of the 
objectionable and defective ones, whether their defects be of mind, 
body, or of morals. More than this, I believe it will have the effect, 
not only of preventing the undesirable classes from entering the 
country, but of preventing them from ever leaving their native shores 
to cross the seas, only to find the doors of the United States hopelessly 
closed against them." 

In the report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration for 1905 
will be found these words : — 

' ' The experience of another year * * * has * # * served to estab- 
lish a stronger conviction of the magnitude and gravity of the 
problems presented by the growth of our alien population. These 
problems loom so largely in the prospect of our country that it may be- 
said, without giving just cause to charge exaggeration, that all other 
questions of public economy, relating to things rather than to human 
beings, shrink into comparative insignificance." (Page 3.) 

" It is impossible that such an influx can fail to produce material 
effects upon the institutions of this country, as it is doing upon the 
population. What such effects will probably be in the long run, it is 
not within the proper scope of this report to discuss ; but attention is 
drawn to the subject to show that, if it is the public desire to establish 
some reasonable limitation on immigration, some restriction that will 
materially lessen the volume of the current until, by actual experience, 
assurance is secured of the safety of the institutions of the country 
under such an unexampled strain, it is time to make a new departure 
in legislating upon alien immigration. * * # It cannot be denied 
* * * that of such as are not expressly excluded by law, there are 
many aliens entering the United States who, if not individually open 



to objection on the score of physical, mental or moral defects admitted 
of all men, are yet of such totally alien, if not repugnant, character 
and genius as to raise a doubt whether they will in the present or the 
succeeding generation become assimilated in customs and ideals to the 
people of this country. This view has found expression as yet in 
legislation affecting aliens of but one race. That solitary instance, 
however, is a recognition of the principle that the public welfare at 
this stage of the world's development demands the intervention of 
the law-making branch of the government to prevent an unrestricted 
irruption of elements hostile to our institutions, if not incapable of 
comprehending them." (Page 48.) 

This bill makes changes in certain sections of the Act of March 3, 
1903, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. Increase of the duty on alien passengers, except 
citizens of the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, Mexico and 
Cuba, from two dollars to five dollars. 

The receipts on account of the Immigrant Fund 

during 1905 amounted to $2,082,873.50 

The expenditures, including those for special appro- 
priations, were ... ... $1,731,232.11 

The balance at the end of the year was . . . $1,841,044.53 

It has been estimated, however, that from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000 
is needed immediately to put the service into proper working order, and 
that the annual expenditure should be largely increased to secure proper 
inspection and deportation of aliens. Some of the items are the following : 
(a) Enlargement of immigrant stations. That at Ellis Island, New York, 
should be doubled in capacity. The overcrowding at present 
is a disgrace, and seriously handicaps efficient administration. 
What is true of New York is true in a less degree of the other 
existing ports. 

(6) The establishment of immigrant stations at Southern and Gulf 
ports, to the end that aliens may be better distributed. 

(c) The development and perfecting of the service along the Mexican 

and Canadian border. The adequate policing of these frontiers 
is an expensive and difficult matter. 

(d) Larger salaries for officers of the Immigration Service. Such an 

important matter as inspection of aliens should be intrusted only 
to the very best men available, and they should be well paid. 

(e) More inspectors, to care for the increasing tide of immigration and 

to prevent officers being overworked, as is often now the case, 
and for service at the new stations above referred to. 

2 ' 



(/) Provision for the distribution and employment bureaus at immigrant 
stations as contemplated in Section 26 of this bill. 

(g) Additional medical inspection abroad in countries which will permit 

such inspection. 

(h) Enlarged facilities in the offices of the various district attorneys in 

charge of the prosecution of immigration cases. This is an 
expense of the Department of Justice, but it really should be 
covered by the Immigrant Fund. 

(i) More complete statistical investigation and reports. 

(j) Securing in larger measure the deportation of those who become 

public charges after landing in this country. 
(Jc) An increased number of secret service agents abroad, to investigate 

conditions respecting immigration and see that the steamship 

companies live up to the law. 

In addition to the need for increased funds, a larger duty would also 
tend (a) to diminish the total immigration to some extent, especially of 
the poorer and less effective elements ; (b) to equalize the steerage rate 
between Europe and the United States and Europe and other countries, so 
that this country would not be, as now, the cheapest place to get to. With 
increasing facilities of transportation, the steerage passage should be 
maintained above pauper rates. 

Sect. 2. Additions to the excluded classes, viz. : imbeciles, 
feeble-minded persons, epileptics. 

At present idiots and insane persons are debarred, but imbeciles and 
feeble-minded persons come in and propagate a great deal of feeble- 
mindedness in their offspring, and also in many cases subsequently become 
insane. Thirty-eight per cent of the feeble-minded in the United States in 
1904 were of foreign and mixed parentage. 

Persons of poor physique. 

The physique of immigrants has been degenerating, according to the 
surgeons of the Marine Hospital Service, since 1880, and the immigrant 
of poor physique is to-day usually admitted. Poor physique is more 
common among the races which have recently been coming to us in large 
numbers. Persons of this class are especially susceptible to tuberculosis 
and other diseases resulting from crowding in unsanitary dwellings. The 
exclusion of this class would supplement the exclusion of persons " liable 
to become public charges," many of the latter being now admitted on oral 
promises of friends and relatives to care for them, which promises are of 
no value and are largely disregarded. The best preventive of race 

3 



decadence is the selection of health} 7 stock. Thof sound mind are 

already debarred, and we should equally debar t unsound body. 

This provision was recommended by the National v^uicrence on Immi- 
gration, held in New York, December, 1905. 

Children under seventeen years of age unaccompanied by 
their parents, unless coming to join parents, or, if the parents 
are dead, brothers or sisters who are ready and able to support 
them. 

The object of this provision is to prevent the importation of boys to 
work under the padrone system, and of girls for immoral purposes. 

Limiting the privilege of assisting immigrants. 

Under the present law "any friend or relative" may send for an 
immigrant. The Senate bill limits the classes of immigrants who may be 
assisted to "parents, wife, husband, children, grandchildren, brothers or 
sisters or children of deceased brothers and sisters," who are not of the 
excluded classes ; and the privilege of assisting is limited to citizens, 
those intending to become citizens and women who have acquired a domi- 
cile here. Upwards of 50 per cent of the present immigration is assisted 
to come, and the object of this provision is to limit the privilege of send- 
ing to persons who are under some legal or moral obligation to support 
the immigrants after they arrive. Assisted immigrants are, as a rule, less 
energetic and capable than those who send for them, and many of them 
at present come on the public for support. 

Sect. 9. Extension of fines upon steamship companies. 

The present law imposes a fine of Si 00 upon steamship lines bringing 
diseased immigrants, if the disease could have been detected at the port 
of departure. The proposed law imposes additional fines for bringing 
idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, insane persons or epileptics. In 
1904, $31,000 was collected in fines, and in 1905, after a year's experi- 
ence, $27,300 was collected. The Commissioner-General reports that 
1,560 more diseased persons were brought in by steamship companies in 
1905 than in 1904, or 41 per cent. While the proposed law does not 
increase the fine, the extension of the fine system to other classes would 
probably bring up the total of fines to a point where the companies would 
be obliged to refuse to take the immigrants objected to. 

Sections 12 and 13 are amended so as to make the infor- 
mation given by the manifests more complete. 

4 



Section 12 also provides for statistics of aliens emigrating from the 
United States. 

Sect. 18. Prevention of unlawful landing. 

The bill requires the transportation companies to absolutely prevent 
the landing of aliens except in compliance with the law. At present the 
companies are only obliged to exercise due care. 

Sect. 20. Deportation of public charges.' 

This provides a uniform period of three years within which both those 
entering in violation of law and those becoming public charges from 
causes arising prior to landing may be deported. It also provides that 
the transportation, including one half of the entire cost of removal to the 
port of deportation, shall be at the expense of the steamship company. 
This provision has received strong support from numerous charitable 
societies. The Industrial Commission recommended the extension of the 
period to five years, and that, incase immigrants became objectionable from 
causes arising subsequent to landing, their passage should be paid out of 
the Immigrant Fund. 

The rest of S. 4403 consists of new provisions, the principal of which 
are as follows : — 

Sect. 26. Division of information. 

Authority is given to establish such a division to promote the benefi- 
cial distribution of aliens among the localities desiring immigration. Dis- 
tribution of immigration has been urged by many persons as a solution of 
some of the present evils of overcrowding. In so far as the proposed pro- 
vision can induce the scattering of aliens where their labor is desired, it 
should prove a valuable adjunct to the immigration laws and is certainly 
worth trying. 

Sect. 29. Illiteracy test. 

The bill adds to the excluded classes : — 

" All persons over sixteen years of age and physically capable of 
reading, who cannot read the English language or some other lan- 
guage ; but an admissible immigrant or a person now in or hereafter 
admitted to this country may bring in or send for his wife, his chil- 
dren under eighteen years of age, and his parents or grandparents 
over fifty years of age whether they are so able to read or not." 



The statistics show that, in general, there is a close correspondence 
between ignorance of language and ignorance of a trade, poverty, tendency 
to settle in the slums of large cities, failure to settle permanently or to 
become naturalized, and general difficulty of assimilation. The illiteracy 7 
test has passed the House four times and the Senate three times in recent 
years. It has been recommeuded by Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt, 
and by the Commissioner-General of Immigration, and over 4,000 petitions 
in its favor were sent to the Fifty-seventh Congress. It is not true that 
such a simple illiteracy test as is here proposed would interfere with the 
Legitimate demand for labor in many parts of the country. It would, 
however, tend to improve very much the quality of immigration and promote 
assimilation. An illiteracy test would have excluded 29 per cent of 
those of foreign birth and parentage now in our hospitals, and a consider- 
able percentage of our insane, paupers and criminals. 

Conclusion. 

While this bill contains a number of new provisions, its purpose is 
simply to make effective the principles of selection which were contemplated 
in the original Acts of 1882 and 1891. These provisions have received 
the endorsement of the most unprejudiced and the most trustworthy 
experts on the immigration question. Some or all of its provisions have 
been advocated by immigration officials, surgeons of the Marine Hospital 
Service, boards of charity and insanit} 7 , labor organizations, state legisla- 
tures, commercial organizations, immigration conferences, and thousands 
of societies and individuals who have been in touch with immigration 
matters. Many of its provisions have been passed by previous Congresses 
in one or both branches, or have been reported by previous immigration 
committees. 



6 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 48 



SENERAL immigration statistics 



EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION UPON THE 
UNITED STATES 



AND 



REASONS FOR FURTHER RESTRICTION 



I. Figures as to Total Immigration. 

(A.) IMMIGRATION BY DECADES, 1821 TO 1900. 

(From Report of U. S. Industrial Commission, p. 267.) 

1821 to 1830 ' . 143,439 

1831 to 1840 . . . . . . 599> ,2 5 

1841 to 1850 . . . . ... . 1,713,251 

1851 to i860 ........ 2,598,214 

i86t to 1870 ........ 2,314,824 

1871 to 1880 . . . . . . . 2,812,191 

1881 to 1890 ........ 5,246,613 

1891 to 1900 ........ 3,687,564 



Total, 1821-1900 



19,115,221 



(From Reports of Commissioner- General.) 
1901-1907 ......... 6,219,160 



Total, 1821-1907 



25>334>38i 



(B.) IMMIGRATION BY YEARS FROM 1885. 

(From Reports of Superintendent and Commissioner- General of Immigration.) 
1885 . 395»346 



1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 

i893 
1894 

1895 
1896 

1S97 
1898 
1899 



334,203 
490,109 
546,889 
444.427 

455>3°2 
560,319 

579,663 
439,73° 
285,631) 

258,536 
343,267 
230,832 
229 299 

3n,7i5 



[The Cholera Year. 

[Period of 
Commercial 
Depression.] 



3 



Immigration by Years from 1885 — Continued. 

448,572 
487,918 

648,743 
857,046 
812,870 
1,026,499 
1,100,735 
1,285,349 



{[Immigrant 
Aliens only.] 



II. Recent Changes in the Race of Immigrants. 

{Specially prepared for the League from Quarterly Report Bureau Statistics 
No. 2, Series 1892-1893, and Reports of Commissioner- General of Immigration,) 



(A.) COMPARISON OF CERTAIN NATIONAL GROUPS. 







Per Cent of Immigrants 




Per Cent of Immigrants 


from United Kingdom* 




from Austria-Hungary, 


France, Germany, and 




Italy, and Russia 


Scandinavia 




in Total Immigration.* 


in Total Immigration. 


1869 . 


O.9 


73-8 


1880 . 


. • • 8.5 


64-5 


1890 . 


34.O 


57-7 


1891 . 


39.6 


521 


1892 . 


44-8 


53-9 


1893 . 


42.7 


48.2 


1894 . 


42.6 


47-9 


1895 . 


39.8 


52-9 


1896 . 


53-9 


38.5 


1897 . 


53-o 


37-6 


1898 . 


57 9 


33-3 


1899 . 


64.4 


27.8 


1900 . 


66.7 


25-3 


1901 . 


68.6 


22.5 


1902 . 


70.6 


20.3 


1903 . 


66.8 


22.4 


1904 . 


63.4 


25.0 


1905 • 


66.4 


24.2 


1906 . 


68.5 


18.3 


1907 . 


71.3 


17.1 



* Includes Poland to 1898. 



4 



Note, — In 1869, the immigrants from Austria- Hungary, Italy, Poland, 
and Russia were about i-iooth of the number from the United Kingdom, 
France, Germany, and Scandinavia; in 1880, about i-ioth; in 1894, nearly 
equal to it ; in 1907, over four times as great. 



(BO COMPARISON OF CERTAIN RACIAL GROUPS. 

Note. — In 1903, the Government adopted a further classification of immi- 
grants by racial divisions, as follows : — 

Teutonic division, from Northern Europe : German, Scandinavian, English, 

Dutch, Flemish and Finnish. 
Keltic division, from Western Europe : Irish, Welsh, Scotch, French and 

North Italian. 

Iberic division, from Southern Europe : South Italian, Greek, Portuguese 

and Spanish ; also Syrian from Turkey in Asia. 
Slavic division, from Eastern Europe : Bohemian, Moravian, Bulgarian, 

Servian, Montenegrin, Croatian, Slovenian, Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herze- 

govinian ; Hebrew, Lithuanian, Polish, Roumanian, Russian, Ruthenian 

and Slovak. 

Under this classification, immigration during the past four years may be 
divided by race, ignoring the countries from which the immigrants may happen 
to come, as follows : — 



Per Cent of Slavic and 

Iberic Immigrants 
in Total Immigration. 



1904 . 

1905 . 

1906 . 

1907 . 



56.5 
58.3 
62.9 
64.I 



Per Cent of Teutonic 
and Keltic Immigrants 
in Total Immigration. 

36.1 

34-6 
30.0 
27.1 



(CO TOTAL IMMIGRATION OF ASIAN RACES. 



(D.) 



1899 . 


8,972 


1904 . 




26,186 


1900 


17,946 


1905 . 




23>9 2 5 


1 90 1 


13,698 


1906 




22,300 


1902 


22,271 


1907 . 




40,524 


1903 


29,966 








THE LARGEST ELEMENTS ^"IMMIGRATION AT PRESENT ARI 






1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Southern Italian 




185,445 


240,528 


242,497 


Hebrew . 




129,910 


I53>748 


I49,[82 


Polish . 




102,437 


95> 8 35 


138,033 


German . 




82,360 


86,813 


92,936 


Magyar . 




46,030 


44,261 


60,07 T 


Scandinavian . 




62,284 


58,141 


53,425 



5 



III. Conditions of Immigration 



(A.) AVERAGE MONEY SHOWN BY IMMIGRANTS. 



1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 



$11 

17 
17 

r 5 



1902 
1903 
1904 

!9°5 
1906 
1907 



$16 

19 

26 
24 

23 
20 



MONEY BROUGHT BY THE SEVERAL RACES, 1900. 

{Report of United States Industrial Commission, p. 284.) 



Races. 

Scotch . 
Japanese 
English . 
French . 
Greek . 
German . 
Bohemian and Moravian 
Italian (Northern) . 
Dutch and Flemish . 
Cuban 

Scandinavian . 
Russian . 
Irish 
Syrian 
Chinese . 
Finnish . 

Croatian and Slavonian 
Slovak 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 
Portuguese 
Magyar . 
Polish . 

Italian (Southern) . 
Hebrew . 
Lithuanian 



Amount of Money 
Shown Per Capita. 

$41.51 

39-59 
3S.90 

37.80 

28.78 

28.53 
23.12 
22.49 
21.00 

19-34 
16.65 
14.94 
14.50 

14.31 
13.98 
13.06 
12.51 
1 1.69 
10.51 
10.47 
10.39 

9.94 

8.82 

8.67 

7.96 



6 



(B.) PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANTS WHO HAVE BEEN IN THE 



UNITED STATES BEFORE. 

1897 . . . 19.3 1903 .. . . 8.9 

1898 . . . 18.6 1904 . . . 12.8 

1899 . . . 15.4 1905 • ' • i7-i 

1900 . . . 11. 6 1906 . . . 12. 1 

1901 . . . 1 1.9 1907 ... 6.8 

1902 ... 9.5 

(C.) PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANTS HAVING NO OCCUPATION, 
INCLUDING WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

1895 . . . 36. . 1902 . . . 23.6 

1896 . . • 3 6 - l 9°3 • • • 23.3 

1897 ... 39. 1904 . . . 26.4 

1898 . o . 39.4 1905 . . . 22.6 

1899 . . . 35.1 1906 . . . 25.9 

1900 . . . 30.1 1907 . . . 23.7 

1901 . . . 30.5 

>.) PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANTS WHO WERE FARM LABORERS 
LABORERS, OR SERVANTS. 

1895 . . . 42. 1902 . . . 60.6 

1896 ... 46. 1903 . . . 57.3 

1897 ... 40. 1904 . . . 49 4 

1898 . . . 40.3 1905 • • • 54- 1 

1899 . . . 47-3 J 9o6 . . . 52.8 

1900 . . . 53-° x 9°7 • • • 57-3 

1901 . . . 53.1 

(E.) ILLITERACY. 
(1.) In General. 



Per Cent of Illiterate in Total Immigration. 





Over 15 




Over 15 




Years of Age. 




Years of Age 


1895 


20. 


1897 


23. 


1896 


29. 








Over 14 




Over 14 




Years of Age. 




Years of Age 


1898 


23. 


1903 


25.O 


1899 


19.7 


1904 


246 


1900 


24.3 


I905 


26.2 


1901 


27.7 


I906 


27.9 


1902 


25.4 


1907 


29.9 



7 



(2.) Of Particular Groups. 

{Compiled from the Reports of the Commissioner-General of Immigration?) 

PmeEiwji e Ea ® r Illitdraov Am oho Immioramtq From Tiiooe Natiomd qi« 
CuRorE Which Seht Upwardq of i,uoe Immigrants iu ihe Umihj 

• QlJlliLJ DuitllTO THE fflGCAh YEAR l^OJ i 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who cannot write, or cannot read and write their own language, from those races 
(not nations') which contributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United 
States during the past three fiscal years : — 



Western Europe. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Scotch ....... 


O.7 


°-5 


I.O 


Scandinavian . 


0.6 


°-5 


I.I 


English ...... 


i-3 


1.0 


1.4 


Bohemian and Moravian 


1.7 


1.8 


2.1 


French 


2.7 


2.6 


2.1 


Irish . . 


3-8 


2.3 


2.2 


Finnish ...... 


i.8 


i-5 


3-1 


Dutch and Flemish .... 


5-3 


4.0 


4.2 


German ...... 


4.2 


5-° 


7.0 


Italian (North) 


14.0 


12.0 


I O.O 


Average of above 


3.7 


3.7 


4.3 


Eastern Europe (with Spain and Portugal). 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Armenian ...... 






24.O 


Spanish ...... 


IO. I 


9.8 


33-5 


Magyar ...... 


11. 6 


12.7 


10.5 


Greek 


22.4 


23-5 


30.6 


Russian . . . . 


30.8 


39-° 


44-5 


Slovak 


25.0 


22.0 


2I -5 


Roumanian ...... 


28.8 


36-5 


39-3 


Dalmatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian . 


38.4 


44-3 


49-7 


Polish 


39-6 


37 1 


41.2 


Croatian and Slovenian 


38.2 


39-9 


36-4 


Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin . 


38.9 


41.8 


44.8 


Lithuanian . . . . . . 




56.8 


62.4 


Italian (South) 


56.4 


53-8 


53-3 


Ruthenian ...... 


62.6 


5 6 -3 


55.8 


Portuguese ...... 


66.7 


58.6 


76.6 


Average of above 


42.2 


42.0 


42.2 



8 



Illiteracy — Continued. 



Other Races. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Chinese .... 








Cuban 


7.7 


4.7 


II. 7 


Japanese .... 


39-3 


42.7 


31.2 


Hebrew .... 


23.3 


27.O 


29.O 


African (black) . 


. . 15.8 


12.3 


16.2 


Syrian ..... 


• • 53-6 


,54-8 


55- 1 


Note ; that the official figures 


as to illiteracy are 


not based 


upon actual 



tests, but depend for their accuracy upon the truth of the immigrants' answers 
to the questions put to them. If they were actually required by the inspectors 
to read and write before admission, the above figures of illiteracy would un- 
doubtedly be larger. 



IV. Effects of Immigration in the United States. 

(A.) CRIME, INSANITY, AND PAUPERISM. 
(1.) Crime. 

According to Census Special Reports, " Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquent 
in Institutions, 1904 " (pp. 18, 38, 232 and 237), a foreign-born white popula 
tion ten years of age and over, which in 1900 was 19.5 per cent of such genera 
white population, furnished 23 7 per cent of white prisoners enumerated June 30 
1904, and 23.4 per cent of the white prisoners committed during the year. 

A foreign-born juvenile white population from ten to nineteen years of age 
which in 1900 was 6.5 per cent of such general white population, furnished 9. 
per cent of delinquents enumerated June 30, 1904, and 11 per cent of thos 
committed during 1904. 

Of the total commitments in 1904, those of foreign birth or parentage con- 
stituted 39.7 per cent, while those of foreign parentage (practically those ol 
foreign birth or parentage) constituted, in 1900, 27.5 per cent of the tota 
population. 

Major White Offenders. 

{From above-mentioned report, p. 44.) 

The following table shows the percentage of the total commitments during 
1904 for serious crimes of natives of such countries as furnished a larger propor- 
tion of commitments than theii proportion of the population in 1900 : — 



9 





Pei Cent of 


Per Cent of 




Major White 


General 




Offenders, 


Population, 




1904. 


1900. 


ifiVAI^V/ • • • 1 


A. A 


1 .0 


Italy . 


14.4 


4.7 


Austria . ■ 


C.I 


2.7 


JVUOJHl . • • • 


. . 6.c 




France . . 


l.K 

• j 


I.O 


Poland . 


4.5 


3-7 


Hungary . 


1.5 


1.4 


Scotland . 


2.4 


2-3 


Canada . 


I2.0 


11.4 



In 1890, comparing male prisoners with the voting population, the foreigii 
whites were 1 J times, and the native whites of foreign parentage over 3 times ? 
as criminal as the native whites of native parentage. Comparing the male 
juvenile prisoners with the males of voting age, in 1890, the foreign whites 
were 2 .7 times as criminal, and the native whites of foreign parentage 3.2 times 
as criminal, as the natives of native parentage. 

The following table shows that, leaving out drunkenness, which is the 
besetting sin of the Teutonic and Keltic races, there seems to be a relation be» 
tween criminality and ignorance : — 

(From Senate Report No. 290, $Ath Congress, 1st Session, 1896.) 

Commitments to all Penal 



Institutions of Massa- Illiteracy 

chusetts per 1,000 In- of 

habitants from Countries Immigrants 

Country. named, I,ess Drunks. (1895). 

Scandinavia ...... 5.1 1 

Germany . . . . . . 3.6 2 

Scotland 5.8 3 

France ....... 6.1 3 

England ...... 7.2 3 

Ireland ....... 7.1 7 

Russia ....... 7.9 26 

Austria ....... 10.4 28 

Poland . ..... 16.0 29 

Hungary 15.4 33 

Italy 18.2 44 



10 



(2.) Insanity. 

Census Special Reports, " Insane and Feeble- Minded in Hospitals and In- 
stitutions, 1904," p. 20, shows that a white foreign-born population of ten years 
old and over, which in 1900 was 19.5 per cent of such general white population, 
furnished^34 3 per cent of white insane persons in hospitals in 1904, and 29.8 
per cent of ihe admissions to such hospitals during 1904. 

(3.) Pauperism. 

Census Special Reports, "Paupers in Almshouses, 1904," pp. 16-18, shows 
that a foreign- 1 orn white population, which in 1900 was 15.3 per cent of the 
general white population, furnished 43 2 per cent of the white pauper popula- 
tion Dec. 31, 1903, and 43.0 per cent of those admitted to the almshouses 
during 19-4. 

'I he native white paupers of foreign or mixed parentage admitted in 1904 
were 26.8 per cent of the total paupers as compared with 19.4 per cent among 
the inmates enumerated Dec. 31, 1903. 

In 1890, the foreign whites contributed 2^ times as many male paupers per 
million of vo ing population as the native whites of native parentage, and those 
of foreign birth or parentage over 3 times as many. 

In 1905, there were 50,000 f reign-born paupers in the State of New York 
alone, costing the State $1,510,506 for their support. 

(4.) Summary of Above. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the foreign-born furnish, roughly 
speaking, \\ times their proportion of criminals and ij times their proportion 
of juvenile offenders, and that some nationalities furnish 3 to 4 times their pro- 
portion of offenders in serious crimes. 

The foreign-born furnish over two times their proportion of insane, and 
nearly three times their proportion of paupers. 

(B.) DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANTS. 
(1.) Foreign-Born in the United States. 

{Census of 1900, Population, Part I., p. clxxi.) 

The total foreign-born population of the United States in 1900 wa 
10,460,085, or 13.7 per cent of the total population. 

The foreign-born population is made up as follows : — 



11 





Number. 


Per Cent* 


Austria .... 


276,249 


2.7 


Bohemia .... 


156,991 




Canada (English) 


785,9:8 


7.6 


Canada (French) 


395^297 


3-8 


Denmark .... 


154,284 


*-3 


England .... 


842,078 


8.1 


France .... 


104.341 


1.0 


Germany .... 


2,666,990 


2 5 .8 


Holland .... 


105,049 


1.0 


Hungary .... 


. . . 145,802 


1.4 


Ireland .... 


. 1,618,567 


15.6 


Italy .... 


484.207 


4.7 


Mexico .... 


103,410 


1.0 


Norway .... 


336,985 


3-3 


Poland .... 


3 8 3i5 IQ 


3-7 


Russia 


424,096 


4.1 


Scotland .... 


233,977 


2.3 


Sweden .... 


573^ 4o 


5.5 


Switzerland 


115,851 


1.1 


Wales .... 


93,682 


0.9 


All others 


356,280 


3-4 



(2.) Distribution of Foreign -Born. 



( Census of 1890, Population, Part p. cxxxvi. Census of 1900, Population^ 

Part p., clxxiv.) 





North 


South 


North 


South 








Atlantic. 


Atlantic. 


Central. 


Central. 


Wester©- 




1890. 1900. 


1890. 1900. 


1890. 1900. 


1890. 


1900. 


1890. 


1900 


Gt. Britain and Ireland, 


59 5 616 


2-5 2.3 


27.6 25.6 


2.4 


2.2 


79 


8-:fc 


France 


36 40.6 


2.2 2.3 


34.I 29.4 


I2.7 


I 1.2 


14.9 16.5 


Germany . 


32.2 33.2 


2.9 2.7 


5 6 -4 54-9 


4.1 


4.1 


4.3 


5-s 


Bohemia 


10.4 14.1 


1.4 2.0 


84.3 75-8 


3- 1 


6. 9 


0.8 


1. a 


Scandinavia 


12.7 16.6 


0.3 O.4 


76.0 70.9 


0.8 


1.1 


1 0.0 


10.9 


Austria 


49.9 62.0 


1.7 1.4 


318 25.5 


8.4 


3-7 


8.1 


7-4 


Hungary 


72.9 73.0 


1.8 1.4 


22.2 22.6 


1.4 


i-3 


1.6 




Italy . . 


65.0 72.7 


2.7 2.2 


12.0 1 1.4 


6.7 


5-4 


13-7 


8.3 


Poland 


38.4 51.2 


1.7 1.7 


57.0 44-9 


i-7 


1.4 


1.2 


0.8 


Russia 


50.9 65.9 


3-2 3-9 


38.2 25.4 


1-5 


2.1 


6.1 


2 7 



Note: that only 15.9 per cent of the Italians, 8.7 per cent of the Russians,, 
3.9 per cent of the Poles, and 4.4 per cent of the Hungarians live in the 
Southern or Western States. 



L2 



(3.) Congestion in Certain States. 



{Compiled from the Reports of the Commissioner- General of Immigration.} 



Per Cent of Total Immigration Destined for 
the Four States of Illinois, Massachusetts, 
New York and Pennsylvania. 



1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
19OO 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 

1906 
1907 



72. 

71. 

68.9 

68.7 

68.8 

69-5 
67.8 

65.4 
64.6 

65*3 
66.7 
62.7 



Per Cent of Total Immigration Destined for 



the Thirty-fou 



of the Potomac River, Pennsylvania, and 
or West of the Mississippi 



the Ohio Rive 
River. 



1897 
1898 
1899 
19OO 
1901 
1902 
I9O3 
1904 

1905 
1906 
1907 



States and Territories South 



II. 

I 5- 
J 5- 2 
*5-7 
13-4 

*3-5 
13.0 
12.0 
13.2 
12.4 
12.0 
13.0 



(4.) Rural and Urban Distribution. 

It is said that there is plenty of room in the rural districts of the United 
States for an unlimited number of immigrants of whatever character they may be. 

This argument has no weight, unless immigrants can be induced to settle 
in the rural districts. It appears from the Census of 1900, Population, Part I., p. 
clxxvi., that of a total foreign-born population of 10,356,644, in 1900, 5,130,281, 
or 49.5 per cent, were found in the 160 principal cities of the United States. 

It further appears that whereas the races constituting the bulk of our immi- 
gration in the last century tended to settle in the country districts and are still 
found there, the races now coming to us in the largest numbers tend to settle 
in the cities. Thus : — 



Of 


persons 


born 


111 


Norway, 


22.4 per tent live in 


cities. 


it 


gg 


u 




Denmark, 


28.1 " 


a 


a a 


tt 


(< 


it 


a 


ti 


Sweden, 


36.3 " 


a 


a a 


<t 


it 


a 


a 


ti 


Scotland, 


46.0 " 


a 


a a 


tt 


<< 


a 


n 


ft 


England, 


46.3 " 


a 


a tt 


tt 


a 


tt 


«< 




Germany, 


50.2 « 


<< 


it tt 


ti 


ti 


« 


ft 


a 


Ireland, 


62.0 " 


it 


tt a 


it 


ti 




a 


a 


Italy, 


62.4 " 


n 


tt n 


a 


u 






a 


Poland, 


62.5 ' 


u 


it tt 


a 


u 


ti 


a 


a 


Russia, 


74-9 " 


a 


a tt 


ti 



13 



Distribution of Recent Immigrants in Certain States. 

Compiled from Census of 1900. 

{From Immigration, by Prescott F. Hall, pp. 343-345.) 
Natives of Poland in Certain Cities and Urban Counties. 

1900. 

Per Cent of 



Illinois : 


Number. 


all in State. 


Cook County (Chicago) 


62,008 


9i-3 


Michigan : 






Wayne County (Detroit) 


14,236 


5o.3 


Massachusetts : 








3,832 


17.8 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1890 


10,367 


48.3 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1900 


10,449 


48.6 


New York : 






New York City ..... 


32,873 


47.1 


Erie County (Buffalo) 


19,776 


28.4 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1890 


57,095 


81.9 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1900 


58,229 


83.5 


Wisconsin : 






Milwaukee County .... 


17,644 


55-5 


Natives of Italy in Certain Cities 


and Urban Counties. 






1900. 






Per Cent of 




Number. 


all in State. 


Connecticut : 






Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1890 


10,657 


55-8 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1900 


10,832 


56.7 


Illinois : 






Cook County (Chicago) 


16,915 


72.O 


Massachusetts : 








I 3>73 8 


47-7 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1890 


18,592 


64.6 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1900 


19,442 


67-5 


New Jersey : 






Essex County (Newark, etc.) 


11,897 


28.4 


Hudson County (Jersey City, etc.) 


9,646 


23 O 


Passaic County (Paterson, etc.) . 


5,798 


13.8 



Natives of Italy in Certain Cities and Urban Counties — Continued. 






1900. 






Per Cent of 




A" U ill uc 1 . 


all i n Clotp 


New York : 






New York City ....... 


>45»433 


79.8 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1890 


157,865 


86.6 


Cities above 25,000 inhabitants in 1900 


158,463 


87.0 


Connecticut : 






New Haven ....... 


3,193 


28.0 


Hartford 


2,260 


19.8 


Cities above 25,000 in 1890 ... 


7,237 


63-4 


Cities above 25,000 in 1900 . 


8,030 


70.4 


Illinois : 






Chicago . . . . . . . 


24,178 


84.2 



Natives of Russia in Certain Cities and Urban Counties. 

1900. 







Per Cent of 




Number. 


all in State. 


Massachusetts : 






Boston ...... 


14,995 


55-6 


Cities above 25,000 in 1890 . 


23,819 


88.3 


Cities above 25,000 in 1900 . 


24,170 


89.7 


New Jersey : 






Essex County (Newark, etc.) 


5.877 


29.8 


Hudson County (Jersey City, etc.) 


• " • 4,592 


23-3 


Passaic County (Paterson, etc.) . 


2,422 


^3 


Union County (Elizabeth, etc.) . 


1,252 


6-3 


New York : 






New York City ..... 


. 155,201 


93-7 


Cities above 25,000 in 1890 


161,354 


974 


Cities above 25,000 in 1900 


161,491 


97-5 


Pennsylvania : 






Philadelphia ..... 


28,95 1 


97-5 



(5.) Destination of Illiterates 

From the table of the distribution of the foreign-born given above, it appears 
that those races having the largest percentages of illiteracy — which are also 
those coming to us recently in the largest numbers — do not go extensively to 
the West and South, but tend to congregate on the Atlantic Seaboard and in the 
North Central States. 



15 



Thus in 1900 there were found in the Southern and Western States only 
8.7 per cent of Russians; 3.9 per cent of Poles ; 15.9 per cent of Italians ; 4.4 
per cent of Hungarians. Of the foregoing, a considerable proportion of the 
Italians are educated fruit-growers in California. 

From this it appears that those regions of the South and West which desire 
agricultural laborers will not be injured by the application of an educational 
test to immigrants. On the contrary, in so far as an educational test diminishes 
the coming of illiterate races, it will tend to stimulate the immigration of races 
more likely to develop new parts of the country. 



(6.) Illiterates and Slums. 



The Seventh Special Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Labor (1894) 
shows (p. 44) that the proportion of those of foreign birth or parentage to the 
total population in the slums of Baltimore was 77 per cent, in Chicago 90 per 
cent, in New York 95 per cent, and in Philadelphia 91 per cent. The figures 
for the foreign-born alone are correspondingly striking. It appears from the 
same report (pp. 160-3) tnat °f every 100 aliens, 40 were illiterate in the slums 
of Baltimore, 47 in Chicago, 59 in New York, and 51 in Philadelphia; and that 
of every 100 of these illiterate aliens there were 67 males of voting age in Balti- 
more, 77 in Chicago, 78 in New York, and 85 in Philadelphia. 

The proportion in which the literate and illiterate nationalities contribute 
to the slum population is shown by the following tables, complied from the same 
report, pp. 41, 72 : — 



Austria- Hungary, Italy, 
Poland, and Russia. 

PerCentof Per Cent of 

Total Population. Slum Population. 



United Kingdom, France y 
Germany, a?id Scandinavia. 

PerCentof Per Cen t of 

Total Population. Slum Population. 



I.97 
6.4I 

9-45 
i-95 



12.72 
44.44 

51." 
50.28 



Baltimore. 

1 

Chicago. 

1 

New York. 

I 

Philadelphia. 



I3-5 2 
30.70 

30-73 
22.95 



27.29 
10.64 
8.64 
8.44 



Note: that Southeastern Europe furnishes 3 times as many inhabitants as 
Northwestern Europe to the slums of Baltimore, 19 times as many to the slums 
of New York, 20 times as many to the slums of Chicago, 71 times as many to 
the slums of Philadelphia. 

The comparative degree of illiteracy of foregoing elements of slums is as 
follows for the above-mentioned four cities : — 



16 



Scandinavia, 5«6% 
Great Britain, 7.0 



France, 


10.2 


Germany, 


21.9 


Ireland, 


40.4 


Average of Group, 




Austria-Hungary, 


16.6 


Russia, 


37-i 


Poland, 


46.1 


Italy, 


66.4 


Average of Group, 


54.5 


Native Americans, 


7-4 



(C.) NATURALIZATION OF ALIENS. 

From Census of 1900, Population, Part I., p. ccxvii, it appears that the 
proportions of foreign -born males of voting age who were aliens were as follows 
for the nationalities specified : — 





Per Cent. 






Per Cent. 


Poland (Austrian) 


. 6l.6 


France . 




I9.O 


Hungary 


• S3-* 


Belgium 




. 17.6 


Italy . 


• 530 


Switzerland . 




I2.9 


Portugal 


. 51.6 


England 




I2.9 


Poland (Russian) . 


• 505 


Scotland 




• I2.5 


Turkey . 


. 48.I 


Sweden 




. II.9 


Austria . 


. 44.6 


Holland 




. 11. 6 


Finland 


. 38.6 


Denmark 




. 10.3 


Russia . 


• 35- 2 


Ireland . 




10. 1 


Roumania 


• 33-8 


Norway 




. 9.7 


Spain . 


• 33-5 


Germany 


f 


• 8-3 



From Census of 1900, Population, Part I., pp. ccix, ccxvi, it appears that 
26 per cent of the foreign-born males of voting age were aliens ; in other words, 
that over one f ,urth of the foreign-born potential voters were not citizens of the 
United States. This 26 per cent constituted 5 per cent of the total male 
population over 2 1 years of age. 

It further appears that of the 1,067,117 aliens in the United States, 34 per 
cent could not speak English. 



17 



(D.) REPLACEMENT OF NATIVE STOCK BY FOREIGN STOCK. 

Perhaps the most important effect of immigration, and the one to which 
popular attention has been least directed, is that of the supplanting of one race 
by another in this country. In this view the descendants of the settlers of 
British origin, and later the immigrants of Irish, German, French, and Scandi- 
navian origin, have tended to increase less rapidly on account of the coming of 
immigrants of habits, customs, and modes of thought alien to those already here 
and of an inferior social and economic status. The result is not merely a social 
and economic struggle between those already here and those coming, in which 
it may be true that the former are in general victorious and are displaced up- 
wards to take more lucrative and responsible positions, but there is another 
struggle between the new-comers and their children on the one side, and the 
children of those already here on the other, in which the latter are defeated and 
slain by never being allowed to come into existence. 

Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the Censuses of 1870 and 1880, 
maintained that if there had been no immigration whatever into this country 
during the past 90 years, " the native element would long ago have filled the 
place the foreigners have usurped." And he further says : — 

" The American shrank from the industrial competition thus thrust upon 
him. He was unwilling himself to engage in the lowest kind of day labor with 
these new elements of population ; he was even more unwilling to bring sons 
and daughters into the world to enter into that competition. ... If the fore- 
going views are true, or contain any considerable degree of truth, foreign immi- 
gration into this country has, from the time it assumed large proportions, 
amounted not to a reinforcement of our population, but to a replacement of 
native by foreign stock." 

(See Discussions in Economics and Statistics, Vol. II., pp. 417-451.) 

The United States Industrial Commission says in its report, p. 277 : " It 
is a hasty assumption which holds that immigration during the nineteenth cen- 
tury has increased the total population." 

(See also Races and Immigrants in America, by John R. Commons, pp. 
198-205.) 



18 



V. Nationalities of Immigrants Desired by the 

States. 

{From Report of the Immigration Investigating Commission, January, 
1896. The Com?nission sent tetters to the Governors of all the States asking 
what nationalities of immigrants were preferred in their several States.) 

Of 52 preferences for different nationalities of immigrants expressed in 
these replies 

15 were for Germans. 

14 were for Scandinavians. 

12 were for English, Scotch, or Irish. 

3 were for French. 

2 were for Swiss. 

2 were fcrr Italians. 

1 was for Hollanders. 

1 was for Belgians. 

1 was for "North of Europe." 

1 was for Americans. 

Note: that there were only 2 calls for immigrants from Southern and 
Eastern Europe, and these were both for Italians. One of the governors askin 
for Italians expressly stated that he was "not sure that imnrgrants from an 
foreign country are desirable as laborers " in his State, and the other said 
u that unskilled labor is not desired " in his State, but that farmers with small 
means were highly desirable. As very few of the Italian immigrants now com 
ing to this country settle down and become independent farmers, but are 
almost entirely unskilled laborers, it may be concluded that, in the second case 
Italian immigration of its present character was not desired. 

Note: that there was no call for Poles, Russians, Hungarians, Slovaks, or 
the other races of Southern and Eastern Europe, and of Asia. 

Note: that the immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, such as 
the English, Irish, Scotch, Germans, Scandinavians, and French, who are 
desired as immigrants in all parts of the United States, are as a whole well edu- 
cated, there being on the average only 4 per cent of illiteracy among them, 
while the illiteracy of the immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia and 
Poland is over 40 per cent. An educational test, therefore, requiring every 
immigrant to be able to read before gaining admiss'on to the United States, 
would debar a considerable number of the undesirable classes, while it would 
interfere very little with the immigration from the North and West of Europe. 



19 



{From Immigration, by Fresco tt F. Hall, pp. 316, 317.) 

" In 1904, a similar set of questions was sent to the governors of the various 
States* by the Immigration Restriction League, with the following result : 
Iowa and West Virginia reported that they had a surplus of labor ; Connecticut 
desired some emigration ; and Florida, Indiana, Ohio, and Washington were in 
favor of further restriction. Of immigrants desired, 7 States desired native- 
born ; 8, persons from Northern Europe; 15, British; 18, Scandinavians ; 20, 
Germans; 2, Dutch ; 3, skilled persons; ir, families intending to settle in the 
country, and 3, persons with money. In regard to immigrants not welcomed, 
3 States did not desire any at all ; 2 desired no foreign-born; 5, no Southern 
and Eastern Europeans ; 8, no illiterates ; 3, no persons likely to settle in cities ; 
7, no Asiatic immigrants; 1, no Poles; 1, no persons of Latin races; 1, no 
persons who were unable to speak English; and 12, no persons distributed 
from the poorer quarters of Eastern cities. The last choice throws some light 
upon the distribution of immigrants as a solution of the question of congestion. 
The replies received by the Immigration Restriction League show that the sen- 
timent in the country has not changed at all since 1895, and that the desire for 
restricting certain undesirable classes is as strong to-day as ever, in the general 
community, although it has not had as full expression in votes in Congress. 
The Farmers' National Congress, in 1896, 1897 and 1905, advocated further 
restriction. And among the newspapers holding the same view may be men- 
tioned the American Grange Bulletin, and a considerable number of papers in 
the rural districts of the Western and Southern States." 



VI. The Present Laws and their Effects. 

(A.) THE EXCLUDED CLASSES. 

The only classes of persons excluded from this country under the present 
immigration law (Act of Feb. 20, 1907) are the following : — 

Mentally unfit. (1) Idiots; (2) Imbeciles; (3) Feeble-minded persons; 
(4) Insane persons; (5) Persons who have been insane within five years pre- 
vious ; (6) Persons who have had two or more attacks of insanity at any time 
previously; (7) Persons certified by the examining surgeon as being otherwise 
mentally defective in such a way that their ability to earn a living is affected. 

1 hysically u> fit. (1) Epileptics; (2) Tuberculous persons; (3) Persons 
afflicted with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease ; (4) Persons certi- 
fied by the examining surgeon as being otherwise physically defective in such 
a way that their ability to earn a living is affected. 

Morally unfit ( 1 ) Prostitutes, or women or girls entering for immoral 
purposes ; (2) Procurers and persons attempting to bring in women or girls for 



20 



immoral purposes; (3) Polygamists ; (4) Anarchists; (5) Convicts and self-! 
confessed criminals. 

Economically unfit. (1) Paupers; (2) Persons likely to become a public 
charge ; (3) Professional beggars ; (4) Contract laborers ; (5) Persons deported 
within a year previously as being contract laborers; (6) Assisted immigrants,, 
unless on special inquiry they are found not to belong to any other excluded 1 
class ; (7) Children under sixteen years of age, unless accompanied by at least 
one parent. 

Note. — There are three general misconceptions regarding our present] 
immigration laws. The first is that we now require a careful examination of all i 
intending immigrants in Europe, before they embark, and in this way the least 
desirable element is very largely prevented from coming here. The second, that 
persons who cannot read and write are at present debarred from landing. The 
third, that every immigrant must have $50 in order to be admitted. None of 
these is true. 

All immigrants, except residents for a year previous of Canada, Newfound- 
land, Cuba or Mexico, residents in any of the United States possessions, and 
aliens in transit, pay a head tax of $4.00. 



B 



> NUMBERS DEBARRED AND DEPORTED. 



1892 

1893 
1894 

1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 

1905 
1906 
1907 



2,801 out of 579,663 or 0.5 per cent. 

1,630 out of 440,793 or 0.4 per cent. 

2,389 out of 228,020 or 1 .0 per cent. 

2,419 out of 258,536 or 1.0 per cent. 

3,037 out of 343,267 or 0.9 per cent. 

1,880 out of 230,832 or 0.8 per cent. 

3,194 out of 229,299 or 1.4 per cent. 

4,061 out of 31 1,715 or 1.3 per cent. 

4,602 out of 448,572 or 1.3 per cent. 

3,879 out of 487,9 18 or o 8 per cent. 

5,429 out of 648,743 or 0.8 per cent. 

9 316 out of 857,046 or 1.1 per cent. 

8,773 out of 812,870 or 1.1 per cent. 
12,724 out of 1,026,499 or 1.2 per cent. 
13,108 out of 1,100,735 or 1.2 per cent. 
14,059 out of 1,285,349 or 1.1 per cent. 



21 



VII. Proposed Methods of Restriction. 

(A.) CONSULAR CERTIFICATE PLAN. 

It has been suggested that the U. S. consuls shall examine intending im- 
migrants at the various ports of embarkation and certify as to their admissibility 
under the U. S. immigration laws. This plan was formerly very popular and 
at first sight seems an excellent one ; but closer examination discloses defects 
in it that not only make it useless but show it would endanger all the good of 
the present system of inspection. Some of these objections are as follows : — 

1. Necessitates a large increase in consular force, and consequent expense. 

2. Divides responsibility between the consul and the inspector at the 

American port. In doubtful cases each would throw responsibility 
upon the other and the immigrant would be allowed to enter ; or else 

3. Works hardships on the immigrants, because it is not certain that all 

with consular certificates will be allowed to land. 

4. Consuls have not the time to examine the large numbers embarking at 

one time, and the result would be that inspection would practically be 
done by their clerks, who are frequently natives, and who would gen- 
erally sympathize with the immigrants, and in any case would be less 
efficient and responsible, and more open to corruption. 

5. Does not add at all to the classes now excluded by law, but is simply an 

administrative measure. Other classes are objectionable also. 

6. Does not draw any line of exclusion more definite than the present law, 

which vests an unlimited and burdensome discretion in the immi- 
gration officials. 

7 . If consular inspection were public the foreign governments could at once tell 

whom to detain as being desirable citizens and fit for military service ; or 

8. If secret consular inspection were contemplated, foreign governments 

would not permit its introduction. 

(B.) THE ILLITERACY TEST. 

Bills have frequently passed the Senate and the House of Representatives 
providing that immigrants over fifteen years of age who cannot read in any lan- 
guage they may designate shall be excluded, with certain exceptions designed 
to prevent separation of families. 

The advantages of this test are : — 
1. Excludes the people we wish to exclude ; i. e., those who are degraded, 
ignorant alike of their own language and of any occupation, incapable 
of appreciating our institutions and standards of living, and very 
difficult of assimilation. 



2. Adds to the excluded classes. 

3. In practice would be applied at place where ticket bought and applied by 

steamship companies, therefore 

4. Does not imply any great change in existing machinery, or any large 

increase in consular service and expense. 

5. Inspection is not committed to persons in remote countries where ser- 

veillance is difficult, but remains a uniform system, which is public and 
easily controlled. 

6. Is exact and definite in its operation ; easily and simply applied, and 

therefore 

7. Diminishes the labor of the boards of special inquiry, and gives the im- 

migration officials opportunity for a more thorough inspection. 

8. Secures rudimentary education on the part of all foreigners applying for 

naturalization papers and American citizenship. 

9. Promotes education among those who desire to immigrate, and to that 

extent improves the social condition of Europe. 

10. Saves the hardship to the immigrant of making the voyage in doubt as to 

his admission or exclusion, and therefore 

11. Does away in large part with the separation of families, and with a 

temptation to a lax enforcement of inspection, in order to prevent such 
separation. Intending immigrants can tell before starting whether they 
are eligible or not, and can decide whether to separate or not. 

(C.) HEAD-TAX AND MONEY TEST. 

Probably the most effective method of diminishing the volume of immi 
gration would be to raise the present head-tax of $4.00 to $10, $25, or $50 
While this test does not on its face make any reference to the quality of th 
immigrant, it is probable that it would operate to exclude the less thrifty an 
efficient. A raising of the head-tax would also tend to put this country on 
par with other countries as regards the steerage rate, so that the United State 
would no longer be the cheapest country to get to. 

One theoretical disadvantage of a higher head-tax is that it might leave the 
immigrant so much the poorer when he starts to find work here. In view o 
the fact that most of the present immigrants land with but little money thi 
objection is probably not sound. But, to avoid this difficulty, it has -een sug- 
gested that each immigrant should be required to be in possession of certain 
amount of money, — say $25 for single aliens and $50 for heads of families with 
children under a certain age. A requirement of this kind would probabl 
result in numerous loans by bankers, contractors and relatives, but would tend 
to restrict immigration and to give immigrants the means of support until they 
found work. 



23 



VIII. Bibliography. 

For the convenience of those wishing to study the subject further, the fol- 
lowing references are given to a few of the leading authorities. Further refer- 
ences will be found in some of these works. 

List of Books (w ; th references to periodicals) on Immigration. Third issue. 
Library of Congress (1907). Contains also lists of Congressional Docu- 
ments, Annual Reports, and Articles in Consular Reports. 

Select List of References on Chinese Immigration. Library of Congress (1904). 
Contains also lists of Government Publications, Congressional Documents, 
and Reports of Debates. 

[These may be obtained by addressing the Librarian of Congress, Washing- 
ton, D. C] 

Annual Reports of the Commissioner- General of Immigration. 

[May be obtained by addressing the Immigration Bureau, Washington, 
D. C] 

Immigration and its Effects Upon the United States. By Prescott F. Hall. New 
York : Henry Holt & Co. (1906). The latest general book on the subject. 
Gives statistics as to immigration, its conditions and effects ; the history of 
legislation and proposed legislation; also a working bibliography. 

Races and Immigrants in America. By John R. Commons. New York : 
Macmillan (1907). Discusses especially the racial and economic aspects of 
immigration. 

Emigration and Immigration. By Richmond Mayo-Smith. New York : Scrib- 
ners (1892). 

The Alien Immigrant. By W. Evans-Gordon. New York : Scribners (1903). 
A description of the condition of Hebrews in Continental Europe and 
Great Biitain, by a member of the Royal Commission on Alien Immigration. 
Ch XII. discusses the situation in the United States. 
Anth- i Communities. By Peter Roberts. New York : Macmillan 

Deals especially with Slavic immigration. 
R e Industrial Commission. Vol. 15, pp. 1-840 (1901) ; Vol. 19, pp. 

J .030 (1902). The most recent United States Government report. It 
11ns much testimony taken before the commission, and special reports 
y experts on various topics. 
rtof the Senate Committee on Immigration. Fifty-seventh Congress, Second 
Session, No. 62 (1902). Contains the most recent testimony. 

ALFRED MUDOE & SON, INO- C^^j^^> 24 FRANKLIN 8TREET 

5 M — 1207 E. 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric- 
tion League, address the Secretary, 60 State Street, Boston, Mass. 
The dues for membership are as follows : For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year ; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis- 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a more 
careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants 
whose character and standards fit them to become citizens 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 49 



Immigration Figures for 1907 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner- General of Immigration.} 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1906 and 1907 



Total Immigration [See Note I] 
Number debarred from entrance and returned within 
three years after landing 

Per cent debarred and returned 
Number of illiterates over 14 years of age [See 
Note 2] 

Per cent of illiterates in total immigration over 
1 4 years of age ..... 
Immigration of " Teutonic and Keltic races," chiefly 
from Northern and Western Europe 

Per cent of total immigration . 
Immigration of " Slavic and Iberic races," chiefly 
from Southern and Eastern Europe 

Per cent of total immigration . 
Immigration from Asia ..... 

Per cent of total immigration . 
Average money brought, in dollars 
Per cent of immigrants who have been in the United 

States before ..... 
Per cent of total immigration having no occupation 

including women and children 
Per cent of total immigration who were farm-labor 

ers, laborers or servants 
Per cent of total immigration destined for the fou 

States of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. 

1 



1906 


1907 


1,100,735 


1,285,349 


13,108 


14,059 


1.2 


1.1 


260 823 




27.9 


29.9 


330,358 


347,764 


30. 


27.1 


692,443 


828,022 


62.9 


64. I 


22,300 


40,524 


2.0 


3-2 


22.8l 


19.92 


12. 1 


6.8 


25-9 


23-7 


52.8 


57-4 


66.7 


62.7 



1906 1907 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the States 
east of tbe Mississippi River and north of the 

Potomac and Ohio Rivers . . . . 86.9 85.1 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the South- 
ern and Western States . . . . . 12. 1 13.8 

Per cent of total immigration destined for Hawaii, 

Porto Rico, Alaska and Philippine Islands . 1.0 1.1 

Per cent of appeals from decisions excluding immi- 
grants in which immigrants were allowed to land , 42.3 52.7 

Per cent of immigrants held " liable to become public 

charges" admitted on appeal without bond . 40.2 46.3 

Per cent of immigrants held " liable to become public 

charges" admitted on bond on appeal . . 4.5 10 9 

NOTE 1. — The figures for 1907 do not include 191,797 persons admitted as citi- 
zens, nor 153,120 " non-immigrant aliens.*' 

NOTE 2. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. 
One test made at New York showed that 175 immigrants listed as able to read and 
write were, in fact, illiterate. The recent agitation for an educational test for immi- 
grants has undoubtedly made the latter more disposed to assert their ability to read 
and write. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 





1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


South Italian 


159,329 


185,445 


240,528 


242,497 


Hebrew 


106,236 


129,910 


153,748 


I49,l82 


Polish . 


67,757 


102,437 


95,835 


138,033 


German 


74,790 


82,360 


86,813 


82,936 


Magyar 








60,071 


Scandinavian 


61,029 


62,284 


58,HI 


53,425 



Immigration by Racial Divisions. 

1906 1907 





Number 


Per cent of 
Total 
Immigration 


Number 


Per cent of 

Total 
Immigration 


Slavic . 


408,903 


37-i 


5U,I75 


39-8 


Teutonic 


213,904 


19.4 


224,814 


^7-4 


Iberic . 


283,540 


25.8 


313,803 


24.4 


Keltic . 


116,454 


10.6 


122,932 


9 5 


Mongolic 


16,139 


1-5 


31,633 


2.4 


All others 


61,795 


5-6 


80,992 


6.3 



2 



Extracts from Reports of the Commissioner-General. 



REPORT OF 1907. 
(1.) Much immigration not natural but forced. 

Page 60 : "Another year's experience but emphasizes and confirms the 
conviction that a considerable part of the large immigration of the past few 
years is forced or artificial. Two separate and distinct factors are, from 
interested motives, responsible for such of the immigration as is not natural. 
First, the violators and evaders of the contract labor feature of the law ; and 
second, the steamship runners and agents." 

Page 61 : Speaking of the influence toward immigration of letters from 
previous immigrants in this country: "The worst of it is that there are 
evidences that this endless chain-letter scheme is seized upon by the promoters 
and money lenders to further their interests, and no opportunity lost to 
encourage both the writing and extensive dissemination of such missives. 
When this is done the line is passed between natural and forced immigration, 
and the machinations of the promoter and usurer become a menace to the 
alien directly and to the welfare of this country incidentally." 

(2.) Fines for Steamship Companies. 

Page 62 : "The experience of the past twelve months has demonstrated 
the necessity for drawing the lines closer, and holding the transportation 
companies to a more strict accountability for any and all derelictions in 
furnishing transportation to aliens mentally and physically diseased. . . . 
Adding to the class on account of the bringing of which the transportation 
companies will be fined will accomplish much good. If the amount of the 
fine were increased to a sum sufficient to make the exercise of great care a 
measure of economy on the part of the transportation companies, the pur- 
poses of the law would be furthered materially." 



(Report of Commissioner at New York.) 

Page 83 : " The more attention I give to this matter, the more I am 
convinced that this principle [of fines] might be still further extended ad- 
vantageously to this government and the increased protection of those who 
are permitted to make a useless and expensive journey across the ocean, and 
whose admission to the United States is absolutely precluded by law." 

3 



(3.) Dangers of Bonding Provision of Present Law. 

{Report of Commissioner at New York.) 

Page 83 : In speaking of appeals from decisions of boards of special 
inquiry excluding aliens : "It will be noted that 345 were admitted on bond, 
and although few, if any, aliens admitted on bond have ever fallen a charge 
on the public, I repeat what I stated in my last annual report, that those 
aliens who are afflicted with mental degeneracy, or with physical ills susceptible 
of reproduction in aggravated form, ought never to be admitted under bond, 
no matter how strong the financial backing of the bondsman. Financial 
security cannot guard against ills of this nature. 

" This view cannot be too strongly emphasized, for notwithstanding the 
fact that beginning July 1, 1907, imbeciles, epileptics, etc., are not admis- 
sible even under bond, the number of admissions under bond is certain to be 
very greatly increased, as per terms of section 26 of the Act of February 20, 
1907." 

Administration of Present Law — Number Debarred. 

One of the most striking features regarding the administration of the 
present law is an increase of nearly 25 per cent in the number of aliens 
admitted on appeal to Washington after decisions excluding them by the 
boards of special inquiry which have heard their cases. 

There was an increase of 1 5 per cent in the number of aliens held by the 
boards of special inquiry to be liable to become public charges who were 
admitted on appeal without bond, and an increase of 142.2 per cent admitted 
on bond. 

The present Secretary of Commerce and Labor took office December 17, 
1906. During the first six months of 1907 (July to December, 1906) the 
percentage of aliens debarred was 1.3; during the last six months (January 
to June, 1907) the percentage was 0.8, a reduction of 38 per cent. Com- 
petent observers agree that the quality of immigration did not improve during 
the second period as compared with the first period. 

It should be remembered that every case reversed on appeal tends to 
prevent excluding decisions by the boards of special inquiry in all cases where 
the facts are similar. 

Money Brought. 

While, on the average, the immigrants of 1907 brought about $20 apiece, 
it appears that 303,924, or 23.7 per cent of all immigrants, brought no money 
at all. Even if the children under 14 years be deducted from this number, 
there were still 165,580 persons bringing no money. 

4 



Character of Many Recent Immigrants. 

(1 .) By Qen. Theodore A. Bingham, Police Commissioner of New York City. 

{From Cincinnati Enquirer, July 20 y 1907.) 

Theodore A. Bingham, Police Commissioner, aroused by the wave of 
crimes against women and children throughout the greater city, with especial 
reference to the Dyker Heights case, made the following statement, carefully 
revised, to the newspaper men at police headquarters after saying that the 
people of New York did not realize what an enormous amount of crime the 
Police Department is facing : — 

" There is another very important thing about this crime business. I 
don't want to say anything that would be indiscreet, but unquestionably the 
hordes of immigrants that are coming here have a good deal to do with 
crimes against women and children. 

" You will notice that these particular crimes are done by fellows who 
can't talk the English language. It is this wave of immigration that brings 
to New York the hundreds of thousands of criminals who don't know what 
liberty means, and don't care ; don't know our customs, cannot speak the 
English language, and are in general the scum of Europe. 

" The solution of the problem is to prohibit immigration. But when we 
come to executing immigration laws it is found to be practically impossible 
to deport." 

(2.) By Dr. Thomas Darlington, President of the Board of Health 
of New York City. 

After making a special investigation of the push-cart nuisance by 
direction of Mayor McClellan, Dr. Darlington said : — 

" I have heard the assertion that immigration is necessary to carry on 
our public works, to build railroads, dig canals, and the like. But the present 
immigrants now coming over do not come for that purpose, and will not do 
that sort of work. No ; they prefer to become push-cart peddlers and live in 
poverty in our cities, breeding disease and crime. They occupy our streets, 
the streets for which our taxpayers have paid heavily. They interfere with 
traffic and break the laws of sanitation which we have decided were necessary 
for the preservation of public health." 

Illiteracy and Crime. 

That an illiteracy test for immigrants would be of great benefit appears 
from the fact that, while of the foreign-born over ten years of age in 1900 
there were 12.9 per cent illiterate, the foreign-born prisoners over ten years 
committed in 1904 showed an illiteracy of 20.3 per cent. In other words, 
among the foreign-born, the illiterates furnish an excessive proportion of 
criminals. 

5 



Illiteracy of Immigrants. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years of 
age who, according to their own statement, cannot write, or cannot read and 
write, their own lauguage, from those races {not nations) which contributed 
upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during any of the past 
three fiscal years : — 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic). 


1905 


1906 


1907 


Scotch ....... 


0.7 


0-5 


1.0 


Scandinavian ...... 


o.6 


o-5 


I.I 


English ...... 


i-3 


1.0 


1.4 


Bohemian and Moravian .... 


i-7 


1.8 


2.1 


Finnish . . 


i.8 


1-5 


3-i 


French . 


2.7 


2.6 


2.1 


Irish ........ 


38 


23 


2.2 


Dutch and Flemish ..... 


5-3 


4.0 


4.2 


German . 


4.2 


50 


7.0 


Italian (North) 


14.0 


12.0 


10. 


Ai \jl OiQXj Ul *lUU»t? .... 






4 3 
i.«j 


Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic aud lberic). 








Armenian ....... 


— 


— 


24.0 


Spanish ....... 


10. 1 


9.8 


33-5 


Magyar ....... 


11.6 


12.7 


io-5 


Greek ....... 


22.4 


235 


30.6 


Russian ....... 


30.8 


39 


'4-5 


Slovak ... ... 


25.0 


22.0 


21.5 


T? All nnioii 

XVUllIIlclU IclLl ...... 


oft ft 
z , 


3°-5 


39-3 


Dalmatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian 


384 


44-3 


49-7 


.ronsn . . . . . . - . 


39 6 


37- 1 


41.2 


Croatian and Slovenian .... 


38 2 



Q 




Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 


38 Q 


41.8 


44 8 


Lithuanian ...... 




56.8 


62.4 


Italian (South) . . . . 


56.4 


53-8 


53.3 


Rutlienian ....... 


62.6 


56.3 


558 


Portuguese ...... 


66.7 


58.6 


76.6 


Average of above .... 


42.2 


42.0 


42.2 


< ithkk Races. 








Chinese ....... 


50 


5-6 




Cuban . . 


7-7 


4-7 


11. 7 


Japanese ....... 


39-3 


42.7 


31.2 


Hebrew ....... 


23-3 


27.0 


29.0 


African (black) ...... 


15.8 


12.3 


16.2 


Syrian ... ... 


53-6 


54-8 


55.i 



Alien Movement — Emigration. 



July and August, 1907. 

Inward. Outward. 

Immigrant aliens ..... *95»957 49>854 

Non-immigrant aliens .... 22,713 40,661 

Total ..... 218,670 90,515 



Note. The Act of February 20, 1907, provided, for the first time, for official 
statist? of emigration. Arriving aliens intending to remain here, and departing 
aliens intending to remain abroad, are classed as "'immigrant aliens"; those 
making a temporary trip in either direction are classed as u non-immigrant aliens. " 



7 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restrio 
tion League, address the Secretary, 60 State Street, Boston, Mass. 
The dues for membership are as follows: For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis- 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organisation, 
with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a more 
careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants 
whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



2m— 12-07 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 50 

WHY HAS GERMAN IMMIGRATION STOPPED? 

Are the German immigrants being shut out by the increasing numbers 
from Southeastern Europe? A careful study of the figures given below will 
startle those who are anxious to have the immigrants from the Fatherland 
hold their own with those of other races. 



Per Cent of Total European Immigration. 





Germany 


Italy 


Austria-Hungary 


Russia 


1887 


22% 


10% 


9% 


6% 


1888 


20 " 


10 44 


8 44 


6 44 


1889 


23 " 


6 44 


8 44 


8 44 


1890 


21 14 


12 44 


13 " 


8 44 


1891 


21 " 


14 44 


13 " 


9 « 


1892 


21 " 


11 44 


13 " 


14 44 


1893 


19 " 


17 " 


13 " 


10 44 


1894 


19 " 




14 44 


14 44 


1895 


13 " 


14 44 


13 " 


15 " 


1896 


10 i4 


21 " 


20 44 


16 44 


1897 


10 " 


27 44 


15 " 


12 44 


1898 


8 " 


27 " 


18 44 


14 44 


1899 


6 " 


26 44 


21 44 


21 44 


1900 


4 " 


24 " 


27 44 


21 44 


1901 


5 " 


29 " 


24 44 


18 44 


1902 


5 " 


29 44 


28 44 


17 " 


1903 


5 " 


28 " 


25 44 


17 44 


1904 


6 " 


25 " 


23 " 


19 44 


1905 


4 " 


23 " 


28 14 


19 ' 4 


1906 


4 4i 


27 44 


26 44 


21 k4 


1907 


3 " 


24 44 


28 44 


22 44 



D-308. 




0' 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEA6UE No. 51 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGRATION. 

BY 

Prescott F. Hall. 

The word " Eugenics " has appeared in periodical literature only 
within the last ten years, chiefly through the writings of Sir Francis 
Galton and of Karl Pearson, professor of mathematics in the Uni- 
versity of London. The thing itself is, indeed, not new. The 
effort to improve the breeds of men has been expressed in many ways 
from early times. Not to mention the exposure of weakling chil- 
dren by the various races, restrictions on marriage of one kind or 
another have been imposed by almost all peoples. 

Since Christianity and civilization have emphasized the worth of 
the individual, the voluntary elimination of the unfit has been limited 
to the execution of offenders against political or religious laws, and 
the forced segregation of certain other classes, like paupers, insane 
persons, idiots and lepers. 

The attempt to improve race stocks in recent times has, therefore, 
taken the form, not of killing off the less fit, but of preventing their 
coming into the State, either by being born into it or by migration. 
Eugenics includes, not only the prevention of unfit, but the con- 
scious attempt to produce the more fit ; indeed, it is in the latter 
sense that the word is most often used. Strictly speaking, however, 
it must include all attempts to improve the physical equipment of 
the individual in so far as he acquires it by heredity. 

The recent emphasis upon eugenics is a direct outcome of modern 
science. On the one hand, Darwin and his followers have shown 
us the methods and the possibilities of the production of new species 
of plants and animals. This knowledge has been applied, in count- 
less ways, — to improve breeds of sheep and cattle, to develop race 
horses, to create new and improved kinds of grains, grasses and 
fruits. The marvellous work of Luther Burbank and others has 
opened our eyes to what can be done along these lines. So much 
has been done, indeed, that it would not be too much to say that 
artificial selection has been applied to almost every living thing with 
which man has close relations except man himself ; and people are 



2 



PRE SCOTT F. HALL. 



now asking why the breeding of the most important animal of all 
should, alone, be left to chance. 

On the other hand, the weakening of theological dogma, resulting 
from the spread of science, has turned men's gaze in large part from 
the next world to this. The centre of effort has in large part been 
shifted from preparing for death to enlarging life, from cultivating 
holiness to producing wholeness. Comte, Herbert Spencer, in fact 
nearly all modern philosophers, have laid emphasis on making this 
world better, without reference to what may happen in any other 
world. The culmination of this movement is found in such men as 
Nietzsche, Bernard Shaw and President Roosevelt. The Christ 
ideal is no longer one of religious contemplation, but of human per- 
fection ; the superman, working in a strenuous life to produce a 
better world here and now, is the one who attracts the admiration 
of men today. 

Science has aided this movement in another way by showing 
that, in the last century, too much emphasis was laid upon 
environment and too little upon heredity. Education, environment, 
can develop and modify; they cannot create. Modern biology 
shows how different organisms react upon the same environment ; 
and that, by selecting individuals who react in certain ways, more 
can be accomplished than by merely changing environment of the 
total number. 

And thus it has come about that at last men are asking how the 
advent of the superman can be hastened, and are beginning to dis- 
cuss the application of artificial breeding and selection to mankind 
itself. Nietzsche's definition of marriage, as the union of two with 
the object of producing beings higher than themselves, is beginning 
to be seriously considered. 

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Europe attempted to 
improve its race stocks by the exportation of the less desirable 
individuals. Each country had its penal colonies, and in addition 
used the United States as a dumping ground for its convicts, paupers 
and insane. The immigration laws of the United States, which 
purport to exclude some twenty-one classes of mentally, physically, 
morally and economically undesirable persons, were originally in- 
tended to protect the country from the dumping process above 
described. But, inasmuch as they operate equally in the cases of 
assisted and of normal immigration, they really go further than this • 
and, so far as they are enforced, tend to eugenic results by selecting 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGBA TION. 



3 



the better classes of aliens for the fathers and mothers of future 
citizens. 

Within the United States, in addition to the usual segregation of 
criminals and insane, we hear from time to time suggestions as to 
sterilizing certain classes of the unfit or regulating the marriage of 
those afflicted with hereditary diseases. Until public opinion has 
been much more educated in this matter, however, little is likely to 
be done on these lines. The clause of the Constitution of the 
United States forbidding "cruel and unusual punishments" is 
likely to stand in the way of measures of sterilization like those 
enacted in Indiana ; and it may be questioned whether marriage 
regulations will have any effect other than to increase illegitimacy, 
except among the more intelligent and public spirited, who would 
probably act in the same way without legislation. Marriage regula- 
tions in Europe, as applied to men in the army, have never been 
very successful ; and in Bavaria, for example, worked such harm 
that they had to be modified. 

One of the chief troubles with the extension of eugenic ideals is 
the fact above mentioned that the very people who most need them 
are the last to be influenced by them. Thus, according to Professor 
Pearson, more than one half the births in Great Britain occur among 
less than one sixth of the population, and the latter are composed 
of the less intelligent portion of the community ; and not only less 
intelligent, but less developed physically. It is on account of this 
last fact that we hear so much now about the physical deterioration 
of the British people, as shown in the examination of recruits for the 
army. Nature abhors extremes, and weeds out both the laggards 
and the pioneers. 

This tendency of the less intelligent to multiply more rapidly 
becomes doubly important in a country where, in some years, 
immigration ranges from one to one and one quarter per cent of 
the population,* and is chiefly made up of the working classes. 
Admitting, for the sake of argument, that a mixture of race stocks 
may be desirable, it is apparent that the individuals who are to be 
the progenitors of the mixed stock should, at least, be as good, 
mentally and physically, as the average of those already here, if there 
is not to be a gradual degeneration or our people. 

* It is true that the " net addition to population " by immigration, in any year, 
is less than this; but returning aliens may leave children behind them, and, in 
any case, exert a profound influence on the community. 



4 



PEL SCOTT F. HALL. 



Present Laws Not Sufficient. 

The fact is, that our immigration laws, as at present administered, 
do not screen out the unfit so as to preserve the status quo, to say 
nothing of promoting eugenic improvement. Dr. Darlington of the 
New York City Board of Health has pointed out * that over 80 per 
cent of the aliens certified by the examining surgeons as being of 
poor physique or as having some physical abnormality were landed 
recently at Ellis Island. According to the Surgeon-General, 3774 
aliens were certified at Ellis Island from July 1 to December 31, 
1907, as having physical disabilities affecting their capacity for self- 
maintenance ; and, during the same period, 3073 of such aliens 
were admitted. Of 4846 certified during the year 1904, or remain- 
ing over from the previous year, 3478 were landed. 

The result of this laxness is shown in the further facts cited by 
Dr. Darlington, that the 40 per cent of foreign-born school children 
in New York City furnished, in 1906, over 70 per cent of the 
defectives in the schools ; while in 1902 a foreign-born population 
of New York City, constituting a little over one third of the total 
population of New York City, furnished 89 per cent of the deaths 
from tuberculosis, and, in 1904, 60 per cent of the insane patients. 

It further appears that the races which have recently begun to 
come to us, some of which are coming in large numbers, are those 
which have the largest proportion of serious physical defects. Thus, 
in 1 90 1, the proportions of defectives to the totals landed, accord- 
ing to Dr. McLaughlin,| were as follows for certain races : — 

Syrian 1 in 29. 

Hebrew 1 in 42. 

Magyar 1 in 148. 

Finn 1 in 163. 

Italian 1 in 172. 

Slav 1 in 664. 

Lithuanian 1 in 1906. 

Hebrew immigration has for several years been the second largest 
element in the total immigration. 

The census of 1900 shows that, roughly speaking, the foreign-born 



* North American Review, Vol. 183, p. 1262 (Dec. 21, 1906). 
t Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 62, p. 407. 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGBA TION. 



5 



furnish one and one-fifth times their proportion of criminals, one 
and one-half times their proportion of juvenile offenders, nearly twice 
their proportion of insane, and nearly three times their proportion 
of paupers. 

If we had proper immigration laws properly enforced, most of 
those who are or become defectives and dependents would never 
be admitted, and we should be protected, not merely from the bur- 
den of them, but from what George William Curtis called that 
" watering of the nation's life-blood " which is the result of their 
breeding after admission. 

After great efforts, a new class of excluded persons was added to 
the immigration law in 1907, consisting of persons "who are found 
to be and are certified by the examining surgeon as being mentally 
or physically defective, such mental or physical defect being of a 
nature which may affect the ability of such alien to earn a living." 
It was further provided that there should be no appeal from the 
decision of boards of special inquiry excluding such aliens. This 
was intended to be a purely physical test ; in practice, however, it 
has been made an economic test. It is held by some of the officials 
that the defect must interfere with any particular occupation which 
the alien states he intends to pursue ; that the function of the sur- 
geon is merely advisory ; and that the question whether the decision 
of a board of special inquiry was, in any case, based on the medical 
certificate, can be reviewed by the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor. As a result of these refinements, the "poor physique" 
clause has become a dead letter, and the protection, which it was 
intended to furnish to the public health, has been done away with. 

Admitting that immigration is to be regulated at all, there seems 
to be no reason why the same care should not be exercised in 
admitting human beings that is now exercised in relation to ani- 
mals, insect pests and desease germs. The admission of undesir- 
able individuals does not necessarily improve the world as a whole. 
There are as many English sparrows in England as there were before 
they were imported to become a nuisance in this country. 

The opponents of regulation of immigration have largely relied 
upon the doctrine that free competition of individuals will result in 
the " survival of the fittest " by natural selection. This belief is 
based upon a misunderstanding of the expression " survival of the 
fittest." This really means the survival of those most fitted for sur- 
vival, and not necessarily those most fitted for any other purpose. 



6 



PRE 8C0TT F. HALL. 



As Dr. Pearson has pointed out,* this practically means the survival 
of the most fertile. The poor drunkard in the slums who has, per- 
haps, ten children survives five times as much as the college presi- 
dent with two, but no one would think of claiming that the ten are 
as valuable as the two. Formerly, the ten, or most of them, would 
have been eliminated by disease, and only the strongest would have 
survived. Today, owing to modern sanitation, they all live, though 
often handicapped in the struggle for existence. 

A variation of this argument usually takes the form of pointing 
out some dramatic single instance, where a child of the slums or 
one immigrating from some European ghetto, has risen to distin- 
guished rank and done valuable service to the community. In view 
of the recent work of Hugo de Vries, Burbank and others, it cannot 
be denied that spontaneous variation does produce occasional 
" sports " very different from the parent stock. But, although we 
cannot predict that X, a child of A, will be of type A, any more 
than we can predict the date of his death, we can be absolutely 
certain what a class X of children of persons of type A will be, just as 
we can certainly predict the average life of that class ; and we can 
also predict that the more valuable class A, the more valuable will 
be class X. 

On account of the tendency, discussed above, for those classes of 
the community which have a lower physical and mental develop- 
ment to breed more rapidly, we must consider classes and not in- 
dividuals. Wars and pestilences no longer eliminate the unfit as 
formerly, and what harm can be done by the breeding of a single 
pair of undesirables has been shown by the history of the Jukes 
family in New York State. That heredity counts for more than 
environment is shown by the importance attached to the former, as 
compared with latter, by the insurance companies. According to 
Gal ton, the individual inherits in some degree from every one of 
his ancestors, but in inverse geometrical proportion to their remote- 
ness. If, therefore, we have a class of immigrants mentally and 
physically defective, we can be mathematically certain that the chil- 
dren of that class will contain a preponderating amount of degen- 
eracy, no matter what the environment. As Professor Pearson says : 
" You cannot change the leopard's spots, and you cannot change 
bad stock to good ; you may dilute it, possibly spread it over a wide 



National Life from the Standpoint of Science." 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGRATION 



7 



area, spoiling good stock, but until it ceases to multiply it will not 
cease to be." 

The United States, from its geographical position, has an oppor- 
tunity to perpetuate its unique advantage in having been founded 
and developed by a picked class of immigrants. Only recently has 
the greed of transportation companies brought to our shores a selec- 
tion, not of the best, but often of the worst elements of European 
and Asiatic populations. Pending the development of further 
eugenic ideals, the least we can do is to see that the best specimens 
of each race are chosen for the parents of our future citizens. 

The Ethics of Immigration Restriction. 

In an address before the Economic Club of Boston, President 
Eliot, of Harvard University, once took for his text the proposition 
that restriction of immigration was not a "generous thought." As 
this phrase sums up the objection felt by a number of public-spirited 
persons to any rigorous regulation of immigration, it deserves care- 
ful consideration. At the first, the term " free immigration " has 
an attractive sound. Freedom has been the watchword of democ- 
racy, of anti-slavery, of religious liberty. It was the war cry of that 
school of economics which was dominant until recent years, and 
found expression in the doctrine of laissez faire. In political life, 
liberty meant until recently the minimum of control necessary to 
secure equal opportunity. 

The chief difference between the viewpoint of the nineteenth 
century and that of the twentieth will be found, I think, in the more 
positive and constructive attitude of the latter. We have begun to 
realize the control of man over nature, and to see that the highest 
results come from collective effort consciously directed to an end. 
We have seen, for example, both in biology and in history that indi- 
viduals with traits of the highest value may disappear before the 
onslaughts of lower types which in one way or another are better 
fitted to perpetuate themselves. 

Do we, therefore, say that such is the Divine purpose, and acqui- 
esce in the result? Not at all. We say there is no ground for sup- 
posing that the Divine purpose does not intend to work as much 
through man's reason as through the forces of nature ; and we set 
about interfering with natural selection in almost every department 
of life. We not only weed out the tares and thistles to plant wheat 
and figs, but Mr. Burbank and others create better kinds of wheat 



8 



PRE SCOTT F. HALL. 



and figs and they supplant what we had before. The race horse and 
the seedless orange are triumphs of man's brain applied to artificial 
selection. In human affairs we find that we must go far beyond the 
doctrine of equal opportunity, and by compulsory education, pure 
food laws and countless other regulations, protect the people from 
harm and raise them to a higher type. We even lie awake nights 
devising how to get better men into our municipal offices, utterly 
regardless of the question whether the average citizen wishes better 
government or not ; and, when the bad citizen gets too bad, we 
sometimes interfere with his natural activity by putting him in jail. 

Now, all these considerations have a direct bearing upon the 
question of immigration regulation, for the migration of peoples is 
one of the matters in which conscious human agency may produce 
the greatest results, by the selection of the future races. 

Restriction of immigration can be justified from two points of 
view. The first point of view is, that any political unit has the right 
to exclude whatever will not help it to a higher development than 
it now has. Probably the world is not yet ready for eugenic ideals 
such as Messrs. Pearson and Galton are preaching in England, 
whether they be by regulation of marriage or by preserving the purity 
of certain races. So let us pass to the second point of view. 

This is, that any political unit has the right to protect itself from 
the invasion of anything tending to retard its normal life and devel- 
opment, whether it be noxious weeds or animals, germs of infectious 
disease, immoral books, immoral people, criminals, or persons whose 
presence tends to lower the average of intelligence, political capacity, 
or mental and physical health. 

This right has never been questioned legally ; it is an inherent 
attribute of sovereignty. It rests on the proposition that a political 
and social community is the creation and property of those who 
have established and developed it, and that they have the right to 
say who shall be admitted into its life. The nation is larger, but 
not unlike the state, the city, the church, the club, the family. In 
these smaller units the right to regulate admission is unquestioned. 
The college, of which the president above referred to is the dis- 
tinguished head, is by no means indifferent to educational tests for 
admission to its privileges. 

But the right of the nation to exclude individuals may be ques- 
tioned upon moral grounds just because it is larger than the other 
units we have mentioned. The surface of the earth is limited in 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGBA TION. 



9 



extent ; and while in most parts of Europe the birth rate is falling, 
in Asia and Africa it is probably rising, and in all parts the death 
rate is diminishing. What, it will be asked, are these teeming multi- 
tudes to do if they overcrowd their native territory? 

This problem suggests two preliminary practical considerations. 
One is that most nations do not restrict immigration to any extent, 
so that if the United States were to impose additional restrictions, 
most of the remaining countries would still be open. Another 
is, that free immigration, in many if not in all cases, results in an 
absolute increase in population in the country from which it takes 
place, so that the problem is not solved but renewed. There are 
ten times as many Englishmen in England as at the time of the first 
English emigration. Unless we admit the right of any human type, 
no matter how low, not only to move about the earth's surface but 
to propagate indefinitely at will, we must consider what types it is 
desirable to have populate the now unsettled portions of the world. 
There might be no fewer Hindus in Asia after a few years if one 
hundred millions out of the eight hundred millions now there were 
to come to America ; but the effect on America would be profound 
and permanent, while the effect on India would be slight and tem- 
porary. 

Now, if the facts show, as I believe they do, that a considerable 
proportion of the immigrants coming today are below the average 
of our citizenship, mentally, morally and physically, and if they 
have tended to lower that average, why is it ungenerous to say, "You 
shall not come faster than we can lift you to our level or higher, and 
those of you who are very far below our level shall not come until 
they fit themselves for our conditions." Observe the question which 
the college president raises is not one of fact but of the moral law. 
He proclaims that restriction of immigration is ungenerous no matter 
what the quality of that immigration is. 

Now if a thing is ungenerous, it must be because it is ungener- 
ous toward somebody. Restriction of immigration, under the 
assumed state of facts, is certainly not ungenerous to the native- 
born in the United States, nor to the foreign-born already here. Is 
it ungenerous to the intending immigrants, who may soon number 
two millions a year? That must be considered in connection with 
the effect of exclusion upon all the population of the other countries. 
If the standard of civilization and progress which the United States 
stands for were lowered, either by thinning the life blood of the peo- 



10 



PRE SCOTT F. HALL. 



pie or by supplanting the existing races by others whose ideals are 
different, the damage to the rest of the world might be enough to 
much more than offset the benefit to the individuals admitted. lor 
nations, like individuals, progress by emulation and imitation, and 
if there is nothing of value to imitate, such progress becomes delayed. 

Just at this point I seem to hear something said of the colossal 
Teutonic conceit which thinks its race better than others. I frankly 
accept the challenge. I do believe that, in recent centuries, the 
Teutonic stock has been the finest in the world. The Iberic had its 
day; but compare the history of the Spanish- American republics 
for three hundred years with that of England, Germany, Scandina- 
via and the United States. If our country had been settled by 
Galicians, Croatians, Sicilians or Greeks, can anyone suppose that our 
institutions and achievements would have been what they have 
or that that the movement toward political and religious liberty 
throughout all the world would have been the same ? 

Besides the advantage of continuing the higher progress of an 
advancing nation for its service to the world, there are certain bene- 
fits of restriction of emigration which are often overlooked. Emi- 
gration has been used as a safety valve by the governments of Europe 
to enable them to continue despotic rule, burdensome taxation, 
indifference to educational and industrial advance. It is probable 
that certain European countries would be further ahead today if 
the pressure of population and poverty had been present to force 
their rulers to more enlightened policies. A few years ago the mere 
rumor that the United States would adopt an educational test for 
immigrants sufficed to cause the Italian Minister of Education to 
take steps to enforce the primary education law, previously a dead 
letter in many parts of Italy. 

And it must be remembered that there are many kinds of intend- 
ing immigrants. By excluding the less fit, we make room for the 
more fit, who would otherwise be unable to come. The ireat recent 
influx of South Italians and Slavs has had a perceptible effect in 
checking immigration from Northern and Western Europe. Restric- 
tion is, indeed, not a condition of our making. It is a result of the 
fact that even the largest country has only a certain amount of 
employment to offer at any given time. The admission of the less 
desirable means the exclusion of the better class. To which of the 
two does^the future more justly belong? Then, again, in so far as 
immigration lowers the standards of things in this country, it injures 



EUGENICS, ETHICS AND IMMIGRATION. 



11 



the prospects of all future immigrants. We who are living today are 
trustees of what has been accomplished, not merely for our own peo- 
ple, but for all who may inhabit this country in the future. The 
trouble with the college president's view is that it contemplates using 
the principal of trust funds for temporary almsgiving, and presently 
there will be no funds to take care of future deserving cases. For 
it must never be forgotten that assimilation works both ways ; that 
immigrants are assimilating us, and if too numerous and too alien 
they destroy our power of lifting them, just as a strong man may be 
made feeble by the smallest germs. 

To sum up, the open hand may not be the most generous attitude, 
either toward our foreign-born citizens, toward present immigrants, 
toward future immigrants, or toward the world at large. In the 
words of Phillips Brooks : k ' If the world, in the great march of 
centuries, is going to be richer for the development of a certain 
national character, built up by a larger type of manhood here, then 
for the world's sake, for the sake of ' every nation that would pour 
in upon it that which would disturb that development, we have a 
right to stand guard over it." 

For publications and membership in the Immigration 
Restriction League, address the Secretary, 101 Tremont 
Street, Boston, Mass. The dues for membership are as 
follows: For annual membership, one dollar, payable in 
advance upon admission and upon January 1st of each 
year ; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon 
admission, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organiza- 
tion, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates 
a more careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any 
immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 

3M-12 08 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 52 



Immigration Figures for 1908 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1 907 and 1 908 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 





1907 


1908 


Total immigration [See Note 1] . 


1,285,349 


782,870 


Number debarred from entrance and returned 






within three years after landing 


14,059 


12,971 


Per cent debarred and returned . 


X.I 


i-7 


Total emigration [See Note 2] 




395,073 


Net immigration 




387,797 


Net addition to population [See Note 3] 




68,042 


Number of illiterates over 14 years of age [See 






Note 4] 


343,402 


174,603 


Per cent of illiterates in total immigration 






over 14 years of age .... 


29.9 


26.0 


Immigration of " Teutonic and Keltic races" 






chiefly from Northern and Western Eu- 






rope 


347J64 


264,681 


Per cent of total immigration 


27.1 


33-8 


Immigration of " Slavic and Iberic races," chiefly 






from Southern and Eastern Europe . 


828,022 


441,803 


Per cent of total immigration 


64.1 


56:4 


Immigration from Asia ..... 


40,524 


28,365 


Per cent of total immigration 


3-2 


3.6 


Average money brought, in dollars 


19.92 


22.78 


Per cent of immigrants who have been in the 






United States before 


6.8 


8.1 


Per cent of total immigration having no occupa- 






tion, including women and children 


23.7 


30.9 



1 



Per cent of total immigration who were farm- 
laborers, laborers or servants 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the 
four States of 111., Mass., N. Y. and Pa. 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the 
States east of the Mississippi River and north 
of the Potomac and Ohio Rivers 

Per cent of total immigration destined for the 
other (Southern and Western) States . 

Per cent of total immigration destined for Hawaii, 
Porto Rico, Alaska and Philippine Islands . 

NOTE 1. — This figure does not include 141,825 "non-immigrant aliens." 
NOTE 2. — Does not include 319,755 "non-emigrant aliens." 

NOTE 3. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 4. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. 
One test made at New York showed that 175 immigrants listed as able to read and 
write were, in fact, illiterate. The recent agitation for an educational test for immi- 
grants has undoubtedly made the latter more disposed to assert their ability to read 
and write. 



1907 1908 

57-4 47-9 

62.7 61.7 

85.1 80.5 

13.8 18.0 
1.1 1.5 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 





1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


South Italian 


185,445 


240,528 


242,497 


no,547 


Hebrew- 


I29,9IO 


153,748 


I49,l82 


103,387 


Polish 


102,437 


95,835 


138,033 


68,105 


German 


82,360 


86,813 


82,936 


73,038 


Magyar 






60,071 


24,378 


Scandinavian 


62,284 


58,141 


53,425 


32,879 



Immigration Appeals. 

One of the most important features of the administration of the laws 
is the matter of appeals. Immigrants about whom the primary immi- 
grant inspectors have doubts go before " boards of special inquiry," and 
from the decisions of these boards an appeal lies to the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor. The decisions on appeal have a far-reaching effect 
upon the strictness with which the law is enforced; because, where an 
appeal is sustained, subsequent cases involving similar facts are likely to 
be decided by the boards of special inquiry in favor of the aliens. Under 

2 



Section 26 of the law, the Secretary has the right to admit an alien on 
bond, without any appeal being taken. The figures for the last two years 
were as follows: — 

1907 1908 





Number 


% 


Number 


% 


Appeals from excluding decisions . 


4,384 




1,592 




Admitted without bond 


1,950 


44-5 


496 


3« 


Admitted on bond .... 


412 


9-5 


268 


16.9 


Total admitted ..... 


2,362 


54-o 


764 


48.0 


Debarred 


1,939 


44.2 


793 


48.9 


Admitted on bond without appeal under 










Section 26 


6 




649 





Decrease in immigration, 1908 ...... 39. 1% 

Decrease in appeals, 1908 63.7% 

Increase in total exclusions 21.3% 

This shows that, although only a few less appeals were sustained in 
1908, and the total exclusions were one-fifth more, the proportion of appeals 
was only eight-thirteenths. This is explained by the fact that the ad- 
missions on bond without appeal -increased over 100 times; for it appears 
that the proportion of those admitted by the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor, either on appeal or without appeal, to the total immigration was 
the same in both years; viz., 0.18 per cent. In other words, the Secre- 
tary admitted in 1908 1,413 persons, whom the inspection officers 
thought not entitled to land. 

The Commissioner-General in his report (p. 12) states that "by reason 
of the delay in formulating a satisfactory rule and through misunder- 
standing numbers of cases have come up as applications for admission 
under bond [under Section 26] which ought to have come up as appeals, 
and the figures therefore show more bonds accepted than there was any 
real necessity for taking. . . . Approximately half of those recorded as 
applications for bond should in reality be considered as appeals." . . . 

The present bonding arrangements are entirely inadequate. In most 
cases the bonds are too small to make it worth while to sue upon them; 
and, in fact, few, if any, bonds are ever sued on. Yet it is often hard for 
immigrants to get any bonds, so the provision may have some value in 
debarring the unfit. If the "misunderstanding" above regretfully re- 
ferred to by the Commissioner-General is cleared up, it will then be possi- 
ble for the Secretary to admit on appeal, without bond, many who other- 
wise would have been obliged to give bond under Section 26. 



3 



Administration of the Law regarding Defectives. 



After long discussion and much effort the following excluded class 
was added in Section 2 of the immigration act of 1907: — 

" persons not comprehended within any of the foregoing excluded 
classes who are found to be and are certified by the examining surgeon 
as being mentally or physically defective, such mental or physical defect 
being of a nature which may affect the ability of such alien to earn a living." 

Section 10 of the act further provided that the decision of a board of 
special inquiry, based upon the certificate of the examining medical officer, 
shall be final in such cases, and no appeal shall be allowed. 

The purpose of those who drew these provisions was to make the 
judgment of the medical officer conclusive as to those classes of persons 
liable to become public charges which are such by reason of being mentally 
or physically defective. In other words, the test was intended to be a 
physical and not an economic test. 

Secretary Straus, who is not in sympathy with this provision, has, 
however, contrived to largely nullify it by promulgating a rule (Rule 6) as 
follows: — 

" Where the medical certificate states that an alien is affected with 
any mental or physical defect, either of which defects is of a nature that 
might affect the ability of the alien to earn a living or make him likely 
to become a public charge, . . . the question to be determined is a practical 
one quite as much as a medical one, and boards of special inquiry should 
not only receive and carefully consider the certificate of the medical officer, 
but should likewise consider all the facts and surrounding circumstances 
of the case, and from the case as a whole reach their own conclusion as to 
whether the defect is of a nature which may, considering all the circum- 
stances of the case, affect his ability to earn a living or render him likely 
to become a public charge." . . . 

The rule goes on to say that, if the board rejects the alien not only 
on account of the medical certificate, but on all the facts of the case, an 
appeal shall be allowed. 

Now the only thing a board of special inquiry ever has to consider is 
the question whether on the facts an alien is in an excluded class. Thus, 
on the question whether an alien has been insane within five years, the 
medical certificate is properly considered as only one piece of evidence, 
because the question is as to the fact of insanity. But the law does not 
exclude "mental and physical defectives," but those " found to be and 
certified by the examining surgeon" as defectives; the clause following 

4 



being only a definition of the word " defective." The only question 
open to the board of special inquiry is, therefore, the question of fact 
whether the alien was so " found" and "certified." The Secretary also 
claims the right to decide upon appeal whether the board of special in- 
quiry did in fact base its decision solely upon the medical certificate or 
not, and further holds that the "ability of such alien to earn a living" 
refers only to the calling which the immigrant alleges he intends to pursue 
here, and not to his general fitness to support himself. 

These rulings are a violation both of the letter and the spirit of the law. 
They give the Secretary the power by reversing decisions upon appeal to 
override not only the doctors, but the boards of special inquiry. They 
open the door to lying by the immigrant as to his intended occupation. 

If the view held by the Secretary were correct, there would have been 
no occasion for creating this special class of mental and physical defectives; 
for, under the previous law, the surgeons certified mental and physical 
defects and the boards of special inquiry considered whether the defects 
certified were likely to prevent the alien's earning a living. The present 
rulings practically reduce the class of defectives to the class of persons 
"liable to become a public charge." 

This is a good example of the way in which an official who is not in 
sympathy with a law is able to nullify it by rulings. If there is any doubt 
as to its construction, it should be amended so as to be clear beyond con- 
troversy. 

Foreign-born Dependents and Delinquents. 

The report of the Commissioner-General shows that a foreign-born 
population (which in 1900 constituted 13.6 per cent of the total popula- 
tion) furnished in 1908 134,094 persons, or 21.9 per cent of those in all 
the penal, reformatory, insane and charitable institutions of the United 
States, or 15.6 per cent of the criminals, 20.8 per cent of the paupers, and 
29.5 per cent of the insane. (The proportion of the foreign-born to the 
total population has remained practically constant for several decades.) 

It further appears that, of the 15,323 alien criminals, 8,197, or 53.5 per 
cent, had committed serious crimes as distinguished from minor offences. 

The total number of aliens in 1904 in these institutions was 44,985 as 
against 60,501 in 1908, an increase of 15,516, or about 34 per cent. The 
alien criminals increased from 9,825 to 15,323; the insane, from 19,764 
to 25,606; the paupers, from 15,396 to 19,572. The criminals increased 
from 4,124 to 8,197 in grave offences, and only from 5,701 to 7,126 in minor 
offences. 



5 



Criminals in New York City. 

The annual report of the Police Commissioner of the City of New 
York, for the calendar year 1908, throws considerable light on the crimi- 
nal tendencies in that city of immigrants. In 1908, the total arrests 
were 244,822 as compared with 186,671 in 1906, an increase of nearly 
one-third; while the arrests for felony were 25,209 as compared with 
18,948 in 1906, a similar increase. 

As to the white slave traffic, the Commissioner says: "This traffic 
is found to be of large dimensions. There seems to be very slight diffi- 
culty in getting women into the country. The requirements of the im- 
migration authorities are easily met by various simple subterfuges. The 
new law, which went into effect July 1, 1907, has been of great help, but 
the traffic still goes on, and will continue until drastic federal measures 
are taken to extirpate it." It appears that two women who were found 
guilty of entering the United States for immoral purposes in violation 
of the immigration law, and were ordered deported by the Department 
of Commerce and Labor, were subsequently allowed to marry United 
States citizens and thereby avoid deportation. 

It further appears that, in spite of the fact that a man arrested and 
delivered to the United States authorities for deportation had been 
sentenced in Naples to eight days' solitary confinement, and that the Min- 
ister of the Interior of Italy had stated that the man had committed a 
brutal murder in Naples and attempted to kill several other persons, he 
was discharged by the United States authorities. There were 424 " black 
hand" cases reported, and 44 cases of bomb explosions among Italians. 
In regard to these cases the Commissioner says: "We are trying to 
handle mediaeval criminals, men in whose blood runs the spirit of the 
vendetta, by modern Anglo-Saxon procedure. It is wrong to allow these 
people to step into the country." 

The Crossing of Races as a Cause of National Decay. 

The view, advanced in previous publications, that our type of national 
character is in serious danger from the interbreeding of native with alien 
stocks in this country, has been confirmed by a recent study by Alfred 
P. Schultz, just published, called Race or Mongrel. In this book, Mr. 
Schultz shows that all the great races of history, such as the Chaldeans, 
Assyrians, Medes, Persians, Phoenicians, Hindus, Egyptians, Greeks, and 

6 



Romans were great only so long as, like the Jews, they kept their race free 
from mixture with alien types. 

In opposition to the superficial optimists, who claim that all sorts and 
conditions of race can be somehow welded together to produce a new and 
wonderful American breed, Mr. Schultz relies upon the recent discoveries 
in biology, tending to show the paramount importance of heredity. As 
well, he says, expect to produce a more perfect dog by breeding together 
at random a dozen different kinds. It is no less rational to expect to 
make mongrels into fine dogs by teaching them tricks than to imagine 
that a few years of schooling, flag exercises, and civic instruction will make 
the much crossed races of southern Europe into desirable American cit- 
izens. "The ideas, ideals, and institutions of a nation change with its 
racial composition." "Crossing must cease, or America will develop into 
another imperial Rome." 

We commend this book and the authorities therein cited to the careful 
study of all who are interested in the immigration question. 



Illiteracy of Immigrants* 



Number of persons in each hundred immigrants over fourteen years 
of age who, according to their own statement, cannot write, or cannot read 

and write, their own language, from those races (not nations) which con- 
tributed upwards of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during any of 
the past three fiscal years: — 

Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) 

Scandinavian 
Scotch 
English 

Bohemian and Moravian 
Irish .... 
Welsh 

Dutch and Flemish . 
Finnish 
German 
French 

Italian (North) . 

Average of above 

Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavicand Iberic.) 

Magyar 12.7 10.5 xx.i 

Spanish 9.8 33.5 14.8 

Slovak \ 22.0 21.5 23.6 

Greek 23.5 30.6 28.5 

Armenian — 24.0 29.7 

Croatian and Slovenian .... 39.9 36.4 30.0 

Bulgarian, Servian and Montenegrin . 41.8 44.8 35.6 

Roumanian 36.5 39.3 38.7 

Polish 37.1 41.2 40.4 

Russian . 39.0 44.5 41.4 

Dalmatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian . 44.3 49.7 44.5 

Italian (South) 53.8 53.3 50.7 

Ruthenian 56.3 55.8 52.0 

Lithuanian . . . . 56.8 62.4 60.2 

Portuguese 58.6 76.6 64.8 

Turkish — — 71. 2 

Average of above .... 42.0 42.2 40.1 



1906 


1907 


1908 


o-5 


I.I 


1.2 


o-5 


I JO 


1.4 


1.0 


I.4 


1.4 


1.8 


2.1 


1.6 


2.3 


2.2 


1.7 






1.8 


4.0 


4.2 


3-4 




3-1 


4.0 


50 


7.0 


7-1 


2.6 


2.1 


7-9 


12.0 


IO. O 


8.6 


3.7 


4.3 


4.0 



Other Races. 

Chinese 
Cuban 

African (black) 

Hebrew 

Japanese 

Syrian 

Mexican 



5.6 

4.7 
12.3 
27.0 
42.7 
54.8 



11.7 
16.2 
29.0 
31.2 
55.i 



2.5 
20.0 

30.3 
30.5 
54-7 
59- 



8 



For publications and membership in the Immigration Restric- 
tion League, address the Secretary, 101 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass. 
The dues for membership are as follows : For annual membership, 
one dollar, payable in advance upon admission and upon January 1st 
of each year; for life membership, ten dollars, payable upon admis. 
sion, life members being exempt from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organiza- 
tion, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates 
a more careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any 
Immigrants whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



MD-209E. 



9 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 54 



Immigration Figures for 1909 
Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1908 and 1909 



{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 







1 AAA 


Arrivals . 






Total 




f\A A 

944, A3 5 


llllllll^I dill/ dllcllS [OCt> IV 0L6 1J 




751,700 


"^nn-imm i crvti nt $}lipn<3 \S\pp ~Nfnfp 11 

± >l KJLl. llllllllgil dll \J CtllCllO [*JCe 1 V Ubts J. J 


TAT 51? C 


TA1 AA(\ 


uauixTiKiu. i rum eniidiice diiu returneci wiiiini inree 






ytJdlb dl LCl ldllLllll^ ...... 


t *y f\ty t 
12,971 


I2 ,535 


rer cent ueodrreci diiu. returned 






Departures : 






Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


395*073 


225,802 


Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


3 r 9,755 


1 74,590 


Net addition to population [See Note 2] 


209)007 


543,843 


Tm mi errant alipn«}" 

Xlllllllc^l CLllu clllv_ llo • 






Excess over emigrant aliens .... 


387,797 


525,984 


Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from North- 






ern and Western Europe 


264,681 


253,105 


Per cent 


33.8 


33.7 


Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from Southern 






and Eastern Europe • 


441,803 


460,005 


Per cent 


56.4 


61.2 


Asiatic . 


28,365 


12,904 


Per cent 


3.6 


1.7 


Average money brought in dollars 


22.78 


23.05 


Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or servants . 


47.9 


54.7 


Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 






Mass., N.Y., and Pa 


61.7 


60.9 


Per cent destined for the States east of the 






Mississippi River and north of the Potomac 






and Ohio Rivers 


80.5 


80.9 



1 



1908 1909 

Per cent destined for other (Southern and West- 
ern) States 18.0 18.7 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands ... 1.5 0.4 
Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age: 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] 174,603 193,480 

Per cent of illiterates 26.0 29.2 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] 15.3 

Per cent of " assisted " whose passage was paid 

for by others [See Note 4] 21.1 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] . 20.1 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. 
One test made at New York showed that 175 immigrants listed as able to read and 
write were, in fact, illiterate. The recent agitation for an educational test for immi- 
grants has undoubtedly made the latter more disposed to assert their ability to read 
and write. 

NOTE 4. — These figures are obtained by assuming that these immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 



1906 1907 1908 1909 

South Italian 240,528 242,497 110,547 165,248 

Polish .... 95.835 138,033 68,105 77.565 

German 86,813 82,936 73.038 58,534 

Hebrew i53>748 149,182 103,387 57>55i 



Remarks. 

Non-immigrant Aliens. Although this year the " immigrant 
aliens" numbered some 30,000 less than last year, yet, if " non-immi- 
grant aliens" be counted in, the total arrivals this year were 20,000 more 
than last year. 

This distinction between immigrant and non-immigrant aliens is 
a recent one in the statistics, and is liable to be misleading. In the 
first place, it is based chiefly on the statement of the alien himself as to 
his place of permanent residence, and amounts to little more than the 
fact that he has been in the United States before. In the second place, 
it does not follow that an alien is more desirable from having been here 
before. This class corresponds substantially to that heretofore known 
as " birds of passage" which has been considered objectionable from 
many points of view. 

If all arriving aliens be counted, it appears that the total has been 
near the 1,000,000 mark the past two years, having been slightly exceeded 
only in 1905, 1906 and 1907. 

Illiteracy. The number of immigrants over fourteen years of age 
who could not read or write has increased from 26 per cent to 29.2 per cent. 
In 1907 it was 29.9 per cent. There has been a steady increase in illit- 
eracy in recent years, owing to the increase in immigration from South- 
eastern Europe. In 1899, illiteracy was only 19.7 per cent. 

Assisted Immigrants. It will be noted that nearly one-fifth of all 
immigrants over 14 years of age admitted that they were unable themselves 
to pay their own passage. The probability is that the true proportion was 
considerably larger than this, and that many who " paid their own passage " 
did so on money borrowed from professional promoters of immigration. 

Race of Immigrants. The Teutonic and Keltic immigration was 
4 per cent, less than in the year 1908, while the Slavic and Iberic was 
4 per cent, larger. 

If non-immigrant aliens be included, the percentage of Slavic and 
Iberic immigrants was 72.9 in 1909 as compared with 64.1 in 1907. 

The Commissioner-General says in his report, pp. 111-112: — 

*| The Bureau has repeatedly called attention to the interesting 
and important economic problem constituted by this increase in the 
influx of peoples so different racially from the original settlers of the 
country — peoples who, in their antecedents, ideas, ideals (political and 
social), and methods of life and thought, are quite distinct from the 

3 



Teutonic and Keltic stocks, from which our immigration was for so many 
years derived. What will be the result of a continuance of this pre- 
ponderance is a question which concerns every thoughtful patriotic 
American citizen. From one point of view, at least, heterogeneousness 
in a matter of this kind is undesirable, homogeneousness desirable. 
There can be but little homogeneity between the people of southern and 
eastern Europe and the real American. Several generations are required 
to produce assimilation, even under favorable circumstances. 

"What is the explanation of this increased and still increasing 
influx of Iberic and Slavic people? Several facts may be stated in par- 
tial explanation — the poor conditions, political and social, of their native 
countries, the natural desire to better their condition, and the wish for 
liberty of thought and conscience that are to some extent inherent with 
all races of men. But these do not afford what is believed to be the 
principal, underlying, explanation. The truth of the matter is that the 
peasants of the countries mentioned have for a number of years sup- 
plied a rich harvest to the promoter of immigration. The promoter is 
usually a steamship ticket agent, employed on a commission basis, or 
a professional money lender, or a combination of the two. His only 
interest is the wholly selfish one of gaining his commission and collecting 
his usury. He is employed by the steamship lines large and small, with- 
out scruple, and to the enormous profit of such lines. The more aliens 
they bring over the more there are to be carried back if failure meets 
the tentative immigrant, and the more are likely to follow later if suc- 
cess is his lot. Whatever the outcome, it is a good commercial propo- 
sition for the steamship line. To say that the steamship lines are respon- 
sible, directly or indirectly, for this unnatural immigration is not a state- 
ment of a theory, but of a fact, and of a fact that sometimes becomes, 
indeed, if it is not always, a crying shame." 

The Commissioner-General refers (p. 112) to the reports of a 
special immigration inspector who studied the matter in Europe, and 
says the Immigration Bureau found "that all of the steamship lines 
engaged in bringing aliens from Europe to this country have persistently 
and systematically violated the law, both in its letter and spirit, by mak- 
ing use of every possible means to encourage the peasants of Europe to 
purchase tickets over their lines to this country." 

He also says (p. 113): "It may be asserted as a general rule that 
stimulated immigration is undesirable. As already stated, a large part 
of our immigration is known to be of that character." 

To the same effect Hon. William Williams, Commissioner at New 
York, says (p. 133): — 

"I have already adverted to the easy-going character of our exclu- 
sion laws and stated that even their strict enforcement keeps out only 
the very bad elements of foreign countries. Between these elements 
and those that are a real benefit to the country (as so many of our immi- 
grants are) there lies a class who may be quite able to earn a living here, 

4 



but who in doing so tend to pull down our standards of living. ... I 
wish merely to emphasize, what must be known to every thinking per- 
son, that [this class] is coming here in considerable numbers and that 
we are making no effort to exclude it. 

" Few people are bold enough to claim that we are in urgent need of 
any more immigrants who will crowd into the congested districts of our 
large cities. And yet this is where a large percentage of our immigrants 
now go and stay. At a time when portions of the West are crying for 
out-of-door labor, congestion in New York City may be increasing at 
the rate of many thousands per month. Another way of putting this 
is to say that much of our present immigration is not responsive to the 
legitimate demands for additional labor in the United States. I think 
this fact should be made known throughout those sections 'of our coun- 
try where many erroneously think that further restrictions of the right 
kind would increase the difficulties incident to obtaining labor for which 
there is a real demand. Quite the contrary is the case, for poor immi- 
gration tends to deter good immigrants from coming." 

Bonding should be abolished. The League has frequently called 
attention to the futility and to the abuse of the practice of admitting 
aliens on bonds conditioned that they shall not become public charges 
(Act of 1907, § 26). In 1909, of 443 persons certified as mentally or physi- 
cally defective to such an extent that their ability to earn a living was 
interfered with, 242, or more than one-half, were admitted on bond! 

The Commissioner-General says (p. 115): — 

"As a general rule, to which there should be only rare exceptions, 
it should be held unequivocally either that an alien is or that he is not 
admissible. A bond is by no means a complete protection against an 
alien's becoming a public charge. Many aliens change their name, 
rendering identification practically impossible, or remove from their 
original place of settlement, causing all account of the fact that a 
bond exists to be forgotten, or the bondsmen are or become irrespon- 
sible. Altogether the bonding system is very unsatisfactory." 

As a- practical matter, bonds have rarely, if ever, been sued on. 

Division of Information. The Act of 1907 (§40) provided for 
the establishment of a division of information intended to effect a distri- 
bution of aliens from the ports of entry to places where their labor was 
desired. 

It appears that this division sent out 1,925,714 letters and postal 
cards, which, if sent by private persons, would have cost for postage 
nearly $20,000. There was also the expense of a large clerical force to 
attend to this correspondence. As a result, 4,168 alien immigrants out 
of 751,786 were placed in employment. 

The League vigorously dissents from the statement of the chief 
of the division that "the argument that the division induces immi- 



5 



gration is without foundation in fact" (p. 238). It is not charged that 
the division intentionally promotes immigration; but the mere fact 
that such a division exists tends to spread the impression among aliens 
that the government is running an employment bureau, and gives unscru- 
pulous steamship agents a chance to assure immigrants that employ- 
ment will be found for them upon arrival. 

It appears that the results accomplished by the division are, so far, 
insignificant, even at great expense. But, if distribution were accom- 
plished on a larger scale, the result would be even worse; for, as soon 
as there is even a small relief in the pressure of congestion at the ports 
of entry, it operates as a force pump to suck in an even larger volume 
of immigration to fill the vacuum. 

The division of information should be abolished unless or until 
adequate selective legislation assures the coming of those only whom 
it is desirable to have distributed. 

Foreign-born Dependents and Delinquents. 

The report of the Commissioner-General for 1908 shows that a for- 
eign-born population (which in 1900 constituted 13.6 per cent of the 
total population) furnished in 1908 134,094 persons, or 21.9 per cent 
of those in all the penal, reformatory, insane, and charitable institutions 
of the United States, or 15.6 per cent of the criminals, 20.8 per cent 
of the paupers, and 29.5 per cent of the insane. (The proportion of the 
foreign-born to the total population has remained practically constant 
for several decades.) 

It further appears that, of the 15,323 alien criminals, 8,197, or 53.5 per 
cent, had committed serious crimes as distinguished from minor offences. 

The total number of aliens in 1904 in these institutions was 44,985 as 
against 60,501 in 1908, an increase of 15,516, or about 34 per cent. The 
alien criminals increased from 9,825 to 15,323; the insane, from 19,764 
to 25,606; the paupers, from 15,396 to 19,572. The criminals increased 
from 4,124 to 8,197 in grave offences, and only from 5,701 to 7,126 in minor 
offences. 



6 



Illiteracy of Immigrants. 

Number of persons in each hundred immigrant aliens over fourteen 

years of age who, according to their own statement, cannot write, or cannot 
read and write, their own language, from those races (not nations) which 

contributed upwards 'of 2,000 immigrants to the United States during 
the past fiscal year: — 

Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic). 1909 

Scandinavian 0.2 

Scotch 0.5 

Finnish 0.5 

English 0.7 

Bohemian and Moravian 1.5 

Irish 1.5 

Dutch and Flemish 2.6 

German 6.3 

French 8.0 

Italian (North) 8.4 

Average of above 3.5 

Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic). 

Spanish 10.6 

Magyar 10.8 

Slovak 19.7 

Greek 26.1 

Croatian and Slovenian 28.7 

Hebrew 29.2 

Polish 39.9 

Russian 41.7 

Portuguese 42.3 

Bulgarian, Servian and Montenegrin 46.5 

Ruthenian . . . • 51.3 

Roumanian 52.3 

Italian (South) 56.9 

Lithuanian 58.2 

Average of above 42. 1 

Other Races. 

Cuban 2.4 

African (black) 22.4 

Armenian 22.5 

Japanese 28.7 

Syrian 52.5 

Mexican 64.6 

Average of above 42.4 

The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 19.2 per cent. 

7 



For publications and membership in the Immigration 
Restriction League, address the Secretary, 101 Tremont Street, 
Boston, Mass. The dues for membership are as follows: For 
annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admis= 
sion and upon January 1st of each year; for life membership, 
ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being exempt 
from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organiza- 
tion, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a more 
careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants 
whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



2MD-310E 



8 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 58. 



THE FUTURE OF 
AMERICAN IDEALS 



BY 

PRESCOTT F. HALL 



REPRINTED FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW 
JANUARY, 1912 



NEW YORK 

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW PUBLISHING CO. 



Copyright, 1911, by 
The North American Review Publishing Co. 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 



BY PRESCOTT F. HALL 



Gobineau once said, u America is likely to be, not the 
cradle of a new, but the grave of an old race." Is there, 
indeed, a danger that the race which has made onr country 
great will pass away, and that the ideals and institutions 
which it has cherished will also pass! 

It seems to be generally agreed that down to the period of 
fifteen years or so after the close of the Civil War there was 
a fairly definite American type, which had expressed itself, 
not so much in literature or art, as in politics and invention, 
and in certain social ideals. Washington and Lincoln, how- 
ever different in some respects, both represented a certain 
type of English civilization, and both stood for certain polit- 
ical, social, and ethical points of view. The original settlers 
of this country were mainly Teutonic, belonging to what is 
now called the Baltic race, from northern Europe, which 
has always been distinguished for energy, initiative, and 
self-reliance. Impatient of much government, relying upon 
self-help rather than the paternalism of the State, this race 
was none the less firm in its allegiance to certain pretty defi- 
nite religious and social standards. It insisted from the be- 
ginning on general education, and where opportunities for 
schooling were wanting there was nevertheless a wide train- 
ing given by interchange of ideas in the home, on the farm, 
in the church, and in the town meeting. In town affairs 
every citizen was expected to take part, and usually did so. 
thus conferring a benefit on the community and receiving 
something in exchange. The result of this common racial 
origin and of these relatively homogeneous institutions was, 
as I have said, the amalgamation of the people into a fairly 
definite national type.* 

* Perhaps the best statement of the proper conditions of raco mixture 
is in Houston Stewart Chamberlain's Foundations of the XlXth Century, 



4 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 



What lias happened since then? To-day, less than one- 
half of our people are descendants of the original stock and 
of the early settlers. Since 1820, we have received from 
Europe and Asia some twenty-eight millions of people. 
About one-third of these came prior to 1880 and were of 
races kindred to those already here; in other words, they 
had a common heritage of institutions if not of language, 
and were assimilated into the general population with com- 
parative ease. The other two-thirds, the eighteen millions 
who have come since 1880, have been, on the other hand, of 
entirely different races — of Alpine, Mediterranean, Asiatic, 
and African stocks. These races have an entirely different 
mental make-up from the Baltic race; they bring with them 
an inheritance of widely differing political and social ideals, 
and a training under social and political institutions very 
different from ours. The Slavic races, for example, differ 
from the Teutonic in temperament as much as the emotional 
nations of the Mediterranean. The South Italian, which 
constitutes the largest element in our present immigration, 
is one of the most mixed races in Europe and is partly Af- 
rican, owing to the negroid migration from Carthage to 
Italy. The modern Greek is by no means the Greek of the 
time of Pericles, either in race or temperament. The He- 
brew, which constitutes the next largest element of immi- 
gration, in spite of long residence in Europe is still, as it 
always has been, an Asiatic race ; while the Syrians, Chinese, 
Japanese, and Hindus are still more removed from the civ- 
ilization of northern Europe and America. 

This movement of peoples from the Old World to the New 
is on a scale unprecedented in history, and its effects cannot 
fail to be profound and far-reaching. What will they be? 

Americans have hitherto paid very little attention to this 
question: first, because they have not considered the dif- 
ference between hostile and peaceful invasions in history; 
and second, because they fail to observe that recent immi- 
gration is of an entirely different kind from that which our 
fathers knew. The earlier immigration having been of kin- 
dred races and having produced no profound changes, our 

vol. i, chap, iv, " The Chaos." He points out that the successful cases 
of amalgamation have been those where there has been an immigration 
of kindred races only, and such immigration has continued for a com- 
paratively brief period and then ceased. This was precisely the situation 
in the United States prior to 1880. 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 



5 



people became used to the phenomenon and took it as a matter 
of course. At the present time, most of us consider that the 
movement now going on is similar to that which has been, 
and anticipate results no different from those previously 
observed. 

If the million people coming every year came not as peace- 
ful travelers, but as an invading hostile army, public opin- 
ion would be very different to what it is; and yet history 
shows that it has usually been the peaceful migrations and 
not the conquering armies which have undermined and 
changed the institutions of peoples. To take the classical 
error on this subject, we have been told repeatedly that, on 
the one hand, it was the conquering Goths and Vandals, 
and on the other hand, their own vice and luxury, which cost 
the Romans their empire. The real cause of the fall of 
Rome was neither of these things. It was the constant in- 
filtration into Roman citizenship of large numbers of ' ' bar- 
barians " — that is, of races alien in instincts and habits of 
thought and action to the races which had built up the Ro- 
man Empire. For a time, indeed, the mold of political 
structure and social habit, though cracking, did not break; 
but the new-comers assimilated the Romans faster than they 
were themselves assimilated, and in time the mold broke 
in pieces. In precisely the same way some provinces of 
France are to-day becoming German, and others Italian, 
while the Germans are consciously making use of this method 
in their attempt to Prussianize Poland. 

The " barbarians " of the present time, however, do not 
come from the plateaus of central Asia or from the jungles 
of Africa; they are the defective and delinquent classes of 
Europe — the individuals who have not been able to keep the 
pace at home and have fallen into the lower strata of its 
civilization. 

Formerly, America was a hard place to get to, and a hard 
life awaited those who came, although the free and fertile 
land offered rich prizes to those with the energy to grasp 
them. To-day, the steamship agent is in every little town in 
Europe; fast steamers can bring thousands in a few days, 
and wages, often indeed not enough for an American to live 
decently on, but large in the eyes of the poor European peas 
ants, await the immigrant on landing. There is, moreover, 
abundant testimony to the fact that much of the present im- 
migration is not even a normal flow of population, but is 



6 THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 

artificially stimulated in every possible way by the transport 
tation companies which have many millions invested in the 
traffic. 

Now there are two hopeful attitudes with regard to the 
possible dangers from this " peaceful invasion.' ' One of 
them is that we can continue, as we have in the past, to as- 
similate all this material and turn it into good American 
citizens. This was the general attitude until recently, and is 
still the attitude of the average man who does not fear the 
future. The other attitude is that, although perhaps we 
cannot do this, although the aliens may to some extent as- 
similate us, yet the seething of the melting-pot will remove 
the dross and turn out a product, possibly new, but at any 
rate as good, if not better, than the old. 

It is important to consider the truth of these points of 
view, because the social and political institutions of any coun- 
try depend upon the type of its citizenship and are molded 
by it. Ruskin long ago observed that the only real wealth 
is human character, and what boots an extended railroad 
mileage or the fact that all our coal and minerals are dug 
up or all our trees cut down some years or decades sooner, 
if at the end our democracy goes to pieces ? We have heard 
much lately of the conservation of natural resources, but the 
conservation of ideals is surely much more important. 

Those who believe that we can assimilate all the aliens who 
may come usually qualify their belief by saying that, al- 
though we may not succeed entirely with the parents, we can 
succeed with the children, and that the salvation of the situa- 
tion is the public school. They also point out that many 
immigrants have had little opportunity for improvement in 
their own countries and may develop rapidly in a new en- 
vironment. Now just as the Latin races make a fetish of 
the State, we Americans are apt to make a fetish of educa 
tion,and we constantly fail to discriminate between education 
as the molding of character and education as the imparting of 
information. Far the larger part of a child's education comes 
from his home and his companions, rather than from his 
schooling, Emulation and imitation are the two mainsprings 
of his growth. We should never forget the somewhat hack- 
neyed truth that education, in general, brings out what is in 
the man, be it good or bad, and seldom puts much there which 
was not there before. For this reason it is very question- 
able whether the small amount of schooling the children of 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 7 
most aliens receive plays a very large part in the total of 
influences brought to bear upon them; and it is still more 
debatable whether it appreciably alters their characters, or 
does anything more than bring out their inherited instincts 
and tendencies. Undoubtedly immigrant children crowd our 
schools because it aids them in the struggle for existence, 
and is usually paid for by some one else. Undoubtedly, also, 
many of them obtain high marks and show considerable 
capacity for storing up information. 

Nevertheless, as has been said, schooling is but a small 
part of the influences to which the child is subject, and the 
tendency of recent immigrants to crowd into the cities and 
to settle in racial groups means that a very large part of the 
influences affecting the children will be those of their neigh- 
bors and co-workers of the same race. As in John Bunyan's 
parable, a small quantity of oil poured secretly and steadily 
upon a fire will cause it to withstand a large quantity of 
water poured upon it from all directions. Moreover, to a 
great extent this water of public-school education will fail 
to quench hereditary passions, because the latter are so 
strong that the former will be vaporized, so to speak, and 
pass off without closely touching them. Dr. Gustav LeBon, 
in his Political Psychology, has thus expressed this phase of 
the matter: 

"Education merely sums up the results of a civilization; the institu- 
tions and the beliefs representing the needs of such civilization. If, then, 
a civilization does not harmonize with the ideas and sentiments of a 
people, the education setting forth this civilization will remain without 
effect upon it; in the same way that institutions corresponding to certain 
needs will not correspond to different needs." 

The result in such a case will be, not a true amalgamation 
of races, but a mixture of peoples as in Austria-Hungary, 
living side by side, sharing certain interests in common, but 
never wholly merging into a general national type. 

This is, indeed, what many educators like Dr. Charles W. 
Eliot expect and rejoice in. Dr. Eliofdoes not share in the 
second view — that the melting-pot will fuse the various races 
into one. And he rejoices because, in his view, half-breeds 
of any races are inferior to their parents, just as alloys of 
metals are not as valuable as the metals themselves. And 
he is right. The evidence on this point is convincing. Dr. 
Alfred P. Schultz, in his Race or Mongrel, gives numerous 
examples drawn from history, one of the most conspicuous 



8 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDE: 



being that of the Jews, who, wherever they hi ; their 

racial purity, have kept also their fine qualiti .nergy, 
push, and mental alertness, but have deteriorated rapidly 
when intermarried with other races. Humboldt and Darwin 
have declared the same truth. Agassiz, in a well-known 
passage, says: 

' " Let any one who doubts the evil of the mixture of races and who 
is inclined from mistaken philanthropy to break down all barriers between 
them come to Brazil. He cannot deny the deterioration consequent upon 
the amalgamation of races, more wide-spread here than in any country 
in the world and which is rapidly effacing the best qualities of the white 
man, the Indian, and the negro, leaving a mongrel nondescript type 
deficient in physical and mental energy." 

The same thing has happened in Cuba, in Mexico, and 
other countries to the south of us. But is there any danger 
of this occurring in the United States? It has not occurred 
in the past because the only race outside of the Teutonic 
immigrants present in large numbers has been the negro, 
and the Baltic races have an insurmountable prejudice 
against intermarriage with the black races. The Mediter- 
ranean and Asiatic races, on the other hand, have much less 
of this feeling. The negro strain in the South Italians has 
been already mentioned, and there are some examples of in- 
termarriage between negroes and Jews. What would hap- 
pen if a large Mediterranean population should be colonized 
in our Southern States and should interbreed with the negro 
population it finds there? This is not an imaginary possi- 
bility, for the dark-skinned races are more likely to settle in 
the southern part of this country; indeed, it must be so if 
Major Woodruff is correct in his view that the blond races 
cannot permanently live south of the fortieth parallel on 
account of the effects of the light on their nervous systems. 
Let us assume that some interbreeding with the negroes 
takes place. Will the descendants of the emotional, fiery 
Italians submit to the social judgment that a man with a 
sixteenth or a thirty-second part of negro blood is a colored 
man who must occupy a position socially, if not politically, 
inferior? Assuredly not, and thoughtful Southerners are 
already alarmed by this prospect and have announced 
through many of their industrial conventions that they do 
not desire the immigration of southeastern Europeans. The 
Western States feel the same way about Asiatics, both for 
racial and economic reasons. 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 9 



Even if the result of the immigration of southeastern Eu- 
ropeans to the South should not immediately be an inter- 
breeding, the result may be to add other problems to the one 
we already have there. Mr. Booker T. Washington, who has 
recently been investigating conditions in Europe, expresses 
this view when he says : 

" I greatly fear that if these people should come in large numbers and 
settle in colonies outside the cities, where they would have comparatively 
few educational advantages, and where they would be better able and 
more disposed to preserve their native customs and languages, we might 
have a racial problem in the South more difficult and more dangerous 
than that which is caused by the presence of the negro." * 

But whether the result be an amalgamation or a mixture, 
it is evident that the nation will be profoundly altered by 
the addition of large numbers of persons with alien habits 
and ideals, and that the social and political structure will be 
changed accordingly. Dr. LeBon, in the work above quoted, 
says : 

" A preponderating influence of foreigners is a sure solvent of the 
existence of States. It takes away from a people its most precious pos- 
session — its soul. When aliens became numerous in the Roman Empire 
it ceased to be." 

And again: 

" It was a very sure instinct which taught the ancients the fear of 
strangers : they well knew that worth of a country is not measured by the 
number of its inhabitants, but by the number of its citizens." 

Can we not already see certain effects of the newer immi- 
gration upon our social life? In many places the Continental 
Sunday, with its games and sports, its theatrical and musical 
performances, and its open bars, is taking the place of the 
Puritan Sabbath. In some of our factory towns there are 
many operatives living under the system of free marriage, 
and in at least one place the method of building tenements 
has been altered to correspond to this system. Professor 
Commons notes that we have already begun to despotize our 
institutions in order to deal with large masses of citizens 
not capable of intelligently supporting representative gov- 
ernment. We see, also, the phenomena of political parties 
and groups on racial lines, with their own newspapers in 

* The first part of this quotation is almost the exact language used by 
George Washington in a letter to John Adams, November 27, 1794. Of 
course, he was speaking of the relatively homogeneous immigration of 
his day. 



10 THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 

foreign languages, seeking representation as racial units 
precisely as in Austria. These groups have already taken a 
conspicuous part in opposing immigration legislation, al- 
ready existing or proposed, which makes it more difficult for 
their friends and relatives to come here; and, under our 
political system, these foreign-born groups already hold the 
balance of power in many places. This means that they often 
divide, not on public policy, but on some matter of racial ad- 
vantage. In any case they do not and cannot combine to 
make parties like those of the older population. 

All these changes may be good or bad, but they cannot fail 
to impress us; and, if these changes rise above the swirling 
mass of events and catch our eyes, we may be sure that more 
profound changes are in process beneath the surface. 

We have to contend not only with alien habits and ideals, 
and with the fact that these differences cannot be effaced by 
education in one or even two generations, but also with the 
fact that we are getting a great many immigrants who are 
below the mental, moral, and physical average of both our 
country and their own. A recent writer in a leading German 
review has said: " The immigration of the last decade has 
increased the number of hands, but not the number of heads, 
in the United States.' ' While this may be an extreme state- 
ment, there is the unanimous testimony of the Commissioner- 
General of Immigration, the Commissioner at the Port of 
New York, and the Immigration Commission, which has re- 
cently spent several years studying the matter, to the fact 
that for one immigrant whose defects are so marked as to 
put him in the classes excluded by law there are hundreds, if 
not thousands, who are below the average of our people, and 
who, as George William Curtis put it, are " watering the 
nation's life blood.' ' 

Recent investigations in eugenics show that heredity is 
a much more important factor than environment as regards 
social conditions — in fact, that in most cases heredity is 
what makes the environment. This is confirmed by the prac- 
tice of the insurance companies which attach the chief im- 
portance to the hereditary characteristics of an individual. 
If this position is sound, education and distribution can only 
palliate the evils and delay fundamental changes. As Pro- 
fessor Karl Pearson says: " You cannot change the leop- 
arrl's spots, and you cannot change bad stock to good; you 
may dilute it, possibly spread it over a large area, spoiling 



THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN IDEALS 11 



good stock, but until it ceases to multiply it will not cease 
to be." 

Intelligent foreigners, like Bourget, H. G. Wells, and 
LeBon, are continually surprised that Americans pay so lit- 
tle regard to these matters. Already our neighbor to the 
north has become much more strict as to those she admits 
than we are; and, in fact, the Dominion is now rejecting at 
the border many whom we have admitted. And in our own 
practice we are not very logical, for we are much more strin- 
gent in regulations as to importing cattle, sheep, hogs, dogs, 
and horses than we are as to human beings. The English 
sparrow and the gypsy moth were not considered dangerous 
when first imported, but by their multiplication have done 
serious damage. The history of the Jukes family in New 
York State shows how much harm can be done by immigra- 
tion of a single pair of defectives. 

The foregoing is not intended to be a pessimistic wail. 
Our people are successful in part because they are optimistic, 
and in general they have little use for prophets of evil. Nor 
has the writer forgotten for a moment either what the country 
owes to past immigration, or that much of the present immi- 
gration is desirable and valuable. But our optimism should 
not be blind. Sumner once said of Garrison that he would go 
straight ahead even if the next step were over a precipice. 
If there is a precipice ahead we should avoid it while there is 
time, not merely for our own sake, but that the United States 
may continue strong' to uphold the cause of democracy and. 
liberty throughout the world. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 59 



Immigration Figures for 1911 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1910 and 1911 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



f\l 1 1 V cllo • 


1010 


1011 

1/11 




1,198,037 


1,030,300 


Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


1,041,570 


878,587 


Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


_ ^(L .fit- 
150407 


151,713 


Debarred from entrance and returned within 






three years after landing .... 


20,965 


25,137 


Per cent debarred 


2.3 


2.4 


Departures : 






Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . . . 


202,436 


— J cue 

295,666 


"KT _ • , l • rnf _ it » 41 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


177,982 


222,549 


Net addition to population [See Note 2] 


8l7,6l9 


512,085 


Immigrant aliens: 






Excess over emigrant aliens .... 


839,134 


582,921 


Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 






Northern and Western Europe 


323,788 


319,015 


Per cent 


31. I 


36.3 


Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 






ern and Eastern Europe .... 


667,807 


508,663 




64.I 


57.9 


Asiatic 


17,695 


17,428 


Per cent 


1.7 


2.0 


Average money brought in dollars 


27.07 


3348 


Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 






vants 


57.6 


50.0 


Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 






Mass., N.Y., and Pa 


60.7 


59.5 


Per cent destined for the States east of the 






Mississippi River and north of the Poto- 






mac and Ohio Rivers .... 


81.5 


8l.O 



1 



Per cent destined for other (Southern* and 


1910 


1911 


Western) States 


17.9 


18.4 


Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 






Alaska, and Philippine Islands 


0.6 


0.6 


Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age : 






Number of illiterates [See Note 3] 


258,140 


182,273 


Per cent of illiterates 


28.0 


24.3 


Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 


12.6 


14.2 


Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 






paid for by others [See Note 4] - . 


17.9 


22.9 


Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] 


151 


16.8 



NOTE 1. Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent domi- 
cile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in the 
United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4. — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 



1908 1909 1910 1911 

South Italian . . . 110,547 165,248 192,673 159)638 

Hebrew .... 103,387 57,55* 84,260 91*223 

Polish .... 68,105 77,565 128,348 71,446 

German .... 73,038 58,534 71,380 66,471 

2 



Illiteracy. 

Per cent of illiterates in total immigration of the various races over 



14 years of age. 

Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic). 1911 

Scandinavian 0.2 

Scotch 0.5 

Finnish 0.5 

English 0.7 

Welsh 1.0 

Irish 1.2 

Bohemian and Moravian 1.3 

Dutch and Flemish 1.8 

German 4.2 

Italian (North) 5.6 

French 6.1 

Average of above 2.2 

Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic). 

Magyar 9.4 

Spanish 15.0 

Hebrew 18.7 

Slovak 19.2 

Greek 22.3 

Croatian and Slovenian 23.7 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 29.2 

Roumanian 31.0 

Polish 32.1 

Russian 37.4 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian .... 40.8 

Italian (South) 42.8 

Ruthenian 45.1 

Portuguese 50.0 

Lithuanian 50.6 

Average of above 31.9 

Other Races. 

Cuban 2.1 

African (black) 18.4 

Japanese 21.2 

Armenian 21.4 

Syrian 42.5 

Mexican 43.2 

Average of above 31.5 



The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 8.7 per cent. 



Extracts from the Report of the Commissioner=Qeneral. 

Distribution of Immigrants (pp. 5-7) : "Various organizations 
are struggling with this ' problem 1 of putting the alien 'where he is needed' 
and preventing his settling in colonies in the large cities and centers of 
industry, to which places most immigrants of to-day wish to go. Some 
of these organizations are purely of a business nature. Others are, or 
pretend to be, patriotic or philanthropic in their purposes. Still others 
combine two or all three of these features. In their actual and avowed 
purposes, they range all the way from combinations of ticket agents, money 
lenders, and labor agencies working to a large extent for the benefit of 
the steamship companies and employers of cheap unskilled labor (men- 
tioned more in detail at p. 119), or labor agencies on the Mexican border 
engaged in procuring Mexican peons and distributing them throughout 
the West and Southwest, to the State and municipal organizations con- 
ducted bona fide and from high, pure motives, but often incidentally pro- 
ducing some of the same effects as the selfish organizations. 

" These various schemes for distribution in the broad sense are subject 
to several practical difficulties which are often overlooked by those who 
deal with the matter from the theoretical viewpoint only, viz. : 

"1. If it ever was feasible to devise a complete, efficient plan for the 
general distribution of aliens, it is probably now too late to stem the tide 
which has set toward certain localities where alien nucleus colonies have 
been established, constituting additional reasons why the new immi- 
grants are drawn to them. 

"2. Even though a certain number of aliens may be 'distributed/ 
they will not remain where placed unless the arrangement coincides with 
their desires and unless physically and mentally adapted to their new 
surroundings, as a large percentage of those who now insist on herding in 
the cities never will be. 

"3. Distribution is not now, if it ever was, the real remedy for the evils 
which admittedly result from immigration; although, doubtless, if some 
far-reaching plan could have been devised years ago it might have allevi- 
ated or postponed some of those evils, at least in their local manifesta- 
tions as observed in the congested centers, and, doubtless, also, some slight 
good effect may be expected to result incidentally from the efforts exerted 
to induce settlers to locate in agricultural districts in the manner specified 
in the law above quoted. 

"4. As a matter of fact, in the present condition of the immigration 
business (for it has become a business in the fullest sense of that term), 
I am inclined to believe that our difficulties in the aggregate, viewing the 

4 



matter from a national standpoint, are increased rather than reduced by 
the various schemes — private, charitable, and public — that are being 
operated or advocated and advertised for the general distribution of aliens. 

"The fourth point above stated needs some further consideration. So 
far as transoceanic immigration is concerned, the greatest beneficiaries 
are the steamship lines; with respect to Mexican peon labor, the large 
employers and agencies. Any plan for the distribution of alien laborers, 
carried out, must have a tendency to increase immigration and confer 
additional benefits upon the beneficiaries mentioned. If the distribution 
affects the aliens at the time of importation, and extends the fields in which 
they may be placed at a wage sufficient to afford a bare existence, the de- 
mand for additional numbers is increased directly. The theory upon which 
most of these plans rest, that there is an almost unlimited demand for 
common labor in this country, is now, and has been for some time, unwar- 
ranted by the facts. It is true, of course, that such concerns as railway 
lines, constructing contractors, meat-packing houses, and the like, using 
large numbers of unskilled laborers, are always glad to have a surplus on 
hand, so as to be in position to keep wages at the minimum; but the de- 
mand in this direction is too frequently created by the refusal of the em- 
ployers to pay a living wage or to furnish steady employment to be a 
reliable indication of actual conditions. . . . Because the farmer needs 
additional help during certain periods, it does not follow that the country 
should be flooded with cheap foreign labor which during the greater part 
of the year is forced to accept a wage that affords only a bare subsistence, 
tending to reduce the American standard of wages and living. . . . 

"This so-called problem of distribution, in so far as it relates to others 
than settlers (i.e., those who desire to acquire land), will, it seems to me, 
be solved by the natural law of supply and demand, assuming, of course, 
that the aliens are fit subjects of distribution, as otherwise artificial means 
could have no lasting effect. Thus, if it is true that our large centers are 
congested with people who are barely able to eke out an existence, while 
on the other hand there is a scarcity of labor in other sections, the de- 
mand should be sufficiently insistent to produce such an offer of wages 
and working conditions as would influence those in the congested dis- 
tricts to take advantage of it; for, after all, the average wage earner, if 
unencumbered, has but little preference between different sections, pro- 
viding wages are made an inducement; but just so long as the demand is 
met by importing cheap labor from abroad this congestion must continue, 
and while the demand will in a way be supplied that result will be brought 
about only to the ultimate disadvantage or utter destruction of that kind 
of living and wages which we have been so proud to term the 'American 
standard.'" 

Sources of and Inducements to Immigration (pp. 117, 118): 
"Considerable space has been devoted in previous reports to this impor- 
tant and interesting subject. It has been shown that (1) the sources of our 
immigration have undergone a decided change in recent years, one which 
is of great significance to the country and its people, and (2) much of the 

5 



immigration which we now receive is artificial, in that it is induced or 
stimulated and encouraged by persons and corporations whose principal 
interest is to increase the steerage-passenger business of their lines, to 
introduce into the United States an over-abundant, and therefore cheap, 
supply of common labor, or to exploit the poor ignorant immigrant to their 
own advantage by loaning him money at usurious rates; or, as now so 
frequently happens, in the organized and systematized state of the busi- 
ness, a combination of the three elements, so that money-lenders and 
ticket agents abroad, the transportation companies, and the labor brokers 
and large employers of common labor here each receive their portion of 
the benefits and proceeds. Meanwhile the alien and the country suffer — 
the alien by being thrown into new and untried conditions, not conducive 
to his health or happiness, under circumstances which place him at a serious 
disadvantage by reason of being loaded with debt, which, unless promptly 
settled, multiplies with interest, and which he knows must soon destroy his 
own or his family's property mortgaged in security; and the country by 
having its standards of labor, wages, and living not only temporarily 
lowered, but permanently injured — and who can question the economic 
axiom that injury to its wage-earners is a direct injury to a country? " 

Aliens with Physical, Mental, and Moral Defects (p. 123): 

"It is of prime importance now and always that the struggle in which a 
nation must constantly be engaged to maintain at a high level the physi- 
cal, mental, and moral welfare of its citizens shall not be rendered difficult 
or seriously complicated by the entry into its midst of the physically, 
mentally, or morally unsound, for whose existence it is not accountable 
and whose reclamation or regeneration is a matter for which their native 
countries are and ought to be responsible. In this particular branch of 
the control and restriction of immigration, therefore, the Government can 
hardly go too far; and, although we have been advancing, yet we have not 
gone far enough." 



6 



Extracts from the Report of the Commissioner of 
Immigration at New York. 

Separation of Families (Report of the Commissioner-General, 
p. 147): "In the administration of any law which calls for the appli- 
cation of drastic remedies, the blame for the ensuing hardship is quite 
often placed where it does not belong, namely, on the executive authorities, 
and it would be too much to expect that executive authorities called upon 
to apply such unpleasant remedies as deportation would escape their 
share of such unmerited censure. It is quite impossible to deal exhaust- 
ively with this subject here, and I shall confine myself to saying a few 
words on one phase of hardship which is often spoken of as 'separation 
of families/ a phrase which has come to be used against the Government 
without regard to the facts. For instance, in almost all cases to which it 
is pretended that it applies the ' separation' was voluntary and occurred 
in Europe. Frequent ly, in addition, it was to enable the well members to 
secure a footing in this country and later plead for the admission of dis- 
eased members on the ground that the family should be together. When 
in such cases we deny landing to diseased members we are merely pre- 
venting the union of the family in this country in violation of law; we 
are not standing in the way of its becoming reunited elsewhere. Of course, 
even this action causes misery, but it is misery for which the executive 
officials are no more responsible than they are for that which exists in 
abundance in every large city of the United States. " 

Immigration in General (Report of the Commissioner-General, 
p. 152): " There are many who do not appreciate the fact that the 
law excludes only manifestly objectionable classes of immigrants, such 
as idiots, imbeciles, the insane, paupers, persons likely to become public 
charges, persons with loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases, persons 
whose physical or mental defects prevent them from earning a living, 
criminals, procurers, and prostitutes, so that even under a strict execution 
of the law we can keep out only persons whose presence would be detri- 
mental to any community. Between these on the one hand and the 
class of immigrants on the other hand who are a real benefit to the country, 
as so large a number are, there are many who, though able to earn a living, 
can not in any sense be termed desirable. They are nevertheless admis- 
sible under the low requirements of existing law, which makes no pro- 
vision whatever for selecting desirable immigrants, though there are many 
reasons why following the example of at least one other country we 
should take early steps to do this. The new immigration, unlike that of 
earlier years, proceeds in part from the poorer elements of the countries 
of southern and eastern Europe and from backward races with customs 



7 



and institutions widely different from ours and without the capacity of 
assimilating with our people as did the early immigrants. Many of those 
coming from these sources have very low standards of living, possess filthy 
habits, and are of an ignorance which passes belief. . . . Such immigrants 
differ widely also from the earlier ones in respect of their occupations and 
the localities to which they go. Contrary to what was formerly the case, 
a large proportion are unskilled laborers who go to the manufacturing and 
mining centers, where the Immigration Commission recently found that 
there existed an oversupply of unskilled foreign labor. Over three-fifths 
remain in five Eastern cities, where they begin their American life among 
unfavorable surroundings and exposed to many evil influences They 
often herd together, forming in effect foreign colonies in which the Eng- 
lish language is almost unknown. Miserable economic and sanitary 
conditions exist in many of these colonies; witness, for instance, in New 
York City the frequency with which the State factory inspectors are com- 
pelled to attach the red 1 unclean ' tag to articles made in shops and fac- 
tories where aliens are employed, the threatened use of this tag constituting 
often the best means at their disposal of compelling the maintenance of even 
a semblance of cleanliness in such places. 

"Repeatedly the new immigrant obtains his job at the expense of 
an older employee, who loses his. Certain employers seek new immi- 
grant labor in preference to other and more efficient labor, of which there 
may be an abundance, because of the willingness of the new immigrants 
(or 'greenies/ as they are termed) to work at the outset unduly long hours 
or at unduly low wages, or both, and perhaps also to pay the foreman or 
padrone a bonus. Later as they become more proficient and demand 
higher wages they are discharged and their places filled with immigrants 
who have arrived more recently. Experiences of this sort are frequent 
among immigrant tailors, cap makers, carpenters, painters, bakers and 
others. These are matters which have a direct bearing upon the unsani- 
tary conditions that surround the work and lives of so many immigrants 
of certain classes, especially in the large cities. . . . 

"In the estimation of most impartial observers a certain minority of 
the new immigration is undesirable from the point of view of the inter- 
ests of the United States, and this question can not properly be considered 
from any other point of view. The real issue to-day is whether or not 
means should be found to keep out this undesirable minority, yet this 
issue is often successfully confused by interested persons who seek to make 
it appear that those who merely advocate further reasonable restrictions 
are exclusionists and hostile to immigration as a whole. The desirable 
immigrant will always be welcome, and one of the best ways to secure him 
is to take stringent measures to keep out those who are undesirable. That 
enormous benefits have accrued to this country through immigration is 
a fact which requires no emphasis and which none deny whose views are 
entitled to any weight, but this is irrelevant upon the point whether 
to-day we should not curtail somewhat that portion of the immigration 
which is undesirable. Those opposing all further restriction will usually 
be found doing so in the interest, not of the United States or of immi- 
gration in general, but of some particular class. 

8 



"It is well for the American people to realize that there are agencies 
at work to introduce some immigrants for mercenary or humanitarian 
reasons regardless of whether or not the best interests of the United States 
demand their presence here. If this country is to open its doors to certain 
classes of unfortunates, it is difficult to see why we should not do so as to 
the unfortunates of the world, including those among the Africans and 
Hindoos. The very suggestion of any such course answers itself. The 
time has come when it is necessary to put aside false sentimentality in 
dealing with the question of immigration and to give more consideration 
to its racial and economic aspects, and in determining what additional 
immigrants we shall receive to remember that our first duty is to our own 
country.' 1 



9 



For publications and membership in the Immigration 
Restriction League, address the Secretary, 1 1 Pemberton Square, 
Boston, Mass. The dues for membership are as follows: For 
annual membership, one dollar, payable in advance upon admis= 
sion and upon January 1st of each year; for life membership, 
ten dollars, payable upon admission, life members being exempt 
from annual dues. 

The League is a strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian organiza- 
tion, with members from all parts of the United States. It advocates a more 
careful selection of immigration, but not the exclusion of any immigrants 
whose character and standards fit them to become citizens. 



2MD-212. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 60 

Immigration Figures for 1912 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1911 and 1912 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals : 


1911 


1912 


Total 


1*030,300 


i,oi7,i55 


Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


878,587 


838,172 


Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


I5i>7i3 


178,983 


T^phflrrpH from pntraripp and rptnrnpH within 






■fViTPP vpflrs off pr mnHincr 

l /XXI CC y CCll o <X1 tCl lclXi.v4.lXlg .... 




AO ,5 A o 


J. Cl V/CXlV VI \3 (Jell 1 CVA ...... 




1 8 


Departures : 






Total 


518,215 


615,292 


Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . 


295,666 


333,262 


Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . 


222,549 


282,030 


Net addition to population [See Note 2] 


512,085 


401,863 


Immigrant aliens: 






Excess over emigrant aliens .... 


582,921 


504,910 


Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 






Northern and Western Europe . 


319,015 


273,927 


Per cent 


36.3 


32.7 


Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 






ern and Eastern Europe .... 


508,663 


506,132 


Per cent 


57-9 


60.4 


Asiatic 


17,428 


18,527 


Per cent 


2.0 


2.2 


Average money brought in dollars 


3348 


36.21 


Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 






vants 


50.0 


52.7 


Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 






Mass., N.Y., and Pa 


59-5 


58.0 


Per cent destined for the States east of the 






Mississippi River and north of the Poto- 






mac and Ohio 'Rivers 


81.0 


81.3 



Immigrant aliens: 1911 1912 
Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 18.4 17.7 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands ... 0.6 1.0 

Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age: 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . 182,273 180,308 

Per cent of illiterates 24.3 24.9 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 14.2 15.7 
Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . . . 22.9 25.9 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] 16.8 16.2 



NOTE 1. Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and " non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3.— It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4. — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 



1909 1910 1911 1912 

South Italian . 165,248 192,673 159)638 135,830 

Polish .... 77,565 128,348 71,446 85,163 

Hebrew .... 57,55* 84,260 91,223 80,595 

German .... 58,534 71,380 66,471 65,343 



Remarks. The total number of aliens arriving has been over 1,000,000 
for each of the three years 1910-1912, but the net addition to population 
in 1912 was less than one-half of that in 1910. The percentage of the 
debarred decreased as compared with last year by 25 per cent. 



The proportion of aliens from Southern and Eastern Europe was 
larger last year than in 1911, while that of aliens from Northern and 
Western Europe has declined steadily for the past three years. On the 
other hand, the proportions of assisted aliens and of Asiatics have shown 
a steady increase. 

Appeals and Admissions on Bond. Of 4,678 appeals from ex- 
cluding decisions disposed of during the year, 51 per cent were debarred, 
33 per cent were admitted without any bond, and 16 per cent were admitted 
on bond. 

Of 242 applying for admission on bond without appeal, 68 per cent 
were admitted. 

The Commissioner=General endorses the Illiteracy Test. 

[The following paragraphs were in the Report of the Commissioner-General 
for 1912 as sent to the public printer, and were subsequently stricken out 
by the order of Secretary Nag el. They are valuable as showing the opinion 
of a practical expert in immigration matters.] 

" During the past two years my attention has been directed to numer- 
ous arguments both favorable and unfavorable to the illiteracy test, and 
I have been so much impressed with those of the former character that 
gradually I have come to believe that the situation in the United States 
produced by immigration heretofore comparatively unrestricted (which 
situation has been described in previous reports of the Bureau, as well 
as in the comprehensive report of the Immigration Commission, recently 
published) demands that some method be adopted by which the influx 
of foreigners so unduly large as to be unhealthful, may be so extensively 
reduced in actual numbers as materially to affect the existing purely eco- 
nomic phase of the proposition. It seems to have been shown quite 
clearly that this result would be accomplished by the 'illiteracy test.' . . . 

"An individual alien, although unable to read and write, might prove 
to be a valuable acquisition to the country; but when immigration is 
considered in larger proportions the case of this individual would sink 
into insignificance. Take, for instance, a thousand aliens who are liter- 
ate and compare them with a thousand who are illiterate. While indi- 
vidual exceptions to the rule, as already indicated, would undoubtedly be 
found, there can be little question that among the latter thousand there 
would be a great many more undesirable from the moral, mental, and 
physical standpoint than among the former thousand. Another consid- 
eration which impresses me with respect to the 1 illiteracy test' is the fact 
that as a rule the literate alien generally is better qualified than the illit- 
erate to acquire a knowledge of and respect for our political and social 
institutions, and may, therefore, be more readily assimilated." 



Illiteracy. 

Per cent of illiterates in total immigration of the various races over 
14 years of age. 

Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic). 1912 

Scandinavian 0.2 

Scotch 0.4 

English 0.5 

Welsh 0.5 

Finnish 1.0 

Bohemian and Moravian 1.0 

Irish 1.2 

Dutch and Flemish 1.5 

German 4.4 

Italian (North) 5.1 

French 6.1 



Average of above 2.4 



Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic). 

Magyar . . . . 9.2 

Slovak 16.4 

Spanish . 18.3 

Hebrew 19.1 

Greek 21.8 

Croatian and Slovenian 25.2 

Polish 32.4 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 31.5 

Roumanian 34.4 

Russian 37.6 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 38.7 

Italian (South) 40.3 

Ruthenian 41.4 

Portuguese 45.0 

Lithuanian . . . 49.6 

Average of above 30.6 

Other Races. . 

Cuban 1.8 

African (black) 18. 1 

Armenian 22.8 

Japanese 28.3 

Syrian 39.7 

Mexican 44.5 

Average of above 33.2 

The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 10.5 per cent. 



1 



2M-413. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 62 



Immigration Figures for 1913 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 3 , 1 9 1 2 and 1 9 1 3 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals: 


1912 


1913 


Total 


1,017,155 


1,427,227 


Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


838,172 


1,107,802 


Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


178,983 


229,335 


Debarred from entrance and returned within 






three years after landing .... 


18.513 






1.8 


1.6 


Departures : 








015,292 


611,924 


Immigrant aliens [bee Note 1J 


333) 2 62 


308,190 


Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


282,030 


303,734 


Net addition to population [See Note 2] 


401,863 


815,303 


Immigrant aliens: 






Excess over emigrant aliens 


504,910 


889,702 


Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 






Northern and Western Europe 


273,927 


337,800 


Per cent ... ... 


32.7 


28.2 


Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 






ern and Eastern Europe .... 


506,132 


802,668 




60.4 


67.I 




18,527 


21,449 




2.2 


1.8 


Average money brought in dollars 


36.21 


34.14 


Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 








52.7 


57-7 


Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 






Mass., N.Y., and Pa 


58.0 


60.3 


Per cent destined for the States east of the 






Mississippi River and north of the Poto- 






mac and Ohio Rivers 


81.3 


85.2 


Per cent destined for other (Southern and 






Western) States 


17.7 


14.2 


Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 






Alaska, and Philippine Islands 


Z.0 


0.6 



Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age: 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . . 180,308 275,314 

Per cent of illiterates 24.9 26.2 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 15.7 13.7 
Per cent of " assisted " whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . 25.9 22.8 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] 16.2 14.4 

Appeals and admissions on bond: 

Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . ■ 41678 4*674 

Per cent admitted on bond .... 33 28 

Per cent admitted without bond ... 16 15 

Per cent debarred 51 57 

Per cent admitted on bond without appeal, 68 68 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Nonimmigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon the 
alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4- — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 

South Italian . . . 192,673 159*638 135*830 231,613 

Polish .... 128,348 7i>446 85,163 174*365 

Hebrew .... 84*260 9 I >223 80,595 101,330 

German .... 71,380 66,471 65,343 80,865 



Remarks. — The total of alien arrivals for 1913, namely 1,427,227, 
is the largest in the history of the country, with the exception of 1907, 
when it was 1,438,469. The total immigration since 1820 (all aliens to 
1904 inclusive, and "immigrant aliens" since) is 30,808,944. 



It should be noted that although the immigrant aliens were only about 
one-third more than last year, the net addition to population was more 
than double that in 1912. 

As time goes on, and the more civilized portions of Europe are drained 
of immigrants, the steamship companies, to keep up and to increase their 
business, are obliged to seek passengers in the more remote and less de- 
veloped portions of Europe and in Asia. Hence the increase in numbers 
this year was accompanied, as it always is, by the usual signs of a lower 
quality: a falling off in the proportion of the Teutonic and Keltic races; 
an increase in the proportion of Slavic and Iberic races; a reduction in 
the amount of money brought; an increase in the number of unskilled 
laborers; an increase in the number destined for Illinois, Massachusetts, 
New York, and Pennsylvania; a decrease in the number going to the South 
and West; and an increase in illiteracy. The immigration from South- 
ern and Eastern Europe increased nearly 60 per cent over 1912, while 
the number of Armenians and Syrians nearly doubled. There were not- 
able increases in the illiteracy of Dalmatians, Bosnians, and Herzegovin- 
ians, of South Italians, of Syrians, and of non-immigrant aliens. 

The decrease of 10 per cent in the proportion of those debarred and 
returned, in spite of the lower quality of the immigration, bears witness 
to the justice in the complaints of the Commissioner-General and of the 
Commissioner at New York as to the lack of proper facilities for inspecting 
the enormous shiploads arriving in a single day, and of the inadequate 
numbers of surgeons, inspectors, and interpreters. In view of the fact 
that the head tax produces enough revenue to permit a great improve- 
ment in these respects, the failure of Congress to appropriate sufficient 
funds to remedy existing defects is inexcusable. 

Report of the Commissioner at New York. — It is much to be 
regretted that Hon. William Williams resigned at the beginning of the 
current fiscal year. He was a faithful and efficient commissioner, and 
brought the Ellis Island station to a high state of efficiency. In his re- 
port, he advocates changing the law so that any alien becoming a public 
charge within five years after landing (instead of three years) shall be 
deported, unless he can show that he became such from causes arising sub- 
sequent to landing. At present, the burden is on the government to show 
the causes arose prior to landing. Speaking of the existing law, he says: — 

"It is good as far as it goes, but excludes only manifestly objection- 
able classes. ... At the same time that the requirements! of the law are low, 
a large portion of the immigrants are from the backward races and from 
the poorer classes of some of the poorer countries in Europe; the best 
laborers and artisans of the best countries and races are not coming to us 
in large numbers. . . . Because the undesirable minority comes as a part of 
and is mingled with a lot of desirable immigrants, it fails unfortunately 
to attract the attention it deserves, and is thus still permitted to enter." 



Illiteracy 



Per cent of illiterates in total immigration of the various races over 
14 years of age. 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) : 1913 

Scandinavian 0.3 

Scotch 0.5 

Welsh 0.6 

Finnish 0.7 

English 0.9 

Irish 1.0 

Bohemian and Moravian 1.1 

Dutch and Flemish 1.9 

German 6.3 

Italian (North) * . 6.7 

French 7.9 

Average of above 3.2 

Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic) : 

Magyar 9.9 

Slovak . 14.3 

Spanish 18.3 

Hebrew 21.5 

Croatian and Slovenian 23.2 

Greek 23.4 

Polish 32.9 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 34.5 

Roumanian 35.2 

Russian 35.7 

Ruthenian 40.0 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian .... 47.4 

Italian (South) 48.6 

Lithuanian 48.9 

Portuguese 61.9 

Average of above . . . . . . . . 35.1 

Other Races: 

Chinese 1.2 

Cuban 1.4 

African (black) 15.3 

Armenian 26.2 

Japanese . 30.8 

Mexican 46.7 

Syrian 52.5 

Turkish 65.6 

Average of above 33.4 



The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 14.4 per cent. 



2M— 413E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 63 



The Reading Test. 

WHY IT SHOULD BE ADOPTED. 



I. The American People have Emphatically declared 
Themselves in Favor of Restriction of Immigration by 
this Method. 

A. VOTES IN CONGRESS IN FAVOR OF THE TEST. 

In the last eighteen years there have been 19 votes in favor of the 
reading test for aliens. Three of these were votes in Committee of the 
Whole House on the State of the Union, and 16 were votes passing a bill, 
of which two were votes to pass over a presidential veto. The dates and 
the size of the votes were as follows: — 



1896, May 20 
Dec. 17 

1897, Feb. 9 
Mar. 3 

1898, Jan. 17 
1902, May 22 

May 27 
1906, May 23 
June 

1912, April 
April 19 
Dec. 18 

1913, Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 

1914, Feb. 



17 

25 



House 195 to 26 

Senate 52 to 10 

Senate 34 to 31 

House 193 to 37 (over President Cleveland's veto) 

Senate 45 to 28 

House 86 to 7 (in committee) 

House No division 

Senate Test added by amendment 

Senate No division 

Senate Test added by amendment 57 to 8 

Senate No division, but only 2 votes against 

House 178 to 52 

House 149 to 70 

House 166 to 71 

House No division 

Senate No division 

Senate 72 to 18 (over President Taft's veto) 

House 213 to 114 (on veto) 

House 252 to 126 



There have thus been 7 record votes in the House, and the average 
of these votes was 192 to 73; and 5 record votes in the Senate, the average 
vote being 52 to 19. 

The wide-spread desire of the people for this legislation is further 
shown by an analysis of the votes in February, 1913, on the question of 

1 



passing the bill over President Taft's veto, and the vote in February, 
1914. In 1913, on the question of passing the bill over the veto, out of 
a possible 476 votes in both branches only 131 were cast against passing 
the bill over the veto, 57 "not voting" and 2 "present." There was not 
a single vote against passing the bill over the veto from eighteen States; 
namely, Alabama, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, New Hampshire, North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, 
Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Virginia, West Virginia. Both Senators and 
every Representative from the ten States first named voted to pass the 
bill over the veto. Twenty-one States were divided in their vote, but did 
not cast a majority against passing over the veto. In only nine States — 
Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, New 
York, North Dakota, and Wisconsin — were a majority of the delegations 
in favor of sustaining the veto, and in these cases it was only a bare 
majority; in Illinois, 13 out of 25; Iowa, 8 out of 13; Louisiana, 5 out 
of 9; Minnesota, 7 out of 11; New Jersey, 7 out of 12; New Mexico, 
3 out of 4; New York, 19 out of 37; North Dakota, 2 out of 3; Wiscon- 
sin, 7 out of 13. 

The vote by which the Burnett Bill passed the House in February 
last shows the same demand of the people for this legislation. The fight 
against the bill was the hardest ever made (the measure was fully debated 
for five days), so that this vote registers the deliberate feeling of the mem- 
bers as to the merits of the question and the wishes of their constituents. 
From twenty-one States every vote cast was for the bill; 13 gave a ma- 
jority for the bill; 3 split even; 6 gave a majority against the bill; and 
only 4 voted solidly against the bill, — Connecticut, New Mexico, Rhode 
Island, Utah, — or 10 votes. 

Of 256 Democrats voting, 166 voted for the bill; of 106 Republicans, 
71 voted for the bill; 14 out of 15 Progressives, and one Independent 
voted for it. The majority in its favor was therefore made up of 76 
Democrats, 36 Republicans, 13 Progressives, and one Independent 
(Kent). 

The 21 States for the bill were: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Dela- 
ware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, North 
Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming, — or 100 votes. 

In view of much that is alleged as to the demand of the South and 
West for immigration, it is interesting to note that the vote in favor of 
the bill was: Southern States, 78 to 6; Southwestern States, 33 to 9; 
Northwestern States and the Coast, 38 to 14, the Pacific Coast alone 
being 17 to 1. 

2 



As to Mr. Cleveland's veto, he afterward stated to several persons 
that his veto was largely based on certain amendments tending to cause 
friction with Canada, and that, if he had known as much about the sub- 
ject at the time as he did later, he would have signed the bill in spite of 
the objectionable amendments. 

B. STATE LEGISLATURES. 

The following States through their legislatures have asked for restric- 
tive legislation, and their resolutions either ask specifically for the reading 
test or were passed when bills embodying the test were pending and in 
view of such pending legislation: — 

Arkansas (House) Pennsylvania 

California Tennessee 

Massachusetts (House) Vermont 

Nevada Virginia 

Ohio Washington 

Oregon Wyoming 

C. NATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

Popular feeling on the test is also shown by the number of national 
associations, comprising many millions of citizens, which have repeatedly 
asked for it. These far outweigh in numbers the elements opposed, to wit: 
the steamships, employers of cheap labor, and various bodies of foreign- 
born citizens and racial and religious groups worked upon and used by 
those selling transportation. 

A few of the more important bodies asking for this legislation are: — 

American Federation of Labor. 
Knights of Labor. 

Farmers' Educational and Co-operative Union. 
Farmers' National Congress. 
United Mine Workers. 
National Board of Trade. 
National Grange. 

Order of United American Mechanics. 
Junior Order of United American Mechanics. 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. 
Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen. 
United Textile Workers. 
Cotton Growers' Association. 
American Genetics Association. 

Board of Associated Charities in forty of our largest cities. 

Over 5,000 petitions in favor of the reading test were sent in to a 
recent Congress. 

3 



D. THE AVERAGE INTELLIGENT CITIZEN. 



The feeling of the average intelligent citizen is shown by the fact that 
85 per cent, of the graduates of the Harvard Medical School, and 77 per 
cent, of persons whose names appear in " Who's Who in America/' recently 
answering inquiries as to their opinion, favored a reading test for immi- 
grants. Among the latter were 33 college presidents, and a large majority 
of the teachers of economics, politics, and sociology in our large univer- 
sities. Practically every one of these teachers in Harvard, Yale, Columbia, 
and the Universities of Chicago and Wisconsin were of this opinion. 

E. EXPERTS. 

It is not without significance that all the experts who have made a 
sufficient study of general immigration to write books on the subject in 
recent years, with a single exception, have become strongly convinced of 
the necessity of restriction, and have favored the reading test; namely, 
Mayo-Smith, Commons, Jenks, Hall, Warne, Fairchild, and Ross. The 
one author who reached a different conclusion — Dr. Hourwich — has been 
severely criticised by other economists as to his figures and methods of 
argument. Although only two of the Immigration Commission were 
strongly in favor of the test at the start, 8 out of 9 finally favored the test 
as the best single method of restriction. 

II. The Reading Test is the Best Selective Test. 

No test can be devised that will shut out every undesirable alien, and 
admit every desirable one; but the present law lets in a very large number 
who are below the average both of our country and their own. We would 
respectfully call your attention to the principal advantages of the test: — 

A. IT IS GOOD POLITICALLY. 

1. Ability to read is necessary for the intelligent use of the franchise. 
Newspapers and magazines are the sources of much political information. 
This matter is not covered by the federal naturalization law, because some 
States allow aliens to vote. 

2. Ignorant voters are the bulwark of the machines. 

3. Ability to read is necessary for the understanding of all American 
ideals and institutions, even down to health and police regulations. It is 
no answer to say that the children of aliens will be taught in our schools, 
because the children in many cases do not come, and the adults do not learn. 

4 



Even where there are children, the figures show that they are more illiter- 
ate than the natives for regions where the advantages are the same, and 
that they do not continue in school as long. 

4. Experience shows that the illiterate races do not become natural- 
ized or take an interest permanently in our political institutions as the 
literate races do. 

B. IT IS GOOD SOCIALLY. 

It is not claimed that ability to read is in itself a test of mental power 
or moral character. The test would nevertheless go far to exclude the less 
desirable elements of our present immigration. 

1. It would diminish the burden of insanity, criminality, and pauper- 
ism. The figures show that it would exclude a considerable proportion of 
defectives and delinquents. Thus in 1900 it would have excluded 18 per 
cent, of foreign-born insane; 21 per cent, of foreign-born criminals; and 
30 per cent, of foreign-born paupers. In the opinion of some of the most 
experienced public health surgeons, it would exclude a larger percentage 
of these classes than any legislation directly aimed against them. 

2. It would bar out many not absolutely defective or delinquent, but 
likely to become so, — people who are below the average. 

3. It would decrease racial isolation and the settling together of those 
of the same race and class. 

4. It is certain to improve the quality of the aliens; but it is not cer- 
tain to very largely diminish their numbers. If the steamships find they 
cannot bring illiterates, they will seek to bring those who can read; and 
the latter will be more likely to come if they are not obliged to compete 
with the former. 

5. It is far more selective than any other test proposed, like the nu- 
merical limitation. 

C. IT IS GOOD ECONOMICALLY. 

1. Those who can read are more likely to go to favorable localities, 
and to know about them. 

2. They are less likely to be the prey of the labor boss. 

3. They are less likely to be cheated, overworked, and underpaid. 

4. The illiterates are as a rule the unskilled. The Immigration Com- 
mission has reported that there is an excess of unskilled labor, and this is 
confirmed by the reports from all the large labor centres. The reading 
test will exclude the very class which should be excluded, and is therefore 
accurately selective as regards economic classes. 

5 



5. It is unfair to our own people to have them spend large sums on the 
education and training of their children for citizenship and business, and 
then throw them into competition with those who have not spent money 
on their education and are willing to live in such a low manner that they 
can underbid them for a job. 

D. IT IS PRACTICALLY DESIRABLE. 

1. It is a certain test. The alien can tell before he starts whether he 
can pass it. The steamship company can likewise tell before it accepts 
him for passage. 

To the extent to which it is definite, it removes uncertainty from all 
cases of aliens affected by it, for instance, those who are in danger of being 
held " liable to become a public charge." It is therefore a humane provi- 
sion. 

2. It requires no new machinery for its application, either here or 
abroad. It was applied at New York for three months as an experiment, 
and the Commissioner reported there was no trouble about applying it. 

3. By diminishing the number of doubtful cases it gives more time to 
the inspectors and boards of special inquiry to examine the remaining cases. 
The very ignorant cases take up a great deal of time. 

4. It does away with part of the temptation to a lax enforcement of 
the present law. 

In conclusion, it is believed that no unjust hardship would be put on 
aliens by this bill. The reading test calls for only the most rudimentary 
education. Italy has started to improve its school system every time this 
bill has been pending. The Russian Jews can certainly learn Yiddish if 
they are willing to take the trouble, even if not always able to learn Rus- 
sian. Much has been said of the refusal of the Russian government to 
allow the Poles to have schools; but the testimony before the House 
Committee last December showed that they were merely forbidden to have 
parochial schools, and were not forbidden to learn Russian. It is believed 
that this matter of deprival of school opportunities is much exaggerated 
for the purpose of argument. 

We urge the passage of this bill because 

(1) Restriction is needed. 

(2) The people demand it, and demand this method. 

(3) It is a selective measure which will improve the quality of aliens. 

(4) No other method has been suggested which is as good. 

2 MD— 814 E. 



6 



/ 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 64 

Immigration Figures for 1914 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1913 and 1914 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals: 


1913 


1914 




1,427,227 


1,403,081 


Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


1,197,892 


1,218,480 


Non-immigrant aliens [bee Note 1J 


229,335 


184,601 


Debarred from entrance and returned within 






three years alter landing .... 


23,399 


37,651 


Per cent of total arrivals debarred 


1.0 


2.6 


Departures : 






Total 


611,924 


633,805 


Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 


308,190 


303,338 


Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . 


303,734 


330,467 


Net addition to population [See Note 2] 


815,303 


769,276 


Immigrant aliens: 






Excess over emigrant aliens 


880.702 


01 ~ .1 J.2 


Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 






Northern and Western Europe 


337.800 


321.300 


Per cent 


28.2 


26.4 


Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 






ern and Eastern Europe 


802.668 


834. 12/1 


Per cent 


67.1 


68.4 


Asiatip 


ot AACi 


28 776 


Per cent 


1.8 


2.4 


Average money brought in dollars 


34-14 


34.92 


Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 






vants 


57-7 


54.1 


Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 






Mass., N.Y., and Pa 


60.3 


598 


Per cent destined for the States east of the 






Mississippi River and north of the Poto- 






mac and Ohio Rivers 


85.2 


8l.8 


Per cent destined for other (Southern and 






Western) States 


14.2 


17-5 


Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 






Alaska, and Philippine Islands 


0.6 


0.6 



Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age : 1913 1914 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . . 275,314 263,226 

Per cent of illiterates 26.2 24.8 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 13.7 12.3 
Per cent of "assisted" whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . . 22.8 23.8 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] 14.4 13.3 

Appeals and admissions on bond: 

Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . . 7,002 8,657 

Per cent admitted on bond .... 9.9 10.6 

Per cent admitted without bond . . . 30.9 22.4 

Per cent debarred 59.3 67.1 

Per cent admitted on bond without appeal, 68.0 64.2 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon the 
alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — -This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and " non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 8. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4- — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 

South Italian . . . 159*638 135^30 231,613 251,612 

Hebrew .... 9i> 22 3 80,595 ioi>330 138,051 

Polish .... 71,446 85,163 I74>305 122,657 

German .... 66,471 65,343 80,865 7937* 



Remarks 



The total of alien arrivals was the third largest in the history of the 
country, being surpassed only in 1907 with 1,438,469 and in 1913 with 
1,427,227. The total immigration since 1820 (all aliens to 1904 inclusive, 
and " immigrant aliens" since) is 32,027,424. It will be noted that the 
"immigrant aliens" numbered 20,588 more than last year. The Com- 
missioner-General says (p. 3) : — 

" Immigration, judging from the results of the year, has apparently 
reached the million mark permanently, and unless some affirmative action 
is taken by the Federal Government to restrict it, or steps are taken by 
European and other nations to reduce the steady stream of persons leaving 
the various countries of the Old World, we need hardly expect that the 
number annually entering the United States will hereafter fall far below 
one million." 

The Commissioner-General thinks that after the present war is over 
immigration will again increase to recent figures, and possibly exceed 
them. 

It will be noted that those debarred and returned were almost two- 
thirds more than last year. This reflects credit upon the service, but is 
in part accounted for by the poor quality of immigrants applying for 
admission. There was also an increase of 8 per cent in the number of 
those debarred on appeal to the Secretary of Labor; but, owing to the 
increase in the number of appeals, the number of those admitted was 
practically the same. 

The progressive decrease in the Teutonic and Keltic elements and 
the progressive increase in the Slavic and Iberic elements, noted in previous 
publications, continues. There is some decrease of illiteracy as compared 
with last year, but chiefly in immigrants from Northern and Western 
Europe and in non-European races. Recent investigations confirm 
previous findings to the effect that illiteracy is really greater than the 
returns show. 

Concerning the immigration bill (H. R. 6060) recently vetoed by the 
President, and which failed by only five votes to pass over his veto in 
the House, the Commissioner-General says (p. 24): — 

"The respective committees in charge of the Burnett Immigration 
Bill, pending in the Senate of the United States, incorporated therein 
many new provisions and administrative features suggested by the De- 
partment of Labor from the experience of this bureau in dealing with 
many phases of immigration which if enacted will materially aid in solv- 
ing many of the vital problems and settling many questions which have 
impeded the department and bureau in administering and executing the 
laws. Favorable action thereon would place upon the statute books a 
system calculated, with reasonable appropriations for its enforcement, 
to insure just treatment to all comers, the maximum of efficiency in ad- 
ministration, and many benefits for the general welfare of the country." 



Illiteracy 



Per cent of illiterates in total immigration of the various races over 
14 years of age. 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) 

Scotch 

Scandinavian 
English . 
Finnish . 
Welsh . 
Irish 

Bohemian and Moravian 
Dutch and Flemish 
German .... 
Italian (North) 
French .... 

Average of above 

Southern and Eastern Europe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic) : 

Magyar 
Slovak 
Spanish 
Hebrew 
Greek 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 
Croatian and Slovenian 
Polish .... 
Roumanian ... . 

Russian 

Ruthenian 

Italian (South) 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 

Lithuanian 

Portuguese 

Average of above . . 



Other Races: 

Cuban 
Chinese . 
Japanese 
African (black) 
Armenian 
Mexican . 
Syrian 
Turkish . 



Average of above 



1913 
0-5 
0-3 
O.Q 

0.7 

0.6 
1.0 
1.1 
1.9 
6.3 
6.7 
79 

3.2 



9.9 

14.3 
18.3 
21.5 
234 

34- 5 
232 
32.9 

35- 2 
35-7 
40.0 
48.6 

474 
48.9 
61.9 



35. 



1.4 
12. 1 
30.8 

15.3 
26.2 
46.7 

52.5 
65.6 



1914 
0.5 

0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.9 
1.1 

1.3 
2.1 
4.4 
6.2 
7.6 

2.9 



8.8 
11.4 
18.7 
19.9 
20.3 
22.9 
23 3 
313 
33-2 
34.8 
38.2 

474 
47-9 
49.9 

57-6 
32.8 



i.5 
7-7 
16.8 

23.3 
29.2 

39-2 
50.0 
63.9 



33.4 30.4 



The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 14.4 per cent in 
1913 and 11.2 per cent in 1914. 

2MD— 315E. 



PUBLICATIONS OFJME IMMI GRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 65 
: — ■ : 

Immigration Figures for 1915 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1914 and 1915 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals: 1914 1915 

Total 1,403,081 434,244 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 1,218,480 326,700 

Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] . 184,601 107,544 
Debarred from entrance and returned within 

three years after landing .... 37*651 26,675 

Per cent of total arrivals debarred . . 2.6 6.1 

Departures : 

Total 633,805 384,174 

Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] ... 303,338 204,074 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . . . 330,467 180,100 

Net addition to population [See Note 2] . . 769,276 50,070 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 915,142 122,626 

Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe . . 321,390 157,951 

Per cent 26.4 48.4 

Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 
ern and Eastern Europe .... 834,124 130,043 
Per cent 68.4 39.7 

Asiatic 28,776 13,073 

Per cent 2.4 4.0 

Average money brought in dollars . . 34-92 59-89 

Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 
vants 54.1 34.5 

Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa 59.8 50.9 

Per cent destined for the States east of the 
Mississippi River and north of the Poto- 
mac and Ohio Rivers 81.8 70.6 

Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 17.5 28.8 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands . . 0.6 0.6 



Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age: 1914 1915 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . . 263,226 35,449 

Per cent of illiterates 24.8 12.9 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 12.3 16.2 
Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . . . 23.8 30.3 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4] 13.3 23.4 

Appeals and admissions on bond: 

Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . . 8,657 6,012 

Per cent admitted on bond .... 10.6 12.7 

Per cent admitted without bond . . . 22.4 18.6 

Per cent debarred 67.1 68.7 

Per cent admitted on bond without appeal, 64.2 47.1 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and " non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4- — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 

South Italian . . . 159*638 135*830 231,613 251,612 

Hebrew .... 91^23 80,595 101,330 138,051 

Polish .... 71,446 85,163 174,365 122,657 

German .... 66,471 65,343 80,865 79>87i 



In 1915 the largest elements were: South Italian, 46,557; English, 
38,662; Hebrew, 26,497; Scandinavian, 24,263. 



Remarks 



The European war reduced the number of the total arrivals in 1915 to 
less than one-third of that in 1914, and the net addition to population 
to one-fifteenth of that of the preceding year. The total immigration 
from Oct. 1, 1819, to June 30, 1915, was 32,354,124 (all aliens to 1904 
inclusive, and "immigrant aliens" since). 

Owing to the interruption of steamship traffic except from Great 
Britain, France, and Italy, the principal falling off in immigration was from 
Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Balkan states. With the relative 
increase of the Teutonic and Keltic races occurred, as was to be expected, 
an increase in the amount of money brought, and in the proportion going 
to the South and West, as well as a large decrease in the illiteracy. 

The smaller number of arrivals made possible a more thorough inspec- 
tion, resulting in raising the percentage of the debarred and returned 
from 2.6 in 1914 to 6.1. This shows what could be accomplished in normal 
years if the service were given adequate facilities. The additional cost 
of such service would be but a small part of the cost of supporting persons 
improperly admitted. 1,328 aliens ordered deported had action in their 
cases suspended, on account of the difficulty of safely returning them 
during the war. 

Opinions differ as to whether immigration will increase rapidly after 
the war, but all are agreed that the quality is likely to be very poor. This 
is, therefore, the time to enact new legislation; and the Commissioner- 
General (Report, p. 39) renews his recommendation of last year, that the 
administrative reforms embodied in the Burnett bill vetoed by President 
Wilson be passed. 

The vetoed bill has been reintroduced into the House by Congressman 
Burnett (H. R. 558), and into the Senate by Senator Smith (S. 3195). 

As the year 1915 was very abnormal in the composition of its racial 
elements, the illiteracy tables for 1913 and 1914 are reprinted on the fol- 
lowing page as representing more truly the normal relative illiteracy of 
the various races. 



Illiteracy 

Per cent of illiterates in total immigration of the various races over 
14 years of age. 



Northern and Western Europe (Chiefly Teutonic and Keltic) : 1913 1914 

Scotch 0.5 0.5 

Scandinavian 0.3 0.6 

English 0.9 0.7 

Finnish . 0.7 0.8 

Welsh . . .• . . . 0.6 0.9 

Irish 1.0 1.1 

Bohemian and Moravian 1.1 1.3 

Dutch and Flemish 1.9 2.1 

German 6.3 4.4 

Italian (North) 6.7 6.2 

French 7.9 7.6 

Average of above 3.2 2.9 

Southern and Eastern Eurofe (Chiefly Slavic and Iberic) : 

Magyar 9.9 8.8 

Slovak 14.3 1 1.4 

Spanish 18.3 18.7 

Hebrew 21.5 19.9 

Greek 23.4 20.3 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin . . . 34.5 22.9 

Croatian and Slovenian 23.2 23.3 

Polish 32.9 31.3 

Roumanian 35.2 33.2 

Russian 35.7 34.8 

Ruthenian 40.0 38.2 

Italian (South) 48.6 47.4 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian . . . 47.4 47.9 

Lithuanian . 48.9 49.9 

Portuguese 61.9 57.6 

Average of above 35.1 32.8 

Other Races: 

Cuban . 1.4 1.5 

Chinese 12. 1 7.7 

Japanese 30.8 16.8 

African (black) 15.3 23.3 

Armenian 26.2 29.2 

Mexican 46.7 39.2 

Syrian 52.5 50.0 

Turkish 65.6 63.9 

Average of above . . . 33.4 30.4 



The average illiteracy of non-immigrant aliens was 14.4 per cent in 
1913 and 11.2 per cent in 1914. 

2MD — 116E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE, No, 66 



THE CASE FOR THE 
LITERACY TEST 



REPRINTED FROM 

THE UNPOPULAR REVIEW 

FOR JANUARY MARCH, 1916 



i 

COPYRIGHT, 1915 
By HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 



THE CASE FOR THE LITERACY TEST 



WHEN President Wilson vetoed the Burnett Immi- 
gration Bill last January, he gave as his principal 
reason his conviction that the literacy test which it con- 
tained was not wanted by the American people, and his 
determination to await a more explicit expression of their 
wishes before giving his sanction to what seemed like so 
radical a departure from American tradition. This was 
a surprising attitude in view of the fact that in the pre- 
ceding eighteen years there had been seven record votes 
on the question in the House, with an average of 192 votes 
in favor to 73 against, and five record votes in the Senate, 
with an average of 52 yeas and 19 nays, while the Con- 
gress then in session had passed the measure by a vote 
of 252 to 126 in the House, and 50 to 7 in the Senate. 
The President's demand that the question be settled by 
including the proposal in party platforms, and voting 
upon it, seems to imply that a party platform is a more 
reliable indication of the wishes of the people than the 
repeated votes of their representatives in Congress. Even 
on this basis, the President might have found support 
for his signature, since William McKinley was elected 
President in 1896 on a platform which specifically de- 
clared for a reading test. The failure of the measure to 
become law has been due solely to Presidential vetoes, 
those of President Cleveland and President Taft having 
set the precedent for President Wilson. 

There is no doubt that there is, and long has been, a 
very insistent demand on the part of a large proportion 
of the American people — just how large, no one can 
say — for this particular addition to our system of immi- 
gration control. There is every indication that this 
demand is growing, and will continue to grow until it 
achieves its end. It is the purpose of this article to ex- 

3 



4 



The Unpopular Review 



amine the arguments for and against the test in question, 
and to show the validity of the demand for its enactment 
into law. 

In order to understand American immigration legisla- 
tion, actual and proposed, and the literacy test in par- 
ticular, it is helpful to distinguish three main principles, 
which might serve as guides to action. These are the 
principles of exclusion at one extreme, free immigration 
at the other extreme, and regulation as a mean. 

The exclusionist view is that it would be best to deny 
admission to any and all immigrants without exception, 
and that we have a perfect right to do so. Perhaps the 
most eminent exponent of this view was Thomas Jeffer- 
son, who expressed the wish that there were an ocean of 
fire between this country and Europe, so that it might be 
impossible for any more immigrants to come here. 

The free immigration theory is that it is desirable to 
admit any alien whatsoever, without reference to his 
antecedents, character, or purposes. This view was thus 
expressed in a magazine in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century: "What, though the population which 
is annually cast upon American shores is all of the filthi- 
est and most degraded kind! . . . Let us welcome the 
houseless and naked of every land. . . Let us invite the 
ill-fed and the starving of every grade. . . Let us urge 
the oppressed and downtrodden of every name to the 
blessings of American freedom." 

Between these two extremes there lies the middle ground 
of regulation. Here the assumption is that immigration 
is desirable, or at least permissible, but that the best 
results demand that it shall be subjected to some form 
of control. As to the method of control, however, there 
are again two distinct principles, which also need to be 
carefully distinguished. These are selection and restric- 
tion. The general public frequently fails to discriminate 
between these two, and much confusion results. 

The principle of selection assumes that the only dan- 



The Case for the Literacy Test 5 



ger lies in the admission of aliens of poor quality — com- 
monly known as "undesirables." There is no menace, 
according to this view, in mere numbers, no matter how 
great. This point of view was concisely stated by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt in one of his messages: "We cannot have 
too much immigration of the right kind, and we should 
have none at all of the wrong kind." 

The restrictionist, on the other hand, may or may not 
believe in selection. He generally does. But he differs 
from the selectionist in refusing to admit that there is no 
danger in numbers. He is ready to grant that a moderate 
immigration is innocuous, if not absolutely advantageous. 
But he maintains that the volume can swell too much, 
and the interests of the country suffer, however high the 
quality of the individuals. His distinctive objection to 
unregulated immigration is quantitative. The following 
quotation from Dr. Gustav LeBon is a moderate state- 
ment of this view: "A preponderating influence of for- 
eigners is a sure solvent of the existence of States. It 
takes away from a people its most precious possession — 
its soul." 

Selective tests must of necessity have a slightly restric- 
tive effect for the time being. But the ultimate effect 
may be to increase the numbers, by keeping the quality 
high, and thereby avoiding the discouragement which 
would arise if self-respecting aliens were forced to asso- 
ciate with, and compete with, and be classed with the 
dregs of foreign races. 

Historically, the exclusionist principle has played no 
practical part, and there has been little demand for its 
extreme application. A dominating principle, for nearly 
the whole of the first century of our national life, was the 
principle of free immigration, as was natural in a sparsely 
settled and undeveloped country. Nevertheless, this 
policy was not maintained without much protest. Under 
a laissez faire administration, the character of some of 
the immigrants was so desperate as to arouse the con- 



6 The Unpopular Review 



sternation even of the easy-going Americans, and the 
years from 1830 to 1880 were marked by repeated at- 
tempts to secure some regulative measures which should 
raise the average of quality. Nothing of the sort, how- 
ever, was adopted by the federal government. The in- 
dividual states made ineffectual efforts to ameliorate the 
situation, mostly in the way of imposing a head tax or 
requiring a bond from those whose ability to support 
themselves was doubtful. But the motive of these meas- 
ures was neither selection nor restriction, but indemnifica- 
tion against the support of indigent foreigners. The 
only important measures passed by the federal govern- 
ment during this period were designed to improve the 
means of immigration, not to control immigration itself. 

It was not until 1882 that the federal government un- 
dertook definitely to regulate the matter. 1 The principle 
adopted was frankly that of selection. This was natural, 
as the agitation which had led up to it had rested almost 
entirely on the dangers and injuries from immigrants 
of an inferior type — particularly paupers, criminals, 
and diseased persons. Accordingly, this new legislation 
excluded certain classes. Also a small head tax was im- 
posed, and that, of course, has incidentally a slightly re- 
strictive influence. 

The complicated body of immigration legislation which 
has grown up from this beginning has added more and 
more "undesirables" to the excluded classes, more and 
more complicated expedients have been introduced for 
debarring and deporting them, and the machinery of 
administration has been steadily improved. Yet one 
might search in vain through all the laws on the subject 
to find a single statute which was avowedlv and directly 
restrictive. It was not until very recent years that any 
avowedly restrictive measure has even been proposed 

1 The law of 1875 excluding immigrant women imported for purposes of pros- 
titution, and criminals convicted of non-political offenses was passed with the 
Chinese in mind, and, like the entire Chinese exclusion legislation, belongs in a 
special category. 



The Case for the Literacy Test 7 



and supported strongly enough to gain public prominence. 
The single important instance of this sort of measure is 
furnished by the scheme, worked out independently by 
Senator Dillingham and Professor Sydney L. Gulick of 
Japan, to limit the immigration of people of any race on 
a percentage basis, according to the number of that race 
already in this country. Senator Dillingham would base 
his percentage simply on those resident, Professor Gulick 
on the number naturalized. But, in either case, the pro- 
posal is for a straightforward and positive restriction. 

The literacy test is evidently regulative and selective. 
It distinguishes a new type of undesirable. It adds an 
educational test to the various physical, mental, and 
moral tests which already exist. Its restrictive effects 
would be very considerable. Just how much, nobody has 
been able to tell positively. The percentage of illiteracy 
of all immigrants fourteen years of age or over for the 
years 1899 to 1909 averaged 26.7. But since any law, 
to have a chance of passing, must allow certain exemp- 
tions, the total number excluded would not equal the 
total number of illiterates applying. On the other hand, 
the figures of illiteracy furnished by the Immigration 
Bureau are based merely on the statements of the immi- 
grants themselves, and since the immigrant often believes 
that he is more likely to be admitted if he is literate than 
if not, there may be considerable overstatement of literacy. 
It seems likely that the test would exclude in the neigh- 
borhood of twenty-five per cent. 

The semblance of introducing a new principle into our 
immigration legislation gives the literacy test a special 
value in the eyes of its friends, and offers a point of attack 
to its enemies. Whether its restrictive features consti- 
tute an argument for or against it, evidently depends on 
one's point of view. To the pure selectionist, they tend 
to condemn it. This was evidently the attitude of Presi- 
dent Wilson when he wrote in his veto message: "The 
object of such provisions is restriction, not selection." 



8 



The Unpopular Review 



If one has restrictionist leanings, on the other hand, this 
aspect simply adds to the desirability of the test as a 
selective measure. It is probably true that a considerable 
portion of the agitation for the test comes from those 
who are inspired partly by a desire to secure restriction. 

This is not the place to discuss the arguments for and 
against restriction. Volumes have been written on the 
subject, and public opinion is not yet unanimous. The 
matter can be clearly understood only after an ex- 
haustive examination into the various economic, political, 
and social bearings of the case, such as the average busy 
citizen cannot possibly undertake. It is true that almost 
all of those who have taken up the question in a thorough 
and scientific manner have become convinced of the need 
of restriction. The most remarkable example of this is 
furnished by the Immigration Commission. As Professor 
Jenks, a member of the Commission, said in a public 
lecture: "The Commission in its Report recommended 
with absolute unanimity the adoption of a policy of re- 
striction, although one member differed from his col- 
leagues as regards the method of restriction that it was 
most expedient to employ. It is well known that at the 
beginning of their investigation, several members of the 
Commission were strongly inclined not to restrict im- 
migration further, but the results of the investigation 
had completely changed their views, so that all nine 
members — three Senators, three members of the House 
of Representatives, and the three civilians — - appointed 
by the President, Republicans and Democrats alike, 
agreed in their recommendation. Moreover, so far as 
can be ascertained, all of the field agents of the Commis- 
sion, perhaps a hundred, even before the final statistical 
results of the investigation had been fully calculated and 
the results made manifest — simply through their per- 
sonal observations — had become convinced that a re- 
strictive policy was needed." 

In spite of this unanimity of opinion on the part of 



The Case for the Literacy Test 9 



scientific students, the restrictionist arguments have not 
had much weight in shaping legislation. Law-making 
bodies are conservative, legislation tends to move in 
well-worn channels, and the mass of voters are strongly- 
influenced by tradition. It is much more difficult to 
get passed a law which involves some new principle than 
one which is merely an extension of an old principle, or 
at least looks like an old law. The principle of selection 
is so thoroughly established in our immigration statutes, 
and the people have become so thoroughly habituated 
to it, that there is a much better chance of securing re- 
striction, if that is desired, through a measure which can 
be supported on selective grounds, than by one which is 
solely restrictive. The likelihood of the passage of a 
literacy test may very possibly be enhanced by the ex- 
tension of the recognition of the need for restriction. But 
the effective arguments for it must bear largely on its 
selective character. 

What, then, are these arguments? 

The positive arguments for a literacy test as a selective 
measure dwell on the proposition that an immigrant who 
can read furnishes better material, all things considered, 
for the building up of the American people, than one who 
cannot. 

This point is customarily argued on the grounds of 
individual fitness, and there is, indeed, much to recom- 
mend the literacy test from this point of view. Much 
effort has been expended, particularly by Mr. Prescott F. 
Hall, to show that the immigrant who lacks such a rudi- 
mentary education is both hampered in the struggle for 
success, and likely to injure rather than aid the country. 

Economically, it is pointed out that illiterate immi- 
grants furnish an unintelligent, or at least mentally un- 
trained, labor supply. Their intellectual processes are 
primitive, they cannot read printed instructions, they 
are not able to understand our complicated modern in- 
dustry. Particularly, it is shown that they are especially 



IO 



The Unpopular Review 



liable to injury in factories, mines and foundries, because 
of inability to read the warning placards posted about. 
They do not possess that mental alertness and adaptive- 
ness which, in the minds of many, has enabled the old 
type of American laborer to contribute so much to the 
economic up-building of his country. 

To these arguments the opponents of the literacy test 
reply that mental training is a very minor requirement 
in the work for which the immigrant is desired. We need 
immigrants to furnish the unskilled labor supply, to do 
the menial, dirty, laborious work, which, it is alleged, 
the native American will no longer undertake. In these 
occupations education is not needed; even natural intelli- 
gence may be of a very low order. What is called for is 
brawn, not brains. Too much thinking capacity and 
habit is a drawback, not an advantage. It is pointed out 
that many of those aliens who have the hardest time in 
this country are the ones who have had some education 
in the old country — the clerks, cheap musicians, book- 
keepers, etc., who are either unable or unwilling to do 
low-grade manual labor, and who find their European 
education of no advantage in competition with American 
trained workers. 

It is seldom that this point is so frankly stated as it was 
in the following letter to the New York Times, printed 
January 23, 191 5: "I read with much interest your edi- 
torial on 'Immigrant Bone and Brawn,' and while I do 
not claim to be an authority on this matter, yet I have a 
fairly good knowledge of the labor situation, being an 
employer of not an indifferent number of common la- 
borers every year. 

"Now, without any exception, I have found that illit- 
erate laborers #make far better diggers than immigrants 
of higher standard, because, first, in their native land 
they have done nothing else, therefore are well accus- 
tomed to hard work, and, second, the laborer's mind, 
not being trained in other channels, lacks the nerve to 



The Case for the Literacy Test i i 



branch off in other fields, and remains what it is trained 
to be, a common laborer, a common digger, if you wish, 
but the most vital part and the most perfect of the whole 
machine which makes a country what it should be. 

"The heavens of the United States are bright enough 
without the need of foreign stars, but the land of this 
glorious Republic does need the bone and brawn of the 
foreigner, whether or not he can read or write." 

It may be granted that, from the strictly economic 
point of view, the opponents of the literacy test can pre- 
sent the weightier arguments. If the goal of our public 
policy is to secure the greatest and most rapid production 
of wealth, regardless of the conditions which attend it, 
and of the steadiness and continuousness of the accumu- 
lation, then the cheaper, the more docile, and the more 
abundant the supply of common labor is, the more rapidly 
will the immediate process go on. A group of Slavic 
workers, who will accept any standard of living, who will 
be mute, if not content, in the face of intolerable working 
conditions, who will submit to the exhaustion of their 
native forces in the rounds of industry — who, in fine, 
do not let their minds "branch off" in other fields" — 
and who, when their period of usefulness is over will go 
uncomplainingly back home to Europe with broken 
bodies and dulled minds, leaving their places to be filled 
by others like them — such a group of laborers will no 
doubt leave a greater mass of accumulated capital in 
the hands of the master producers than those whose 
minds are trained to think. To this argument there is 
no effective answer. 

But the adherents of the literacy test maintain that 
there are other considerations — social, in the wide 
sense and reaching far ahead — which outweigh the im- 
mediate economic interests. These have to do with the 
building up of the American people and their enduring 
prosperity, rather than their immediate wealth. 

Professor Commons has said, "The true foundations 



The Unpopular Review 



of democracy are in the character of the people them- 
selves, that is, of the individuals who constitute the 
democracy. These are: first, intelligence — the power to 
weigh evidence and draw sound conclusions, based on 
adequate information; second, manliness, that which the 
Romans called virility, and which at bottom is dignified 
self-respect, self-control, and that self-assertion and jeal- 
ousy of encroachment which marks those who, know- 
ing their rights, dare maintain them; third, and equally 
important, the capacity for cooperation, that willingness 
and ability to organize, to trust their leaders, to work 
together for a common interest and toward a common 
destiny, a capacity which we variously designate as 
patriotism, public spirit, or self-government." 

It is believed by those who advocate the literacy test, 
that the man who can read is more likely to possess these 
qualities in some measure than one who cannot, and is 
also better equipped to acquire them to a fuller extent. 

From the political point of view the illiterate immigrant 
is handicapped in his efforts to become worthy of his 
adopted country. He is unable to keep posted on na- 
tional affairs by even the journals published in his own 
language. He is forced to have constant recourse to the 
interpreter, the padrone, and the "banker." He becomes 
the easy prey of the ward boss, and furnishes plastic 
material for naturalization and election frauds. He readily 
yields to the machinations of unscrupulous labor leaders 
and anarchistic agitators. He is compelled to rely on 
others for all his knowledge of world events. 

The effort has been made to prove that the illiterate 
aliens contribute more than their due proportion to the 
volume of pauperism and crime. Accuracy and convinc- 
ingness in investigations of this sort are rendered dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, by the careless record-keeping 
of most of our penal and relief agencies. Yet there is much 
general evidence in favor of this view, of which a typical 
example is the statement made by Mr. Frederick A. 



The Case for the Literacy Test 1 3 



Pope, prosecuting attorney of Somerset County, New 
Jersey, to the effect that out of a group of 54 crimes, 
committed by foreigners, that involved violence, 46 
were committed by illiterates. Of course only an over- 
whelming mass of testimony of this sort would constitute 
a positive demonstration. 

To these arguments the opponents of the literacy test 
reply that this test will not keep out criminals and other 
individuals with anti-social motives. While the percent- 
age of illiterate criminals is high among those guilty of 
minor crimes, yet the most dangerous criminals are those 
with a high grade of intelligence and education, which 
this test would not touch. To this the other side responds, 
that the literacy test is not supported as a cure-all. We 
already have laws providing for the exclusion of all 
criminals and paupers who can be detected; and as for 
the others, the literacy test would keep out some of them, 
and that would be so much clear gain. 

Thus on purely individualistic grounds there is much 
to be said in favor of the literate immigrant as material 
for American citizenship. But the selective advantages 
of the literacy test become much clearer if the matter is 
considered, not from the point of view of individuals, but 
of groups. The argument briefly is this. 

The final aim of our immigration policy, and the sine 
qua non of a good immigration situation, is assimilation. 
If this is not accomplished with speed, certainty, and 
completeness, the solidarity and progress, if not the very 
life, of the nation are threatened. Even the broadest 
"free immigrationist" will hardly deny this. The dif- 
ferences of opinion of candid students come from dis- 
agreement as to whether assimilation is actually accom- 
plished, rather than from uncertainty as to the need of 
it. One of the chief reasons why restriction is favored by 
so many is that excessive numbers are a bar to assimila- 
tion. 

Now evidently the groups of immigrants which are most 



14 The Unpopular Review 



easily assimilated, and which therefore can most readily 
be received into this country are those whose habits of 
thought, attitude toward life, conception of their relation 
to government, " ideas and ideals," to use Professor Ell- 
wood's expressive phrase, or "mores" in Professor Sum- 
ner's still more significant term, are most similar to those 
of the United States. Assimilation is an intellectual 
process, accomplished with the greatest difficulty in the 
lifetime of any adult immigrant, and quite impossible 
in the case of an immigrant whose early environment and 
social traditions have been widely diverse from our own. 
The United States may be characterized as an industrial 
democracy, and the groups of immigrants who can be 
most readily assimilated into our life are those who come 
from countries whose economy is of the modern industrial 
type, and whose government is fundamentally democratic, 
by whatever name it may be called. Now nations of 
this sort have long ago established and maintained effi- 
cient compulsory education systems, and their people 
have a very small percentage of illiteracy. The monarch- 
ical, semi-feudalistic, economically backward nations, 
on the other hand, and those which have only recently 
emerged from that state, have public education systems 
inadequate either in plan or administration, and their 
people show a high percentage of illiteracy. Thus, con- 
sidered groupwise, illiteracy appears less as a quality than 
as a symptom or indication of other qualities, and these 
some of the most deep-seated and tenacious from the 
point of view of group character. Considered in this 
way the literacy test reveals itself as a selective measure 
of the very highest importance. 

There are many other advantages, incidental or of 
lesser importance, connected with the literacy test. First, 
from the point of view of administration, it meets all 
desirable requirements. It is positive, rapid, and cannot 
be evaded. It is foreknowable — that is, the would-be 



The Case for the Literacy Test 15 



immigrant can determine for himself, before he leaves 
his native village, whether he can meet this test. It is 
impartial, and leaves as little as possible to the judgment 
of the inspector. 

Second, it would exercise a highly stimulative influence 
on the public education in European countries. When, 
in the administration of President Taft, it appeared likely 
that a literacy test would be passed, schools sprang up on 
many a hillside in southern Italy where none had been 
before. When President Taft vetoed the bill the schools 
were deserted, and were closed. 

Third, the test is a barrier which can be overcome by 
any intelligent and ambitious person. Any European 
who really wants to come to the United States need only 
take the pains to secure the most rudimentary education. 
This may be difficult for some, conceivably impossible 
for a few, but it could not involve any great general 
hardship. If the demand for simple educational facilities 
were strong enough, it would be supplied. 

This suggests a further consideration, which is really 
too vital to be included among incidental things. This 
is that the literacy test would put a certain premium on 
American residence. The very fact that it imposed a 
barrier which could be overcome by effort would have a 
most beneficial effect upon those who did overcome it. 
It is almost a truism that anything which is cheaply ac- 
quired is lightly valued. Participation in the "glories of 
America" is now cheaply acquired. In early days there 
were natural obstacles of one sort and another, which 
automatically selected for emigration the hardy, the 
ambitious, and the courageous. Very few obstacles of 
that sort now exist. All the great channels of emigration 
are now carefully smoothed and oiled, and to emigrate is 
almost as easy as to stagnate. A test which could be 
overcome, but only by some personal effort, would be a 
highly desirable thing. To the extent to which it ac- 
tually was overcome, it would of course neutralize the 



1 6 The Unpopular Review 



restrictive effects of the literacy test, leaving only its 
selective features. Experience alone could prove how far 
this would go. 

Turning now to the positive arguments against the 
literacy test, they are found to be almost all highly ab- 
stract, not to say metaphysical. They have to do with 
"natural rights" and "liberties," with American tradi- 
tions and duties, with the inherent obligation of the 
favored to share their blessings with the less fortunate. 
They all boil down to three simple propositions: The 
literacy test invades "natural rights"; it is narrow and 
illiberal; it is un-American. 

The proposition that it violates "natural rights" and 
"liberties" is manifestly not an argument, but an asser- 
tion, capable neither of proof nor refutation. The whole 
question of natural rights lies outside the field of logic, 
and is not a matter for argument. If one sees fit, as one 
writer on the subject has done, to include among the great 
natural rights of man "the right to choose a home," no 
amount of reasoning will dislodge him from that position. 
The best that can be done is to point to another great 
"right" which may be absolutely opposed to this, viz.: 
the right of every nation to protect its interests as against 
the interests of any individual. 

The charge that the literacy test is narrow and illiberal 
rests on the assumption that those who urge it are ani- 
mated by selfish or exclusive motives, that they desire to 
monopolize the advantages which they are fortunate 
enough to possess, rather than to share them with others. 
This charge may be true of some. But there are others, 
who advocate the test not because of narrowness of vision, 
but because they take a view of humanity which extends 
far beyond the confines of nation, group, or race. 

There is no question that the United States as a nation 
is highly favored by nature. All the conjunctures of 
climate, soil, and natural resources combine with the high 



The Case for the Literacy Test 17 



character of the original population to afford every ad- 
vantage in the struggle for existence to those who are 
fortunate enough to call America their home. But it 
does not follow that a broad humanitarian policy demands 
the indiscriminate sharing of these advantages with any- 
one who wishes to come. These very advantages have 
set apart the United States to be the leader of the world 
in its struggle for the achievement of the higher democ- 
racy. Here, if anywhere, the stage is most favorably set 
for the great drama of the destiny of the common people. 
If democracy fails in America, where shall we look for it 
to succeed? The bioad-minded adherent of the literacy 
test holds that the immigration movement, as it has 
manifested itself in recent years, constitutes a menace to 
democracy in the United States, and that our highest 
duty to humanity will not permit us to tolerate anything 
which threatens to check or hamper the progress of the 
common people in this country. The fact that measures 
like the literacy test run counter to the interests of some 
individuals of our own generation does not alter the case 
in his mind. It is simply a matter of conservation. Eveiy 
conservation policy is carried out by restriction, and 
works hardship to individuals. The policy of forest pres- 
ervation is an example. Yet we do not call the scien- 
tific forester narrow. Laws for the protection of woman 
and child laborers involve restriction, and injure the 
interests of individuals. But we do not accuse the social 
legislator of illiberality. Neither ought this reproach to 
be applied to the advocate of the literacy test, or even 
of more distinctly restrictive measures, who believes that 
such steps are necessary for the preservation of the high 
ideals of the United States, or of the standard of living of 
its common citizens. 

In fact, if self-seeking is a mark of narrowness and illib- 
erality, these opprobrious epithets could be applied to 
perhaps as great a proportion of the opponents of the 
literacy test, as of its supporters. For anyone who knows 



i 8 The Unpopular Review 



the sources of the active opposition to this measure is 
all too well aware how much of it emanates from those 
who fancy they see in it a menace to their own private 
interests, economic and other. 

The assertion that the literacy test is un-American is 
one which has been urged against many measures of 
social progress, and which can be employed against any 
proposition which involves departing from traditional 
methods or policies — in other words, which recognizes 
that the world moves and conditions change. When 
policemen were first introduced into the cities of the 
United States, the innovation was bitterly opposed on 
the ground that it was un-American, and interfered with 
the natural rights of the individual. The "penalty clause" 
by which the cooperative farmers' elevators of the Middle 
West maintain themselves has been attacked as un- 
American by those whom it affects unfavorably. The 
anti-immigration agitation of the forties and fifties which 
called forth such rhetorical outbursts of protest as that 
quoted in an earlier paragraph, was due to the desire to 
exclude paupers, criminals, and diseased persons — and 
this desire was dubbed un-American. 

It would seem hardly necessary to consider arguments 
of this type, were they not propounded with so much 
frequency and earnestness, and accepted with so much 
sobriety. Especially, it seems extraordinary that a 
measure which asks that the foreigner should have the 
same training for citizenship or residence that we require 
of our own children should be called un-American. When 
we spend over half a billion dollars annually on our public 
schools, and then compel children born in this country 
to take advantage of them, is it illogical — not to say 
un-American — to say to the adult foreigner that he 
should have so much of an education as is indicated by 
the ability to read? 

But it is asserted that an educational test would be 
un-American because it would exclude aliens on the basis 



The Case for the Literacy Test 19 



of opportunity, not of character. Illiteracy, it is main- 
tained, not is a test of ability but of early opportunity. 
But a test based on opportunity is not un-American. 
For our immigration law already contains a number of 
tests which rest, in part at least, on opportunity. Such 
are the tests excluding paupers, those likely to become 
public charges, persons with contagious diseases, etc. 
In fact, when the individual immigrant appears before 
the inspector little can be gained by trying to separate 
those of his characteristics which are due to native ability 
from those which are traceable to environment. The 
man must be judged as he is, on the grounds of his fitness. 

In pursuance of the "un-American" argument, how- 
ever, it is further pointed out that illiteracy cannot rea- 
sonably be considered a test of fitness for American life, 
because this nation was founded by illiterates, and that 
it has nevertheless done pretty well. The trouble with 
this argument, is that it is not true, and that if it were 
it proves too much. It might be said with equal cogency 
that this nation was founded by men who made their 
living by slave labor in the south, and the slave-and-rum 
trade in the north, and that therefore these good old 
institutions should have been preserved. All such argu- 
ments ignore the fact that the world has progressed 
during the past three centuries, and that illiteracy stands 
for very different things now from what it did in the days 
of the Pilgrim Fathers, or of the Revolutionary heroes. 

Another argument which proves too much is that pro- 
duced so triumphantly, and with so great effect, in some 
such words as these: "This measure would keep out a 
great many people who would be very useful citizens. If 
it had been in force in earlier years it would have kept out 
the mother of Abraham Lincoln, who signed her name 
with a cross." Certainly the literacy test would keep out 
some who would be useful. So do many, if not most, 
of the tests now in force. The futility of such arguments 
may be illustrated by another reductio ad absurdum. 



2o The Unpopular Review 



''Booker T. Washington was one of the most useful 
citizens of the United States. His ancestors on one side 
were brought over as negro slaves. Therefore it was a 
mistake to abolish the slave trade." 

Such are the arguments of the opponents of the literacy 
test. Aside from these, their efforts are devoted to coun- 
tering the claims of the opposite side, which, as has been 
shown, can be done successfully only with respect to the 
strictly and temporarily economic aspects — the build- 
ing up of quick fortunes by questionable and probably 
dangerous means. There are those who do not regard 
this as an argument against the literacy test, but for it. 

The matter can be rightly understood only by taking 
the broadest possible view of the relations, not of this 
generation alone, but of the generations to come. The 
natural destiny of the United States is to be the leader of 
the nations into the fullest development of the common 
people. Our duty is to set standards, not to distribute the 
natural advantages we possess. We cannot render our 
highest service to mankind by hastily and inconsiderately 
yielding to the demands of a specious humanitarianism, 
and dissipating to-day what should be the heritage of 
future generations. 



T^HE Immigration Restriction League is a non- 
partisan and non-sectarian organization, with 
members from all parts of the United States. Its 
object is to secure a more careful selection of the 
immigrants coming to this country, but not the 
exclusion of any whose character and standards fit 
them to become citizens. 

Since its foundation, in 1894, this League has been 
largely instrumental in securing many amendments 
now embodied in the immigration law, and improve- 
ments in the methods of inspection and of keeping 
statistics as to aliens. 

For membership ($1 per year, or one payment of 
$10 for life membership) and publications, address 
the Secretary, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. 



The Unpopular Review 

Jt specimen copy sent subject to return or payment 

This Review holds that the principal hope for humanity is in the 
progress in knowledge, intelligence and character of the less capable 
portion of mankind; that only through such progress can real advance 
be made in their fortunes; and that at present the main obstacle to 
such progress is in the fallacies and false hopes preached by demagogues 
to attract the crowd. The chief recent schemes of our demagogues, — the 
make-everybody-rich juggles with the currency, and the movement to 
consign to the ignorant masses the functions of the learned judiciary — are 
exploded, but other demagogues and other schemes will arise. The in- 
telligence and conscience of the country need rallying points to oppose 
them. It is hoped to make this Review one among such rallying points. 

Struck by the war before the appearance of its third number, with the 
consequent limiting of new subscriptions, and call of attention from its 
main purposes, The Unpopular Review has nevertheless been steadily 
growing. While making no assertions itself, it is constantly receiving 
assertions that it is the best American periodical. It does not doubt, 
however, that other periodicals receive the same assurances. Yet it is 
not without hope that its share of them indicates its having in its short 
career reached a position, at least, among the best. 

There are those who have the temerity to say that this age is scattering 
its brains over daily papers and other rapid-fire periodicals until it has 
very little concentrated brain power left. If they speak truth, the revival 
of the Quarterly is greatly needed. 

From Lord Bryce: "The whole Review is, so to speak, almost too good for a serial. There 
is matter in it for the making of books of permanent value. . . . What strikes me most in 
it all through is that it is fresh, not hackneyed or conventional, and that it is full of thinking, 
written not because something has to be said, but because the writers have something to say." 

From Prof. A. S. Johnson, Cornell: "If anybody had told me, a year ago, that we should 
have, in this country, a magazine as good as this, I'd have spurned him as a false prophet." 

From Prof. William Lyon Phelps, Yale: "I am enjoying The Unpopular Review im- 
mensely, and greatly admire it; it is a proof that wit, originality, and charm may all be 
successfully employed on the side of the angels." 

From Professor Paul Shorey, Chicago: "\ read with interest a larger proportion of The Un- 
popular Review, I think, than of any other periodical." 

From Mr. William Morton Payne, The Dial: "No reading gives me more delight in this time 
of intellectual disintegration." 

From Mr. Frank Foxcroft, The Living Age: "The only 'out' about it is that it sometimes 
cr ates discord between the two heads of the family over the question which shall have the 
first reading of it." 

From The Nation: "Solid substance and brilliant execution. ... To such a quarterly 
the Nation extends the right hand of fellowship." 

From American Review of Reviews: "An instant and deserved success." 
From London Times: "The Unpopular Review, ... is welcomed here." 

75 c. a number ^^t^Z'^*™ $2.50 a year 



Address THE UNPOPULAR REVIEW ^K^SeSTr^ 

LONDON: WILLIAMS AND NORGATE 

Readers interested in promoting the work The Review attempts, can do so by sending 
to the publishers names and addresses of persons likely to be interest^ in it. 



SOME NEW WORDS, AND SOME 
EARLIER, FROM OUR READERS 



"How anybody who has a taste for reading worth while, can fail to ap- 
preciate it is beyond my comprehension. " 

"One magazine, at any rate, for which I am more than willing to write 
a check when my subscription falls due." 

"Who said there could be nothing new under the sun? He never read 
the Unpop! ... It makes most everything else sound so wordy and 
opaque and muddleheaded !" 

"A delight to me since the first issue and gets better with each succeeding 
number." 

"It fills the bill for ideas without accumulation of words. And the nail 
gets hit every time. I take nothing else." 

"It has a way of serving food for reflection with a piquant sauce alto- 
gether unique." 

"Fine both in subject-matter and subject-manner — pleasant to the 
eye — pleasant to the literary taste, calculated to make one wise." 

"On the frontier of progress but really conservative of some of our best, 
though somewhat overshadowed, ideals." 

"For the last twenty-five years I have wished that such a thing were 
possible and believed that it could not be done in this country." 

"It is so refreshing to have the truth told without apologizing for it in 
some way." 

"I especially commend the omission of the names of the authors, since 
it forces the reader to judge the article by its worth, and not by the reputa- 
tion of the writer." 

"You are attacking in a systematic manner, the superstitions and hypoc- 
risies that I have been fighting, in my own poor way for 30 years." 

"Never before have I seen so many stimulating, sound, and suggestive 
articles gathered together by a single editor." 

"The best brain food I have had the pleasure of reading." 

"Delicious! I want to lend it to everybody at once." 

"Keep up the good work. . . . We would all be much better off" if 
we could learn to face the disagreeable truth." 

"My feeling for The Unpopular Review is something more than 
appreciation: it is pride." 

"All would-be and so-called reformers should be required by the board 
of public safety to take a course of reading in The Unpopular Review." 

"The Review certainly contains the greatest amount of clear, logical 
writing that was ever published within such covers." 

"It is like a breath of fresh air in a fog of sentimentalism." 

75 cents a number, $2.50 a year. Bound volumes $2. each, two a year. (Canadian #2.65, 
Foreign $2.75.) For the present, subscribers can have any back number or numbers addi- 
tional to those subscribed for in advance, for 50 cents each (plus 4 cents postage to Canada, 
7 cents Foreign countries) the whole amount to be paid direct to the publishers at the time of the 
subscription. 



Address THE UNPOPULAR REVIEW »^2?^JS£^g'?K^SrT 

LONDON : WILLIAMS AND NORGATE 

Readers interested in promoting the work The Review attempts, can do so by sending 
to the publishers names and addresses of persons likely to be interested in it. 



The Unpopular Review 



THE FUNDAMENTAL OBJECT OF THIS .REVIEW IS THE "UPLIFT" 
OF THE LESS FORTUNATE PORTION OF MANKIND BY OPPOS- 
ING THE CRAZES WHICH, UNDER THAT MISUSED NAME, m y » 
SO EFFECTIVELY DELAY THE PROCESS. 

Street 

Philadelphia, Pa. Dec. 9, 1915. 

EDITOR UNPOPULAR REVIEW, 
Sir: 

Please find check enclosed for renewal of my subscription. I wish also to 
tell you how I enjoy reading the review. My work as an alienist compels 
me to live a large part of the time in an atmosphere of moral filth and men- 
tal perversity but I am sometimes inclined to believe that my patients are 
saner and better than the world at large. At all events it does me much 
good and heartens me to read the sane, clear, wholesome matter of your 
journal. I need say nothing in its praise as to mere literary merit — that 
goes without saying. Your journal is a power for sanity in a mad, hysteric, 
and neurotic world, a country ruled by its emotions and worshipping at 
the shrine of rhetoric. 

Yours sincerely 



Contents January 'March, 1916 

The Singing Man with the Hoe Your Blood and Mine 

Rear-Rank Reflections On the Distaff Side 

The Nine Sons of Satan Tinkering the Constitution 

What is Nationality? These Reformers 

If I Were a College President The Case for the Literacy Test 

Efficient Democracy Patience Worth 
The Way of the Translator 

En Casserole: Who Wrote "An Ancient Conflict"? — Some More to 
Contributors — As to the Grouch — The Hard Path of the Reformer — 
Preparedness — Votes for Women — Another Amende — The Table of 
Dives — As to Contentment — What Will Money Be Worth After the 
War? — On Disappointing the Family. 

75 c. a number $ 2.50 a year 4 numbers 

A specimen copy sent subject to return or payment 

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 34 "KWy? 1 " 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 67 



Immigration Figures for 1916 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 191 5 and 1916 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals: 1915 1916 

Total 434*244 366,748 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 326,700 298,826 

Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 107,544 129,765 
Debarred from entrance and returned within 

three years after landing .... 26,675 21,648 

Per cent of total arrivals debarred . 6.1 5.9 

Departures : 

Total 384,174 240,807 

Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . . . 204,074 129,765 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . . 180,100 111,042 

Net addition to population [See Note 2] . . 50,070 125,941 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 122,626 169,061 
Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe . 157,951 139,186 

Per cent 48.4 46.6 

Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 
ern and Eastern Europe .... 130,043 115,162 

Per cent 39.7 38.5 

Asiatic 13*073 12,076 

Per cent 4.0 4.4 

Average money brought in dollars . . 59.89 64.84 
Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 

- vants 34.5 37.3 

Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa 50.9 46.9 

Per cent destined for the sixteen States east 

of the Mississippi River and north of the 

Potomac and Ohio Rivers . . . 70.6 70.2 
Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 28.8 28.5 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands . . 0.6 1.3 



Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age: 1915 1916 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . . 35,449 4<>,445 

Per cent of illiterates 12.9 12.1 

Per cent bring no money [See Note 4] . 16.2 15.9 

Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . . . 30.3 20.8 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4], 23.4 22.9 

Appeals and admissions on bond: 

Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . . 6,012 7,036 

Per cent admitted on bond . . . • . 12.7 13.2 

Per cent admitted without bond . . . 18.6 19.3 

Per cent debarred 68.7 67.5 

Aliens certified as physically or mentally defective : 

Total certified 14,178 

Admitted 9,792 

Per cent . . . . . 69.1 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the 
United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — It should be remembered that the figures of illiteracy are based upon 
the manifests, which in turn are made up from the statements of the immigrants. The 
recent agitation for an educational test for immigrants has undoubtedly made the 
latter more disposed to assert their ability to read and write. 

NOTE 4. — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 



English . 
South Italian 
Mexican . 
Scandinavian 
Hebrew 



1915 

61,329 

53,719 
18,462 

35,442 

28,155 



1916 
50,950 
36,470 
25,l6l 

24,131 
23,333 



REMARKS 

The total immigration in 1916 was somewhat less than in 1915; but 
the net addition to population was more than twice as large. The total 
immigration from Oct. 1, 1819, to June 30, 1916, was 32,652,950 (all aliens 
to 1904 inclusive, and "immigrant aliens" since). 

The effect of the war was continued in the relative proportion of Teutonic 
and Keltic as compared with Slavic and Iberic immigrants; in a diminish- 
ing proportion of illiterates, of those with no money, of assisted aliens, 
and of those with no occupation; and in the larger average amount of 
money brought. 

The Burnett immigration bill (H. R. 10384) after having been 
vetoed twice by President Wilson, was passed over his veto and 
became law on Feb. 5, 1917. It goes into effect May 1, 1917, except 
the reading test, which takes effect May 5, 1917. The final vote in the 
Senate to pass over the veto was the 3 2d vote in one house or the other in 
favor of the reading test since May 20, 1896. Besides the reading test, 
this act contains numerous provisions improving medical inspection, 
further fining steamships for bringing improper persons, and extending 
the period within which certain classes of objectionable aliens may be 
deported from three years to five years. 

The medical provisions of this law will have a permanent effect in 
shutting out some classes of undesirables; and, if vigorously enforced, 
will accomplish much good. The reading test, on the other hand, will 
after a time lose its effect as a restrictive measure; because, first, the steam- 
ship companies will seek aliens who can read, and, second, various foreign 
countries are already establishing schools for intending emigrants. This 
last-mentioned result of the law will be of great benefit to the relatively 
backward countries of Europe. 

Inasmuch as the reading test, though always improving the quality 
of immigration, will gradually lose its power as a restrictive agency, 
the Immigration Restriction League is preparing a bill designed to ac- 
complish some permanent restriction. This bill will probably take 
the form of a limitation of immigration in any year from any country to a 
certain percentage of natives of such country naturalized here. It will 
probably include a sliding scale between certain limits, the exact percent- 
ages to be determined each year by the Department of Labor with refer- 
ence to labor conditions in this country and the preservation of the 
American standards of living and wages. Such a bill will leave Chinese 
and Japanese immigration to be governed by the present laws and 
agreements. 



In view of the passage of the reading-test provision and the fact that 
the immigration of this year, as of last, was very abnormal in the composi- 
tion of its racial elements, the illiteracy tables for the various races are 
omitted from this publication. 

For other publications, address the Immigration Restriction League, 
11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. The last annual report of the Com- 
missioner General of Immigration, and a pamphlet containing the latest 
laws and regulations, can be obtained by addressing the Immigration 
Bureau, Washington, D.C. 

For general information on immigration, see Prescott F. Hall, Immigra- 
tion and its Effects upon the United States (New York, Holt, 2d Ed., 1908). 
Henry P. Fairchild, Immigration (New York, Macmillan, 1913). Edward 
A. Ross, The Old World in the New (New York, Century Co., 1914). F. J. 
Warne, The Tide of Immigration (New York, Appleton, 1916). 



2MD— 317E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAG UE No. 68 

Immigration Figures for 1917 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1916 and 191 7 



{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals : 
Total 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 
Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 
Debarred from entrance and returned within 

three years after landing . * . 
Per cent of total arrivals debarred 

Departures : 

Total 

Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 
Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] 

Net addition to population [See Note 2] 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 
Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe 

Per cent 

Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South 

ern and Eastern Europe . 

Per cent 

Asiatic 

Per cent 

Average money brought in dollars 
Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 
vants 

Per cent destined for the four States of 111 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa. ... 
Per cent destined for the sixteen States east 

of the Mississippi River and north of the 

Potomac and Ohio Rivers 
Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands 

Immigrant aliens over 14 years of age : 
Number of illiterates [See Note 3] 

Per cent of illiterates 

Per cent bring no money [See Note 4] 



1916 

366,748 
298,826 
129,765 

21,648 
5.9 

240,807 
129,765 
111,042 



139,186 
46.6 

115,162 

38.5 
12,076 
4.4 

64.84 

37-3 
46.9 



70.2 
28.5 
1.3 

40,445 
12. 1 

15.9 



1917 

362,887 
295)403 
67,474 

17,635 
4.9 

146,379 
66,277 
80,102 



125,941 216,498 



169,061 229,126 



132,157 
44-7 

113,737 

38.5 
12,156 

4.3 
71.53 

35.6 

47.2 

72.4 
26.0 
1.6 

35,5io 
14.3 
15.9 





1916 


1917 


Per cent of "assisted" whose passage was 






paid for by others [See Note 4] . 


20.8 


25.4 


Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4], 


22.9 


22.9 


^l.ppcd.Io clllU. <Aa_1111J.oo1U.LJLS Ull UU11LI . 






Total appeals to Secretary of Labor 


7>036 


5,262 


Per cent admitted on bond .... 


13.2 


16,8 


Per cent admitted without bond . 


19-3 


27,7 


Per cent debarred 


67-5 


54*o 


Aliens certified as physically or mentally defective : 






Total certified 


14,178 


15,551 


Admitted . 


9,792 


11,106 


Per cent 


69.1 


71.4 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the United 
States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3— The Burnett bill (Public Acts, 64th Cong., No. 301), which excluded 
illiterate aliens over sixteen years of age with certain exceptions, went into effect as 
regards illiteracy on May 5, 1917. Consequently less than two months of the year 
covered by the figures were under the operation of the Burnett bill. In May and June, 
391 were deported as illiterates. 

NOTE 4- — These figures are obtained by assuming that the immigrant aliens 
under 14 years of age brought no money, had no occupation, and did not pay their 
own passage. 

Largest Elements in Recent Immigration. 

1916 



English 5<>»95o 

South Italian 36,470 

Mexican 25,161 

Scandinavian 24,131 

Hebrew 23,333 



1917 



South Italian 35>i54 

English ' . . 32,246 

Greek 25,919 

French 24,405 

Scandinavian I9>596 



Remarks 

The total immigration in 1917 was about the same as in 1916; but 
the net addition to population was almost twice as large, and was four 
times the net addition of 1915. 

Under the Act of Feb. 5, 1917, the reading test was in operation for 
less than two months of the year reported on. During this period 391 
aliens were debarred for illiteracy. Section 9 of the Act levies a fine of 
$200 on the steamship company for each illiterate brought, when such 
illiteracy could have been detected by the exercise of reasonable pre- 
caution. Fines were imposed in 276 cases, of which only 8 were at the 
port of New York. The difference between fines and deportations was 
due to a compromise in the case of certain ships delayed by weather con- 
ditions. 

Other fines imposed were as follows : 



Number Number 

Cause debarred of Fines 

Idiocy 9 1 

Imbecility 19 2 

Dangerous Contagious Disease . 1,495 76 



Total 1,523 79 



From the foregoing it will be seen that the administrative fine pro- 
visions of the law are not being used as effectively as they might be, for 
it is inconceivable that the diseases could have been discovered by reason- 
able diligence on the part of the transportation companies in only 79 out 
of 1,523 cases. 

The Commissioner-General has this to say about the new law: 

"The new law is, in most if not all respects, an eminently satisfactory 
piece of legislation; it is going to be of great benefit to the country. . . . 

" There had been a quite general impression that the [reading] test 
would be difficult of application. The bureau has been agreeably sur- 
prised to find in the drafting of the regulations that methods of applying 
the test to concrete cases could be devised that are comparatively simple 
[and] that give promise of expedition in practice. . . . 



"The geographical excluding clause ... is, in the bureau's judgment, 
the most far-reaching and most beneficial provision of . . . the Act. . . . 
It recognizes the impossibility that this country shall ever consent to the 
settlement here of thousands of orientals who inherently . . . are inca- 
pable of assimilation into the body politic of a nation the population of 
which is of occidental origin. . . . The new provision has settled the Hindu 
immigration problem, which a few years ago threatened to be one of the 
most distressing phases of immigration. ..." 

There is considerable agitation at the present time to suspend the 
Chinese Exclusion Acts and to import coolies for agricultural purposes 
during the war. This should not be done unless it is found absolutely 
necessary. It is with the greatest difficulty that, under the present 
laws, the smuggling of Chinese can be detected and the coolies deported. 
Even with complete photographic registration of all coolies now in the 
country, it would probably be impossible to send back all of any large 
number imported, while any children born here would be American 
citizens. There is the further danger that pressure would be exerted by 
large employers of cheap labor to continue the practice of importation 
after the war. Furthermore, the suspension of the Chinese acts would 
be likely to have an effect upon the gentleman's agreement with Japan. 
We have already seen the danger in war time of the presence of large 
numbers of aliens not in sympathy with the aims of this country. To 
further increase this number would be to add a political to an economic 
danger. 

The League's bill restricting immigration by a numerical test will 
shortly be introduced into Congress. This limits immigration from any 
country during any year to 50 per cent, of natives of such country natural- 
ized here at the time of the last census. It would not reduce immigration 
from Northwestern Europe, but would considerably reduce that from 
Southeastern Europe. It is not intended to alter the status of oriental 
immigration. 

For other publications, address the Immigration Restriction League, 
11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. The last annual report of the Com- 
missioner-General of Immigration, and a pamphlet containing the latest 
laws and regulations, can be obtained by addressing the Immigration 
Bureau, Washington, D.C. 

For general information on immigration, see Prescott F. Hall, Immigra- 
tion and its Effects upon the United States (New York, Holt, 2d Ed., 1908). 
Henry P. Fairchild, Immigration (New York, Macmillan, 1913). Edward 
A. Ross, The Old World in the New (New York, Century Co., 1914). F. J. 
Warne, The Tide of Immigration (New York, Appleton, 1916). 

2M— USE 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 69 



The League's Numerical Limitation Bill. 



On April 8, the League's bill for the further restriction of immigration 
by means of a numerical limitation was introduced into Congress as 
H. R. 11280. The text of the bill is given below. 

This bill has two objects. First, to be ready to meet a possible large 
immigration of inferior quality after the war; and second, to provide 
adequate restriction after the protective effect of the reading test pro- 
vision of the Act of Feb. 5, 1917 shall have passed away, owing to the 
spread of elementary education in the backward countries of Europe and 
western Asia. 

The effect of the bill will be similar to that of the reading test, in that 
it will discriminate in favor of immigrants from Northern and Western 
Europe, thus securing for this country aliens of kindred and homogeneous 
racial stocks. It provides that immigration from any country shall not 
exceed in any year from 20 to 50 per cent, of the number of naturalized 
males from such country at the time of the last preceding census; the 
exact percentage to be determined by the Secretary of Labor, in April 
of each year, with reference to labor conditions then prevailing. In a 
year of normally large immigration, like 1914, if we assume the maximum 
percentage of 50 to be used, the effect of the bill would have been as 
follows : — 



It will be noticed that, even if the minimum percentage in the bill 
be used instead of the maximum, this would still have allowed 436,200 
immigrants from Northern and Western Europe in 1914, or about two and 
one-half times the number who actually sought admission. 



Actually 
admitted 



Admissible 
under bill 



Northern and Western Europe . 
Southern and Eastern Europe . 



189,177 
945,288 



1,090,500 
279,288 



1 



Text of the League's Numerical Bill. 

H. R. 11280. 

65th Congress, 2d Session. 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 
APRIL 8, 1918. 

A BILL 

To regulate the immigration of aliens to the United States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That section three of the Act of 
February fifth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, entitled "An Act to 
regulate the immigration of aliens to, and the residence of aliens in, the 
United States," is hereby amended by adding at the end thereof the fol- 
lowing : 

"Provided further, That the number of aliens of any nationality who may 
be admitted to the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto 
Rico, in any fiscal year, shall be limited to such percentage not less than 
twenty nor more than fifty of the number of males of such nationality 
twenty-one years of age and over naturalized and resident in the United 
States, at the time of the United States census next preceding as the Sec- 
retary of Labor shall determine as hereinafter provided. This provision, 
hereinafter called the per centum limit, shall not apply to aliens in con- 
tinuous transit through the United States, nor to aliens who have been 
lawfully admitted to the United States and who later shall go in transit 
from one part of the United States to another through foreign contiguous 
territory, nor to aliens visiting the United States as tourists or tempo- 
rarily for business or pleasure, nor to aliens who are natives of countries of 
the Western Hemisphere. For the purposes of this provision nationality 
shall be determined by country of birth. 

"The Secretary of Labor shall in April of each year determine the 
per centum limit, within the limits hereinbefore specified for the follow- 
ing fiscal year, having regard to the labor conditions in the United States 
and the maintenance of the American standards of living and wages; 
and shall make such regulations as shall prevent congestion of immi- 
gration at any period of the year, promote the convenience of the trans- 
portation companies, and avoid hardships to the immigrants. The 
Commissioner General of Immigration shall issue a monthly statement 
showing the maximum number of aliens of each nationality who may be 
admitted to the United States during the current fiscal year, together with 
the number already admitted, but when seventy-five per centum of such 
maximum number of aliens of any nationality have been admitted, like 
statements relative to such nationality shall be issued weekly thereafter. 
When the maximum number of aliens of any nationality shall have been 



2 



admitted, all other aliens of such nationality who may apply for admis- 
sion during the same fiscal year shall be excluded, except that aliens 
returning from a temporary visit abroad, any alien coming to join a hus- 
band, wife, father, mother, son, daughter, aliens who are ministers or 
religious teachers, lawyers, physicians, chemists, engineers, teachers, 
students, authors, journalists, merchants, bankers, capitalists, professional 
artists, lecturers, singers, or actors, and aliens employed strictly as per- 
sonal or domestic servants by admissible persons traveling to the United 
States may be admitted, notwithstanding that the maximum number of 
aliens of like nationality admissible in the same fiscal year shall have 
entered the United States. 

"The accredited officials of foreign governments, their suites, members 
of their families, or guests, shall not be considered in fixing the percentage 
of those that may be admitted under the provisions of this Act." 

Sec. 2. That this Act shall not be construed as amending, repeal- 
ing, or modifying any law or agreement now existing which forbids the 
admission of any aliens of any nationality or by any geographical boun- 
dary. Nor shall it be construed to admit any of the individuals or classes 
now excluded by said section three of the Act of February fifth, nineteen 
hundred and seventeen, hereinabove referred to. 

Oriental Immigration. 

The bill leaves the status of Oriental immigration precisely as at 
present; Chinese immigration being limited by the Chinese Exclusion 
Acts, Japanese by the " Gentlemen's Agreement " and the Act of Feb. 5, 
1917, and Hindu by the geographical limitations of the same Act. 

It may be noted that Canada regulates the immigration of Orientals 
very strictly. Japanese: Immigration of the coolie class is limited to 
between four hundred and five hundred annually, by an agreement with 
the Japanese Government. The total of Japanese coming in 1917 was 
648, as compared with 8,925 coming to the United States. Chinese: 
There is a tax of $500 per head, with a limitation of one person for every 
fifty tons of tonnage of vessels, and severe penalties for landing immi- 
grants unlawfully. The total number of Chinese arriving in 1917 was 393 
as compared with 1,843 coming to the United States. Hindus: There 
are no special regulations as to Hindu immigration, but in practice it is 
limited by two orders in council. One of these excludes aliens who come 
otherwise than by continuous journey from the country of which they 
are citizens, and on tickets purchased there. (There are no direct steam- 
ship fines between India and Canada.) The other requires every alien 
of an Asiatic race to be in possession of $200. No Hindus came to Canada 
in 1917, as compared with 69 coming to the United States. 



3 



As we are frequently asked for references on Oriental immigration, 
we take this opportunity to mention a few. The Library of Congress 
issues a Bibliography of References on Chinese Immigration for free distribu- 
tion. A pamphlet containing the text of the Chinese Exclusion Acts 
and the regulations under them can be obtained by addressing the Immi- 
gration Bureau, Washington, D.C. Upholding the position of the League, 
that Oriental immigration should be regulated as at present, see Monta- 
ville Flowers, Japanese Conquest of American Opinion (New York, G. H. 
Doran Co., 1917); and Thomas F. Millard, Our Eastern Question (New 
York, Century Co., 1916). For the view that Oriental immigration 
should be put upon the same basis as other immigration, see Sidney L. 
Gulick, The American Japanese Problem (New York, Scribner's, 1914); 
and K. K. Kawakami, Japan in World Politics (New York, Macmillan, 
1917). 

For general information on immigration, see Prescott F. Hall, Immigra- 
tion and Its Effects upon the United Stales (New York, Holt, 2d ed., 1908); 
Henry P. Fairchild, Immigration (New York, Macmillan, 1913); Edward 
A. Ross, The Old World in the New (New York, Century Co., 1914); F. 
J. Warne, The Tide of Immigration (New York, Appleton, 1916). 

For other publications of this League, address the Immigration 
Restriction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. From the Immi- 
gration Bureau, Washington, D.C, can be obtained a pamphlet con- 
taining the immigration laws and regulations, the last Annual Report 
of the Commissioner General of Immigration, and the last number of the 
U.S. Immigration Service Bulletin, issued monthly, and containing current 
figures. The issues containing the figures for June and December have 
more ample information and more tables than the intermediate numbers. 

This League is a non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, with 
members from all parts of the United States. Annual membership, one 
dollar a year; life membership, ten dollars in one payment with no annual 
dues. For membership address the League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, 
Mass. 



2MD— 518E. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 70 



Immigration Figures for 1918 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 191 7 and 1 91 8 

{From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Arrivals: 1917 1918 

Total 362,887 211,853 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 295,403 110,618 

Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 1] 67,474 101,235 
Debarred from entrance and returned within 

three years after landing .... 17*635 8,866 

Per cent of total arrivals debarred 4.9 4.2 

Departures : 

Total 146,379 193,268 

Emigrant aliens [See Note 1] ... 66,277 94,585 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 1] . 80,102 98,683 

Net addition to population [See Note 2] . 216,498 18,585 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 229,126 16,033 
Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe 132,157 45,907 

Per cent 44.7 41.5 

Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 
ern and Eastern Europe .... H3,737 24,521 

Percent 38.5 22.2 

Asiatic 12,156 12,756 

Per cent 4.3 n.g 

Average money brought in dollars . . 7i»53 81.03 
Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 
vants 35.6 24.4 

Per cent destined for the four States of 111., 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa. .... 47.2 39.1 
Per cent destined for the sixteen States east 
of the Mississippi River and north of the 

Potomac and Ohio Rivers ... 72.4 56.1 
Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 26.0 40.6 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

Alaska, and Philippine Islands . . 1.6 3.3 



Immigrant aliens over 16 years of age: 1917 1918 

Total number 89,269 

Number of illiterates [See Note 3] . 35,5 10 3,772 

Going to join relatives .... 3,346 

Fleeing from religious persecution . 3 

Physically defective .... 2 

Exempt for other causes ... 161 

Debarred 1,598 

Deported within 5 years after entry 67 

Per cent bringing no money [See Note 4] . 15.9 4.2 
Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 

paid for by others [See Note 4] . . . 25.4 28.3 

Per cent having no occupation [See Note 4], 22.9 26.4 

Appeals and admissions on bond : 

Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . 5,262 6,173 

Per cent admitted on bond .... 16.8 9.1 

Per cent admitted without bond . 27.7 20.3 

Per cent debarred 54.0 70.3 

Aliens certified as physically or mentally defective : 

Total certified 15,551 6,153 

Admitted 11,106 4,558 

Per cent 71.4 74.1 



NOTE 1. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. 

Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has been in the United 
States who intend to reside permanently abroad. 

Non-immigrant aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the 
United States. 

Non-emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip 
abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 2. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 3. — The Act of Feb. 5, 1917, excluded illiterates over 16 years of age with 
certain exceptions. The number of illiterates given above for 1917 represents those 
over 14 years of age, the tabulation for 1918 having been changed to conform to the 
new law. 

NOTE 4. — These figures are obtained by assuming that immigrant aliens under 16 
years of age brought no money, had no occupation and did not pay their own passage. 
The figures given for 1917 are on the same basis for those under 14 years of age. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1916 

English 50,95° 

South Italian . 36,470 

Mexican 25,161 

Scandinavian 24,131 

Hebrew 23,333 

1917 

South Italian 35>i54 

English 32,246 

Greek 25,919 

French 24,405 

Scandinavian 19,59^ 

1918 

Mexican 17,602 

English 12,980 

Japanese 10,168 

Scandinavian 8,741 

Spanish 7>9°9 



Causes of Debarment 1918. 

Likely to become a public charge 2,836 

Unable to read 1,598 

Physically diseased 496 

Mentally diseased 143 

Physically or mentally defective 315 954 

Criminals 160 

Immoral 249 409 

Contract laborers 474 



Remarks. 

The war caused a still further falling off in the total immigration, and 
reduced the net addition to population almost to nothing. The best au- 
thorities are of the opinion that there will be a large increase in immigra- 
tion in the next few years, and probably of the less desirable races. In 
view of this probability, bills have been introduced providing for a numeri- 
cal limitation (H. R. 11280, see Publication of this League No. 69), and 



for a four-year total exclusion, followed by the same numerical limitation 
(H. R. 14163). At the present writing, it seems likely that the exclusion 
provision alone will be reported, leaving the numerical limitation for 
future action. 



Administrative fines were assessed in 337 cases, amounting to $63,515, 
as compared with $66,740 in 1917 on a much larger volume of immigra- 
tion. Of the fines in 1918, 192 cases, amounting to $38,400, were for 
bringing illiterate aliens. Fines were imposed in only 192 cases out of 
1,598 illiterates debarred. 



It will be noted that the racial composition of last year's immigration 
was quite unusual, in respect to the relatively large numbers of Mexicans 
and Japanese. Agricultural and railroad work in the Southwest accounts 
for the increase in Mexican immigration, the reading test and contract' 
labor provisions of the law having been suspended to allow the temporary 
admission of laborers. Japanese immigration was less last year than in 
1917. 



In addition to the literature mentioned in Pub. 69, we would recom- 
mend The Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant (New York, Scrib- 
ners, 2d ed., 1917), which throws much light on the more fundamental 
questions of migration; and The Immigration Problem by J. W. Jenks 
and W. J. Lauck (New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 4th ed., 1917), which 
contains rnanj' valuable statistics. 



For other publications of this League, address the Immigration Re- 
striction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. From the Immigra- 
tion Bureau, Washington, D.C., can be obtained a pamphlet containing 
the immigration laws and regulations, the last Annual Report of the 
Commissioner General of Immigration, and the last number of the U.S. 
Immigration Service Bulletin, issued monthly, and containing current 
figures. The issues containing the figures for June and December have 
more ample information and more tables than the intermediate numbers. 

This League is a non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, with 
members from all parts of the United States. Annual membership, one 
dollar a year; fife membership, ten dollars in one payment with no annual 
dues. For membership address the League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, 
Mass. 

2MD — 119 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 71 

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION 

AND WORLD EUGENICS 

Prescott F. Hall 

(Reprinted from the Journal of Heredity (Organ of the American Genetic 
Association), Vol. X, No. 3, Washington, D.C., March, 1919.) 



There is one aspect of immigration restriction in the various coun- 
tries which does not often receive much attention, namely, the possi- 
bility of its use as a method of world eugenics. Most persons think 
of migration in terms of space, — as the moving of a certain number 
of people from one part of the earth's surface to another. Whereas 
the much more important aspect Of it is that of a functioning in 
time. 

This comes from two facts. The first is that the vacuum left in 
any country by emigration is rapidly filled up through a rise in the 
birth rate. There are more people in England to-day than in the 
time of Elizabeth, in spite of the enormous emigration from that 
country to all parts of the world ; and there are just as many sparrows 
in England to-day, in spite of the unfortunate spread of those birds 
in the United States. The vacuum is chiefly filled by the breeding of 
the lower classes. Thus, according to Professor Pearson, more than 
one-half the births in England are now from the lowest one-sixth 
of the population. In Italy, a similar condition fills the vacuum 
left by the very large emigration from there to North and South 
America. 

The second fact is that immigration to any country of a given 
stratum of population tends to sterilize all strata of higher social 
and economic levels already in that country. So true is this that 
nearly all students of the matter are agreed that the United States 
would have a larger population to-day if there had been no immigra- 
tion since 1820, and, it is needless to add, a much more homogeneous 
population. As long as the people of any community are relatively 
homogeneous, what differences of wealth and social position there 
may be do not affect the birth rate, or do so only after a considerable 



time. But put into that community a number of immigrants, inferior 
mentally, socially, and economically, and the natives are unwilling 
to have their children associate with them in work or social life. They 
then limit the number of their children in order to give them the 
capital or education to enter occupations in which they will not be 
brought into contact with the new arrivals. This result is quite 
apparent in New England, where successive waves of immigration 
from lower and lower levels have been coming in for eighty years. 
In the West, the same New England stock has a much higher birth 
rate, showing that its fertility has in no way diminished. In the South, 
where until very recently there was no immigration at all, and the 
only socially inferior race was clearly separated by the accident of 
color, the birth rate has remained very high, and the very large 
families of the colonial period are even now not uncommon. 

This is not to say that other causes do not contribute to lower the 
birth rate of a country, for that is an almost world-wide phenomenon. 
But the desire to be separated from inferiors is as strong a motive 
to birth control as the desire for luxury or to ape one's economic 
superiors. Races follow Gresham's law as to money; the poorer of 
two kinds in the same place tends to supplant the better. Mark you, 
supplant, not drive out. One of the most common fallacies is the 
idea that the natives whose places are taken by lower immigration are 
"driven up" to more responsible positions. A few may be pushed 
up; more are driven to a new locality, as happened in the mining 
regions; but most are prevented from coming into existence at all. 

What is the result, then, of the migration of a million persons of 
lower level into a country where the average is of a higher level? 
Considering the world as a whole, there are, after a few years, two 
million persons of the lower type in the world, and probably from 
half a million to a million less of the higher type. The proportion of 
lower to higher in the country from which the migration goes may 
remain the same; but in the country receiving it, it has risen. Is the 
world as a whole the gainer ? 

Of course, the euthenist says at once that these immigrants are 
improved. We may grant that, although the improvement is probably 
much exaggerated. You cannot make bad stock into good by chang- 
ing its meridian, any more than you can turn a cart horse into a 
hunter by putting it into a fine stable, or make a mongrel into a fine 
dog by teaching it tricks. But such improvement as there is involves 
time, expense, and trouble; and, when' it is done, has anything been 
gained? Will any one say that the races that have supplanted the 
old Nordic stock in New England are any better, or as good, as the 



descendants of that stock would have been if their birth rate had 
not been lowered? 

Further, in addition to the purely biological aspects of the matter, 
there are certain psychological ones. Although a cosmopolitan atmos- 
phere furnishes a certain freedom in which strong congenital talents 
can develop, it is a question whether as many are not injured as helped 
by this. Indeed, there is considerable evidence to show that for the 
production of great men, a certain homogeneity of environment is 
necessary. The reason of this is very simple. In a homogeneous com- 
munity, opinions on a large number of matters are fixed. The indi- 
vidual does not have to attend to such things, but is free to go ahead 
on some special line of his own, to concentrate to his limit on his 
work, even though that work be fighting the common opinions. But 
in a community of many races, there is either cross-breeding or there 
is not. If there is, the children of such cross-breeding are liable to 
inherit two souls, two temperaments, two sets of opinions, with the 
result in many cases that they are unable to think or act strongly 
and consistently in any direction. The classic examples are Cuba, 
Mexico and Brazil. On the other hand, if there is no cross-breeding, 
the diversity exists in the original races, and in a community full of 
diverse ideals of all kinds much of the energy of the higher type of 
man is dissipated, and in two ways. First, in the intellectual field 
there is much more doubt about everything, and he tends to weigh, 
discuss, and agitate many more subjects, in order to arrive at a 
conclusion amid the opposing views. Second, in practical affairs, much 
time and strength have to be devoted to keeping things going along 
the old lines, which could have been spent in new research and de- 
velopment. In how many of our large cities to-day are men of the 
highest type spending their whole time fighting, often in vain, to 
maintain standards of honesty, decency, and order, and in trying to 
compose the various ethnic elements, who should be free to build new 
structures upon the old! 

The moral seems to be this : Eugenics among individuals is en- 
couraging the propagation of the fit, and limiting or preventing the 
multiplication of the unfit. World eugenics is doing precisely the 
same thing as to races considered as wholes. Immigration restriction 
is a species of segregation on a large scale, by which inferior stocks 
can be prevented from both diluting and supplanting good stocks. 
Just as we isolate bacterial invasions, and starve out the bacteria by 
limiting the area and amount of their food supply, so we can compel 
an inferior race to remain in its native habitat, where its own multipli- 
cation in a limited area will, as with all organisms, eventually limit 



its numbers and therefore its influence. On the other hand, the su- 
perior races, more self-limiting than the others, with the benefits of 
more space and nourishment will tend to still higher levels. 

This result is not merely a selfish benefit to the higher races, but 
a good to the world as a whole. The object is to produce the greatest 
number of those fittest not "for survival" merely, but fittest for all 
purposes. The lower types among men progress, so far as their racial 
inheritance allows them to, chiefly by imitation and emulation. The 
presence of the highest development and the highest institutions among 
any race is a distinct benefit to all the others. It is a gift of psycho- 
logical environment to any one capable of appreciation. 

It is important, therefore, that nothing in the constitution of 
the League of Nations should limit the right of any nation to decide 
who shall be admitted into its life; for, as Le Bon says, a preponder- 
ance of foreign elements destroys the most precious thing it possesses 
— its own soul. 



2 MD — 919 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 72 

Immigration Figures for 1919 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1 91 8 and 1 91 9 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Total immigration 1820-1919 [See Note 1] .... 33,200,103 

Arrivals: 1918 1919 

Total 211,853 237,021 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 2] . . 110,618 141,132 

Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 2] . . 101,235 95,889 
Debarred from entrance and returned after 

landing 8,866 11,694 

Per cent of total arrivals debarred . . 3.5 3.6 

Debarred and returned .... 4.2 4.9 

Departures : 

Total 193,268 216,231 

Emigrant aliens '[See Note 2] ... 94>585 123,522 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 2] . . 98,683 92,709 

Net addition to population [See Note 3] . . 18,585 20,790 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 16,033 17,610 
Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe . . 45>907 73>5n 

Per cent 41.5 52.1 

Slavic and Iberic races, chiefly from South- 
ern and Eastern Europe .... 24,521 14,788 

Per cent 22.2 10.5 

Asiatic 12,756 12,512 

Per cent 11.5 8.9 

Average money brought in dollars . . 81.03 1 12.17 
Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 
vants 24.4 20.5 

Per cent destined lor the four States of 111., 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa. .... 39.1 48.1 
Per cent destined for the sixteen States east 
of the Mississippi River and north of the 

Potomac and Ohio Rivers . . . 56.1 51.7 
Per cent destined for other (Southern and 

Western) States 40.6 46.1 

Per cent destined for Hawaii, Porto Rico, 



Alaska, and Philippine Islands . . 3.3 2.2 



Immigrant aliens over 16 years of age: 


1918 


1919 


Total number 


89,269 


H4,759 


Number of illiterates [See Note 4] 


3,772 


3,270 


Going to join relatives .... 


3,346 


2,684 


Fleeing from religious persecution 


3 


2 


Exempt for other causes 


161 


141 


-L y y J ci. l -L \A. ...... 


t enR 

•hoy 


T ACC 


Deported within 5 years after entry . 


67 


466 


Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 






paid for by others [See Note 5] . 


28.3 


39-3 


Per cent having no occupation [See Note 5], 


26.4 


27.8 


Appeals and admissions on bond: 






Total appeals to Secretary of Labor . 


6,173 


4,140 


Per cent admitted on bond .... 


9.1 


5.6 


Per cent admitted without bond . 


20.3 


18.8 


Per cent debarred 


70.3 


75-6 


Aliens certified as physically or mentally defective : 






Total certified 


6,153 


6,060 


Admitted 


4,558 


4,487 


Per cent 


74.I 


76.0 



NOTE 1. — This includes all alien arrivals to 1905 inclusive and " immigrant aliens" 
since then. 

NOTE 2. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has 
been in the United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. Non-immigrant 
aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the United States. Non- 
emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 3. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and " non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 4— The Act of Feb. 5, 1917, excluded illiterates over 16 years of age with 
certain exceptions. The number of illiterates in 1917, over 14 years of age, was 35,510. 



NOTE 5. — These figures are obtained by assuming that immigrant aliens under 16 
years of age had no occupation and did not pay their own passage. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1918 

Mexican ' 17,602 

English 12,980 

Japanese 10,168 

Scandinavian 8,741 

Spanish 7»909 

1919 

Mexican 28,884 

English 26,889 

French 12,598 

Scotch 10,364 

Japanese 10,056 

Principal Causes of Debarment 

1918 1919 

Likely to become a public charge . 2,836 3>994 

Unable to read .... i>598 I A55 
Physically diseased .... 496 . 388 
Mentally diseased .... 143 141 

Physically or mentally defective . 315 954 343 872 

Criminals 160 261 

Immoral 249 409 135 396 

Contract laborers .... 474 774 

Total debarred 7>297 8,626 



Remarks 

The effect of the war on immigration is beginning to pass away. 
Although the total arrivals in 1919 were less than in 1917, at the date of 
going to press immigration has increased rapidly; and this in spite of the 
fact that the war passport regulations have been extended by Congress 
indefinitely, both as a protection against undesirable aliens and to allow 
time for more adequate legislation of a permanent character. The League's 
bill has been introduced into the House (H. R. 10837). 



As was the case last year, a large number of Mexicans have been 
admitted for temporary agricultural work; and this fact, together with 



the Japanese immigration, accounts for the relatively large number going 
to the Southern and Western States. 



The percentage of aliens certified as mentally and physically defective 
who were allowed to land has steadily increased: being 71.4 in 1917; 
74.1 in 1918; and 76.0 in 1919. 



Although the total of debarred was 1,329 greater this year than last, 
the administrative fines imposed were only $58,055 as compared with 
$63,515 last year; and of this $58,055, the sum of $32,830 was for failure 
to furnish information, leaving only $25,225 as fines for bringing 8,626 
debarred persons (the fine in most cases being $200). Fines for bringing 
illiterates were imposed in only 62 out of 1,455 cases; and for bringing men- 
tally or physically diseased or defective persons in only 43 out of 872 
cases. The law does not impose fines on the transportation companies 
bringing aliens from foreign contiguous territory; but it seems unlikely 
that this accounts for all the cases in which no fines were imposed. 



A thorough and valuable study of Italian immigration is that of Dr. 
Robert F. Foerster of Harvard University, The Italian Emigration of Our 
Times. (Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1919.) 



For other publications of this League, address the Immigration Re- 
striction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. From the Immigra- 
tion Bureau, Washington, D.C., can be obtained a pamphlet containing 
the immigration laws and regulations, the last Annual Report of the 
Commissioner General of Immigration, and the last number of the U.S. 
Immigration Service Bulletin, issued monthly, and containing current 
figures. 

This League is a non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, with 
members from all parts of the United States. Annual membership, one 
dollar a year; life membership, ten dollars in one payment with no annual 
dues. For membership address the League, .11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, 
Mass. 



3M— 120 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 73 



BRIEF IN FAVOR OF THE 

NUMERICAL LIMITATION BILL 



(66th Congress, E. R. 10837, contained in Publication No. 69 of the League; see 
also § 9 of H. R. 12320, introduced by the Chairman of the 
House Committee on Immigration, Feb. 4, 1920) 

The League's bill limits the number of aliens from any nation who may come 
in, during any year, to such percentage between twenty and fifty of the number 
of males of such nationality naturalized in the United States at the date of the 
preceding census, as the Secretary of Labor may fix, having regard to labor 
conditions here. 

Aliens returning from a temporary visit abroad, aliens coming to join certain 
relatives, and certain classes of professional persons may enter in addition to 
the maximum fixed by the bill. 

The bill does not apply to natives of the Western Hemisphere; and leaves 
Oriental immigration to be regulated as at present 



A. Further restriction of immigration both as to quantity and 
quality is essential to the preservation of American ideals and in- 
stitutions. 

Prior to 1880, immigration was chiefly from races akin to the orig- 
inal settlers in race, institutions and historical background. Since 
1880, the opposite is the case. In 1880, 65 per cent of the total im- 
migration came from Northern and Western Europe. In 1914, the last 
year of large immigration before the war, 68 per cent of the total im- 
migration was of the Slavic and Iberic races of Eastern and Southern 
Europe. Whatever the merits of these latter races of immigrants, they 
are not familiar with democratic institutions, are largely ignorant of 
the English language, and until the Act of 1917 were more than one- 
third illiterate even as to their own language. 

As Gustav Le Bon says, too large a preponderance of foreigners 
(meaning those foreign in ideas and customs) destroys that most vital 
possession of a nation — its own soul. The downfall of nearly every 
great civilization has been due in large part to the peaceful invasion 
of large numbers of persons having different aims and customs. 

1 



B. Further restriction of immigration, both as to quantity and 
quality, is essential to the Americanization of immigrants already 
here and those to be admitted hereafter. 

To attempt to assimilate the enormous immigrant population al- 
ready here, to teach it our language and something of our history 
and government, above all, to imbue it with our traditions and ideals, 
in the face of an additional immigration of a million or more a year, 
is a hopeless task. It is like trying to keep a leaking boat dry without 
stopping the leak. 

Adequate assimilation means not only great labor and expense, but 
it requires time. It requires something more than evening classes 
for adults, and flag exercises in the schools. Many aliens are settled 
in communities where they hear only their own language, and read, 
if they are able to read, only newspapers in that language. The most 
potent assimilative force is contact and exchange of ideas with the 
native population. This requires time, even in the case of the children. 
Meanwhile we need elbow-room to make adequate progress with those 
already here; as is shown in League Publication No. 74 by Kobert 
De C. Ward. 

G. The preservation of American institutions and the assimila- 
tion of immigrants demand that the bulk of further immigration 
should be of kindred races. 

It is obvious that those whose home government, institutions and 
habits are more akin to our own will most easily fit into our life here 
and be the easiest to assimilate socially, economically and politically. 

D. The proposed bill operates along the same lines as the read- 
ing test in the Act of 1917, but is needed to supplement that test. 

In the opinion of government officials and expert students of the 
matter, the reading test has proved to be one of the most valuable 
features of the law. In 1917, the total number of illiterates over 
fourteen years of age admitted was 35,510; in 1918, the total number 
of illiterates admitted over sixteen years of age, under the exceptions 
in the law, was 3,772. This reduction was effected chiefly in the aliens 
from Southern and Eastern Europe, where the rate of illiteracy is 
high. The reading test has also proved valuable in excluding feeble- 
minded and other defective persons who might not have been excluded 
without it. 

But the effect of the reading test will presently diminish; partly 

2 



through the natural spreading of education to the countries backward 
in that respect, partly because those same countries will make special 
efforts to promote elementary education. This latter effect of the law 
is noticeable in Italy, where, since the passage of the test, prepara- 
tions are being made to make reading available to all intending emi- 
grants. The increase in popular education abroad is one of the bene- 
ficial results of our present immigration law. 

Therefore some measure operating along the same lines is needed 
to supplement the reading test before the latter begins to lose its 
effect. 



E. The proposed bill, while reducing the total volume of immi- 
gration, reduces it chiefly as to those countries of Eastern and 
Southern Europe whose emigrants are less easily assimilated here. 

As stated above under A and B, what is needed is that aliens 
shall not be allowed to come in faster than they can be assimilated. 
This implies a reduction of the total number from the million a year 
who came to us before the war; and especially a reduction in such 
a way that the bulk of immigration shall be of the kindred races of 
Northern and Western Europe. 

The proposed bill, under its maximum provision of 50 per cent, 
would have had the following effect in a year of normally large immi- 
gration like 1914: 

Actually Admissible 
admitted under bill 

Northern and Western Europe 189,177 1,090,500 

Southern and Eastern Europe 945,288 279,288 

In other words, the total European immigration would have been 
reduced to 43 per cent of the actual volume by reducing the immigra- 
tion from Southern and Eastern Europe to 29 per cent of its actual 
volume. 

The proposed bill, under its minimum provision of 20 per cent, 
would have had the following effect in 1914 : 

Actually Admissible 
admitted under bill 

Northern and Western Europe 189,177 436,200 

Southern and Eastern Europe 945,288 111,715 

In other words, the total European immigration would have been 
reduced to 26 per cent of its actual volume, by reducing the immigra- 

3 



tion from Southern and Eastern Europe to 12 per cent of its actual 
volume. 

It will be noticed that the number, admissible under the bill, from 
Northern and Western Europe, is much larger than actually came in 
1914, and than is likely to come in any future year. 

It is possible that some increase of these races might take place 
when they are no longer so subject to the overwhelming competition of 
the races from Southern and Eastern Europe. In the past, such com- 
petition has been a powerful factor in checking immigration from 
Northern and Western Europe. But much increase is not likely, and 
if it took place, being of kindred races it would be more easily assim- 
ilated. 

F. The proposed bill would discriminate against those less as- 
similable. 

Most of the arguments in favor of the reading test (set forth in 
Publications Nos. 56 and 63) support this bill also. The races of 
Eastern and Southern Europe are relatively illiterate; and investiga- 
tion has shown that illiteracy goes hand in hand with various other 
undesirable qualities which make assimilation difficult. 

The recent immigration, for example, does not distribute itself over 
the country to build up new communities, as did the earlier ; but tends 
to congregate in certain States, in the large cities of those States, 
and in the congested districts of those cities. 

The Census of 1910, Volume I, Population, page 814, showed that 
the States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania contained 67.8 
per cent of all the Roumanians in the United States ; 64.0 per cent of 
all the Hungarians; 58.4 per cent of all the Italians; and 55.7 per 
cent of all the Russians. This compares with 34.8 per cent of the 
English, 33.8 per cent of the French, 30.2 per cent of the Germans and 
13.2 per cent of the Swedes. 

Volume I, page 818, showed that 78.6 per cent of those from Eastern 
and Southern Europe live in cities as compared with 68.3 per cent of 
those from Northern and Western Europe. Volume I, page 1273, 
shows that, of those unable to speak English, 69.2 per cent live in 
cities. 

In 1000, Chicago contained 91 per cent of all the Poles in Illinois, 
and 84 per cent of all the Italians. New York City contained 47 per 
cent of all the Poles in the State, 80 per cent of all the Italians and 
94 per cent of all the Russian Jews. The Seventh Special Report of 
the U.S. Commissioner of Lalor (1894, p. 44) showed that natives 

4 



of Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia constituted 6 times 
their normal proportion in the slums of Baltimore, 7 times in Chicago, 
5 times in New York and 26 times in Philadelphia. 

This tendency to slum life is largely due to ignorance of gainful 
trades, and in part to lack of savings. The Report of the Industrial 
Commission showed that in 1900, while the British and Germans 
brought with them f 30 to f 40 per capita, the Southern Italians, Poles 
and Hebrews brought less than $10. 

G. The basis of exclusion in the bill, namely an annual immi- 
gration limited to from 20 to 50 per cent of the males of any nation- 
ality naturalized at the date of the last census, is a sound one. 

The best test of assimilation and of the desire of those of any race 
to throw in their lot with us permanently is the degree to which 
they become naturalized. Races who do this are in general those 
most nearly kindred to us, as appears from the following table. 

The Census of 1910, Volume I, page 1072, gave the proportion of 
foreign-born males of voting age who were naturalized, for the nations 
specified, as follows : 

Northern and Western Europe Eastern and Southern Europe 

Germany 69.5 Turkey in Europe 43.0 

Wales 69.2 Roumania 28.8 

Ireland 67.8 Russia 26.1 

Sweden 62.8 Portugal 24.9 

Switzerland 61.8 Austria 24.6 

Denmark 61.6 Turkey in Asia 21.2 

Norway 57.1 Italy 17.7 

Netherlands 56.8 Spain 16.4 

France 49.6 Hungary 14.3 

Belgium 43.0 Greece 6.6 



H. This bill does not in any way repeal or modify the present 
laws excluding Oriental immigration. It is entirely different from 
the so-called "Gulick" bill. 

This League believes that, whatever the merits of the Chinese, 
Japanese and Hindus may be, the public opinion of this country is 
entirely justified in demanding that they be substantially excluded, 
as at present, and not allowed to come into economic competition 
here with our manual workers. It has therefore opposed and now 
opposes the Gulick bill, which repeals all specific Oriental exclusion 
and retains as the only barrier a percentage limitation. Although 

5 



the Gulick bill is also a numerical limitation plan, its basis for ex- 
clusion is different from that of the League's bill ; and, in the opinion 
of experts, the Gulick plan might allow several million Orientals to 
be here at the end of fifty years. We have had a troublesome experi- 
ence with the African races, and we ought not to risk any repetition 
of this trouble with the Asiatic races. It may be noted that the ex- 
clusion of Orientals from Australia, New Zealand and Canada is 
much more rigid than from the United States. 

The League's bill should not be associated with the Gulick bill. 
They are entirely different propositions. 

I. The time to adopt adequate measures of restriction is now. 

The war acted for several years as the strongest kind of a check 
upon all immigration. The best expert opinion is that immigration 
will increase very rapidly from now on. For some years to come, 
work of reconstruction may tend to keep at home the better sorts of 
workingmen in Northwestern Europe. On the other hand, the disturbed 
political conditions in Eastern Europe, and the destruction of many 
homes, will tend to uproot many families and make them more ready 
to try life on another continent. The steamship companies, who 
know that immigrants are the most profitable cargo they can carry, 
will be eager to turn this feeling of unsettlement to their profit by 
inducing as many as possible to come hither. Those having the least 
stake in their own country, and those not likely to have a large 
interest in any country are the easiest to persuade. 

We should therefore be prepared for a largely increased immigra- 
tion, probably of a lower grade than heretofore; and should adopt 
adequate legislation now, before the rush begins. 

Issued by the Immigration Restriction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. 



220-3ME 



6 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 74 

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION ESSEN- 
TIAL TO AMERICANIZATION 

Robert Db C. Ward 

(Reprinted (by permission), with alterations as indicated, from the American 
Review of Reviews, May, 1919) 



*********** 

The complete Americanization program involves more than many 
of those who are at present engaged in it yet realize. There are four 
phases of it: education, assimilation, Americanization and naturali- 
zation. . . . All four phases are naturally and inevitably closely re- 
lated. The dominant notes in the Americanization campaign at pres- 
ent are education and naturalization, the latter immediately following 
the former. Far too little attention is paid to the logical sequence of 
the four stages above named, every one of which is essential to the com- 
plete accomplishment of our purpose. 

The first step is obviously education. We have suddenly become 
keenly alive to the danger of having large numbers of aliens among us 
who cannot speak or read our language, and we realize that the first 
step must be to give them all a knowledge of English. But it is most 
important to remember that a common language alone cannot imme- 
diately and completely wipe out all discordant racial differences. We 
rely far too much on education to accomplish Americanization for us. 
We expect too much of flag exercises and of compositions on George 
Washington. What is necessarily in many cases often a rather thin 
veneer of Americanization is generally thought to be sufficient. The 
war has shown us that we have a far greater responsibility in this 
matter than simply to see that our alien population goes to school. A 
common language is, indeed, an implement of Americanization, but it 
is only one implement. It by no means completes the structure. 

The importation, for some decades past, of several hundred thou- 
sand non-English-speaking alien illiterates annually has tremendously 



1 



increased and complicated the task of educating the millions of native- 
born American illiterates, of whose presence in the United States 
many of us have lately for the first time become aware. It does not 
decrease our national burden of illiteracy when millions of alien 
illiterates are added to millions of native-born illiterates. 

The second step is assimilation. This means . . . the adaptation of 
our alien population to the general standards of living which we desig- 
nate as American — standards of cleanliness, of hygiene, of public order 
and safety and the like. Assimilation is not Americanization, although 
it is a long step in that direction. 

The third stage is Americanization. While assimilation has to do 
largely with the physical, Americanization is chiefly concerned with 
the mental and spiritual. It is, of course, true that Americanization 
to some extent begins at the very beginning, with education, and con- 
tinues throughout the process of assimilation. But what is here meant 
by Americanization is the acquirement of such an understanding of our 
history, our institutions, our government and our ideals as will give 
all of our foreign-born so deep an appreciation of and love for our 
country that they will naturally and inevitably wish to become its 
citizens. 

Both assimilation and Americanization need long, close, patient 
and unselfish personal contact on the part of intelligent and sympa- 
thetic Americans with the foreigners whom it is sought to amalgamate 
into our body politic. This is no "cheap" and "easy" thing. Neither 
lectures on American statesmen, nor talks on municipal sanitation, can 
in any conceivable way replace what personal contact alone can give. 
As Miss Frances A. Kellor recently pointed out in the Yale Review: 
"We face the indisputable fact that almost without exception every 
foreign-born male adult is a member of some racial organization which 
takes precedence in his mind over every other form of association of 
which he is a significant part." 

. . . The fourth, and final, stage in the process of complete Ameri- 
canization is naturalization. And right here it is important to point 
out that naturalization is no infallible remedy for the evils of non- 
assimilation. Normal naturalization, which is the result of an alien's 
own natural desire to become a full-fledged American citizen, is a sane 
and healthy process. It is good evidence of his intention to become 
thoroughly assimilated. But forced, wholesale, artificially stimulated 
naturalization is undesirable. It does not tend to produce 100 per 
cent. Americans. It may put on the veneer, but by no means necessa- 
rily involves that deep and lasting appreciation of our institutions 

2 



which is vital in our democracy. It often results in a situation which 
is already far too common in this country, in which the "magic" ex- 
pected of a naturalization court does not work. 

When aliens do not of themselves ask for naturalization, they are 
not very likely to be desirable citizens. They may go through the 
motions without changing their racial prejudices, and without acquir- 
ing either our ideas or our ideals. To quote the words of another, 
"When you persuade a man to join a club he is very likely not to pay 
his dues in a year or two, and if you persuade him to join our national 
society when he does not care much about it, the effect is likely to be 
similar." The Deputy Commissioner of Naturalization has recently 
called attention to the fact that there are at present several millions 
of foreign-born in this country who have not become naturalized. 

Far better that the remaining unnaturalized millions should 
remain such than to force them through the naturalization courts be- 
fore they are thoroughly Americanized. The movement for immediate 
and wholesale naturalization of our alien population is ill-advised, 
even dangerous, unless it involves, as a preliminary, complete and 
honest Americanization. Common citizenship unless it be of the right 
kind produces the appearance but not the condition of unity. Theo- 
dore Koosevelt's last public words expressed his views on this matter in 
his characteristically forceful language: 

We have room for but one language here, and that is the English 
language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out 
as Americans, of American nationality, and not as dwellers in a 
polyglot boarding-house; and we have room for but one soul loyalty, 
and that is loyalty to the American people. 

No American wants any part of the United States, no matter how 
small a section of it, to be a "polyglot boarding-house." Yet that ex- 
pression perfectly describes the situation which exists to-day in many 
places. 

There is one further step which is an absolutely essential part of 
the Americanization campaign. The problem is difficult enough, at 
best, to require all the energy, and time, and money that can be given 
to it. But no thorough Americanization can possibly be accomplished 
unless the numbers of incoming alien immigrants are kept within 
reasonable limits. It is an absolutely impossible task properly to 
educate, assimilate, Americanize and naturalize our foreign-born popu- 
lation if millions forever keep pouring in. It is exactly like trying to 
keep a leaking boat bailed out without stopping the leak. To expect 
any reasonable success in this campaign, immigration must be re- 
stricted. 

3 



... As soon as ocean transportation is again fully established, there 
will be a far larger immigration than ever before. It is the opinion of 
American diplomatic and consular officers in Europe, and of com- 
petent correspondents who have recently traveled extensively abroad, 
that there is everywhere a more widespread desire than ever to "go to 
America." . . . Immigration, which fell to a very low ebb during the 
war, is now increasing by leaps and bounds. There is every reason to 
believe that it will not only return to its pre-war basis, of over 1,000,- 
000 a year, but that it will shortly greatly exceed that number. In 
his last Annual Report, the Commissioner-General of Immigration pre- 
dicts a rapidly increasing immigration from almost all foreign coun- 
tries, and a recent writer, after considerable study of the subject, has 
put the probable annual number of immigrants who will soon be 
coming here at 2,000,000/ Even the most enthusiastic believer in the 
success of the Americanization movement can hardly face the prospect 
of an immigration of over a million aliens a year without discourage- 
ment and despair. To hope to accomplish successful Americanization 
when such an unlimited supply of aliens keeps up is to have an opti- 
mism "beyond all bounds of reason." A real restriction of immigra- 
tion is a necessary and a logical part of the Americanization pro- 
gram. . . . 

Our present Immigration Act, after having been twice vetoed by 
President Wilson, was passed over the veto by both Senate and House, 
and became law on February 5, 1917, about two months before this 
country declared war. The new statute became effective on May 1, 
1917. It is by far the most comprehensive immigration legislation 
ever enacted in this country, and if properly enforced would be of 
immense benefit to our future race. 

. . . This law is at present practically our only breakwater against 
the advancing tide of alien immigration, which will be both increased in 
quantity and lowered in quality. Everything should be done to secure 
the effective administration of the new law, which has not yet had to 
stand the test of a large immigration. Its rigid enforcement will 
unquestionably result in an improvement in the mental, physical and 
moral qualities of immigrants, even if not designed greatly to reduce 
their numbers. 

In its final report (1915) the National Commission on Industrial 
Kelations reached the following conclusion : 

The immigration policy of the United States has created a number 
of our most difficult and serious industrial problems and has been re- 

1 These sentences are slightly changed from the original. 



4 



sponsible, in a considerable measure, for the existing state of in- 
dustrial unrest. The enormous influx of immigrants during the 
last twenty-five years has already undermined the American standard 
of living for all workmen except those in skilled trades, and has been 
the largest single factor in preventing the wage scale from rising as 
fast as food prices. The great mass of non-English-speaking workers 
who form about half the labor force in basic industries, has done much 
to prevent the development of better relations between employer and 
employee. 

The new Immigration Act, while a great advance on previous 
legislation, goes only a very little way toward remedying the con- 
ditions here referred to. This act is qualitatively selective, not 
quantitatively restrictive. It will not and cannot greatly reduce the 
numbers of our immigrants. 

Our newspapers have lately been making much of the deportation of 
alien anarchists and of other groups of agitators. Such deportation, 
while' most desirable in every way for the internal peace and safety of 
the country, is not a large or important factor in our immigration 
policy. It concerns a few hundred persons only. . . . 

The conviction that our present immigration laws are selective 
rather than numerically restrictive has naturally resulted in a wide- 
spread demand for immediate further legislation which shall really 
limit the numbers of our alien immigrants. Many bills aiming at a 
further restriction rather than a mere selection of immigration have 
been introduced into the present Congress. One of these (H.R. 10837), 
introduced by Congressman Nichols of South Carolina, is based 
on the conviction that one of the best tests of assimilation is the wish 
to become naturalized. It limits the number of aliens to be admitted 
from any country in any year to from 20 to 50 per cent, of the persons 
born in such country who were naturalized at the date of the last 
census. The exact per cent, is to be fixed annually by the Secretary of 
Labor, with reference to existing labor conditions in the United States. 
The percentage plan has the merits of being more than temporary "re- 
construction" measure ; and of being sufficiently elastic to respond to 
varying economic conditions. This bill leaves the status of Oriental 
immigration precisely as at present, and is thus in accord with the 
convictions of the great majority of our people. 1 

A further real restriction of immigration is necessary for the 
proper assimilation and Americanization of our heterogeneous popu- 
lation. 

Our attitude on this question of immigration should be clearly 



1 These sentences are slightly changed from the original. 

5 



defined. Sentiment will never solve this, or any other great national 
problem. There is no place here for the idealist who shudders at the 
mere thought of a further regulation of immigration, and who, holding 
fast to the vision of the universal brotherhood of man, calls "un- 
generous" and "un-American" any one who suggests any further im- 
migration legislation. 

The idealist points out what an enormous debt our country owes to 
its foreign-born citizens. He is constantly reminding us of the re- 
markable achievements of foreign-born children in our public schools. 
He has absolute confidence in our capacity to assimilate all people, of 
all lands, who choose to come here. He believes in the "melting pot," 
where race hatred and race differences are to be forever done away 
with. He produces such endless statistics to show that our recent 
immigrants are far ahead of the native-born in all that pertains to 
good citizenship that the rest of us sometimes cannot help wondering 
how our ancestors, of Anglo-Saxon stock, who originally settled the 
United States, ever had the genius and the wisdom and the courage 
to fight the Kevolutionary War, or to develop our American demo- 
cratic government. 

Yet the idealist is obviously inconsistent when he says he believes 
in keeping the United States forever the "asylum and the refuge for 
the down-trodden and oppressed of all nations." He does not really 
believe in a "haven" open, unrestrictedly, to all comers. He does 
not want to admit, unreservedly, the alien agitator, 1 the insane, the 
idiot, the criminal, the prostitute, or those who have "loathsome or 
dangerous contagious disease." Few of his group want our doors 
wide open, for all time, to the incoming of millions upon millions of 
Chinese, Japanese and Hindus. He is beginning to realize that, ow- 
ing chiefly to his persistent opposition to the enactment of adequate 
immigration laws, his "asylum," of which he has said so much, is 
becoming an insane asylum, and his "refuge" is turning into an alms- 
house, a penitentiary and a hot-bed of alien sedition. 1 

Not immigration restriction but indiscriminate hospitality to im- 
migrants is the "ungenerous" and "un-American policy." To grant 
free admission to all who want to come may give us, for the moment, 
a comfortable feeling that we are providing a "refuge for the op- 
pressed." But it is in the highest degree "ungenerous" in us, the 
custodians of the future heritage of our race, to permit to land on 
our shores mental, physical and moral defectives, who, themselves 
and through their descendants, will not only lower the standards 



1 Addition. 

6 



of our own people, but will tremendously increase all future problems 
of public and private philanthropy. It is in the highest degree "un- 
American" for us to permit any such influx of alien immigrants as 
will make the process of Americanization any more difficult than it 
already is. 

Again, our so-called "traditional" policy of admitting practically 
all who have wished to come has vastly increased discontent and 
unrest in our own country; and has not helped, but has rather de- 
layed, the introduction of political, social, economic and educational 
reforms abroad. 1 Had some of the millions of European immigrants 
remained at home, they would have insisted on reforms in their own 
countries which have been delayed, decade after decade, because the 
discontent of Europe found a safety-valve by flying to America. Have 
we, in any way, helped the progress of all these reforms abroad by 
keeping the safety-valve open ? 

By encouraging the discontented millions of Europe and Asia to 
come here, are we likely to hasten, or to delay, the development of 
enlightened social democracies in Armenia, in Syria, in Hungary, in 
Poland, in Turkey? Our duty as Americans, interested in the world- 
wide progress of education, of religious liberty, and of democratic 
institutions, is to do everything in our power to help the discontented 
millions of Europe and Asia to work out, in their own countries, for 
themselves, what our forefathers worked out here, for us. That would 
be the greatest contribution we could make to the progress and 
preservation of American ideals. 

1 Slight changes. 

Issued by the Immigration Restriction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. 



220-3ME 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 75 

Immigration Figures for 1920 



Comparison of the Fiscal Years ending June 30, 1919 and 1920 

(From data furnished by the Commissioner-General of Immigration) 



Total immigration 1820-1920 [See Note 1] . , . . 33,630,104 

Arrivals: 1919 1920 

Total 237,021 621,576 

Immigrant aliens [See Note 2] 141,132 430,001 

Non-immigrant aliens [See Note 2] . . 95,889 191, 575 
Debarred from entrance and returned after 

landing 11,694 *4,546 

Per cent of total arrivals debarred . 3.6 1.9 

Debarred and returned .... .4.9 2.3 

Departures : 

Total 216,231 428,062 

Emigrant aliens [See Note 2] ... 123,522 288,315 

Non-emigrant aliens [See Note 2] . . 92,709 139,747 

Net addition to population [See Note 3] . . 20,790 1 93, 5 14 

Immigrant aliens: 

Excess over emigrant aliens .... 17,610 141,686 

Teutonic and Keltic races, chiefly from 

Northern and Western Europe . . 73 ,5 11 183,233 

Per cent . . . . . . . 52.1 42.6 

Slavic, Iberic, and Semitic races, chiefly 

from Southern and Eastern Europe . 14,788 164,354 

Per cent . 10.5 38.2 

Asiatic . . . . . . . . 12,512 14,846 

Per cent 8.9 3.4 

Average money brought in dollars . . 1 12.17 76.63 
Per cent of farm laborers, laborers, or ser- 
vants . 20.5 31.2 

Per cent destined tor the four States of 111., 

Mass., N.Y., and Pa 48.1 44.8 



Alllllllgi <Xll b O/lltJlltJ UVtJI JLU ytJcUo UI d^tJ . 


1919 


1 no a 


Total number . . 


"4,759 


348,3H 


Number of illiterates [See Note 4] 


3,270 


15,941 


Going to join relatives . . 


2,684 


14,741 


Fleeing from religious persecution 


2 


9 


Exempt for other causes 


141 


344 


Debarred 


i,455 


1,639 


Deported within 5 years after entry 


466 


171 


Per cent of " assisted" whose passage was 






paid for by others [See Note 5] . 


39-3 


23.O 


Per cent having no occupation [See Note 5], 


27.8 


26.2 


Appeals and admissions on bond : 






Total annpals to Sprrptarv of l\ahor 




4,822 


Per cent admitted on bond .... 


5.6 


18.8 


Per cent admitted without bond . 


l8.8 


19.8 


Per cent debarred 


75-6 


6l.4 


Aliens certified as physically or mentally defective : 






Total certified 


6,060 


13,279 


Admitted . . . . . 


4,487 


H,54I 


Per cent 


76.0 


87.6 



NOTE 1. — This includes all alien arrivals to 1905 inclusive and "immigrant aliens" 
since then. 

NOTE 2. — Definitions. Immigrant aliens, those arriving whose permanent 
domicile has been outside the United States and who intend to reside permanently in 
the United States. Emigrant aliens, those departing whose permanent residence has 
been in the United States who intend to reside permanently abroad. Non-immigrant 
aliens, those residing abroad making a temporary trip to the United States. Non- 
emigrant aliens, those residing in the United States making a temporary trip abroad. 

The figures based on these definitions are not reliable as they depend solely upon 
the alien's statement of his intention. 

NOTE 3. — This figure is ascertained by subtracting from the total of "immigrant 
aliens" and "non-immigrant aliens" the "emigrant aliens" and the "non-emigrant 
aliens." 

NOTE 4. — The Act of Feb. 5, 1917, excluded illiterates over 16 years of age with 
certain exceptions. The number of illiterates in 1917, over 14 years of age, was 35,510. 

NOTE 5. — These figures are obtained by assuming that immigrant aliens under 16 
years of age had no occupation and did not pay their own passage. 



Largest Elements in Recent Immigration 



1919 

Mexican 28,884 

English 26,889 

French 12,598 

Scotch 10,364 

Japanese 10,056 

1920 

South Italian 84,882 

English . . . 58,366 

Mexican 5 1,042 

French 27,390 

Spanish . . . . . 23,594 

Principal Causes of Debarment 

1919 1920 



Likely to become a public charge . 3,994 5*297 

Unable to read .... 1)455 i>039 

Physically diseased .... 388 552 

Mentally diseased .... 141 208 

Physically or mentally defective. . 343 872 353 1,113 

Criminals 261 355 

Immoral 135 396 205 560 

Contract laborers .... 774 1*164 

Total debarred . . . . 8,626 n>795 



Remarks 

The year 192CT shows a return toward pre-war conditions. This appears 
not only from the increase in the total volume, but in the falling off in 
Teutonic and Keltic races and the increase of Slavic, Iberic, and Semitic 
races, and in the smaller amount of money shown per capita. The pros- 
pects are for an unprecedented volume of immigration during the next 
few years, in which that of the record year 1907 (1,285,349) will be exceeded. 



The inspection has apparently not been as efficient as during the 
years of smaller immigration, the percentage of debarred and returned 



being less than one-half the average of 1918-19. The percentage of those 
debarred on appeal has also diminished. 



Administrative fines were collected as follows: 

For bringing illiterates $52,800 or in 264 cases 

For bringing diseased and other inadmis- 
sible aliens ; 3,950 

As 1,639 illiterates were debarred, and the fine is $200 for each case, the 
number of fines appears very small. 



•The percentage of aliens certified as physically or mentally defective 
who were admitted has taken another jump to 87.6. 



The temporary admission of agricultural laborers from Mexico con- 
tinues in increasing numbers. Of the 50,852 thus admitted, 10,691, or 
over 20 per cent, have been lost track of and cannot be sent back. Much 
complaint has been made of the moral and social results of these admis- 
sions. 



Attention is called to The Rising Tide of Color by Lothrop Stoddard 
(Scribner's, 1920). 

The Johnson bill, H. R. 14,461, passed the House December 13, 1920 
by a vote of 295 to 41. This bill suspends immigration for fourteen 
months except as to certain relatives of certain classes already here. 
Numerous other bills are pending in both Houses. 

For other publications of this League, address the Immigration Re- 
striction League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. From the Immigra- 
tion Bureau, Washington, D.C., can be obtained a pamphlet containing 
the immigration laws and regulations, and the last Annual Report of the 
Commissioner General of Immigration. 

This League is a non-partisan and non-sectarian organization, with 
members from all parts of the United States. Annual membership, one 
dollar a year; life membership, ten dollars in one payment with no annual 
dues. For membership address the League, 11 Pemberton Sq., Boston, 
Mass. 



3M — 121 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE No. 76 

Reprinted from The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
Philadelphia, January, 1921. 
Publication No. 1473. 



Immigration and the World War 

By Prescott F. Hall 1 

Secretary, Executive Committee, Immigration Restriction League, Boston 



THE World War verified at least 
two things about immigration 
which had been previously asserted by 
experts, but doubted or ignored by the 
public. The latter knows very little 
about anthropology or the history of 
various past migrations; and its opin- 
ions are largely influenced by its local 
experience and by the articles and 

1 Author of: Immigration and Its Effects on 
he United States (1906, 1908). 



news items in the newspapers, most of 
which are inspired by various interests, 
and which give usually a narrow and 
immediate rather than a long range 
point of view. 

The first point proved by the war 
was that the immigration of a million 
aliens a year is not necessary to sustain 
the industries of this country. During 
the war, there was practically no immi- 
gration, and at the same time millions 



The Annals of the American Academy 



of men were taken out of industry for 
the army and navy. It is true that 
nroduction in many lines was curtailed; 
-^any others it was vastly ex- 
bo true that to attract 
' trades money 
wa^v.. ses real wages, 

were sharpiy td. But, in the 

long run, high wages are a good thing 
for a country if a fair day's work is 
given for them. If there had been a 
great general shortage of labor as a 
result of the war there would not even 
now be requests to the Division of 
Distribution of the Bureau of Immigra- 
tion to stop sending aliens into various 
localities TT^doubtedly there was, for 
age of workers in certain 
ertain industries. The 
>orts of this were, how- 
ever, undoubtedly exaggerated. We 
must remember that the ideal condi- 
tion, from the point of view of some 
employers of cheap labor, is to have 
two men waiting for every job, in 
order to keep down wages. Such a 
condition results in an immense amount 
of unemployment and misery, and 
shows that labor which is economically 
^ap for the employer is seldom so- 
cheap for the community, 
^cond point demonstrated by 
jid the most important one, 
dgard to assimilation. A great 
deal A nonsense had been preached 
and swallowed whole by the people, to 
the effect that environment is all im- 
portant and heredity of little account, 
in considering the effects of immigra- 
tion. That falsest of all shibboleths 
"the melting-pot " had hypnotized 
statesmen and legislators. That in- 
version of Darwin's real teaching, which 
pronounced that survival indicated 
fitness for things other than mere sur- 
vival, had permeated the jmblic mind 
and made it careless of current changes 
and of the future. 

Down to 18 r »0. i^iiot Norton 



pointed out in The Annals, 1 the United 
States had begun to develop a definite 
national character based on well-known 
Nordic traits. The colonial popula- 
tion had consisted of picked specimens 
of Nordic races. The Irish immigra- 
tion of 1846 contributed further Nordic 
strains; and, what is important to 
observe, the German emigration of 
1848 was also Nordic, whereas the 
more recent German immigrants are 
largely Alpine. Things having gone so 
well down to 1860, the policy of the 
"open door" became fixed, in spite of 
the warnings of Washington, Jefferson, 
Adams, Madison and Franklin as to 
the danger of unguarded gates. 

From 1860 and especially after 1880, 
the whole situation changed. In 1914, 
nearly three-quarters of all alien immi- 
grants were Alpine, Mediterranean or 
Asiatic and only one-quarter Nordic. 
In other words, 863 thousand of those 
coming in that year were from races 
with a different historic background, 
different customs and different ideals. 
This change had been proceeding with 
increasing intensity for forty years. 

Now the temperamental optimist, 
the social worker and the average citi- 
zen had insisted that in the new envi- 
ronment of America the £ 
changed into a "good 
Wlien the evidence did r 
bear this out, some said that although 
the alien might be assimilating us in- 
stead of our assimilating him, never- 
theless this was a good thing, and that 
the mixture of conflicting types was a 
benefit. 

The World War completely knocked 
out these cheerful conclusions by re- 
vealing that the superficial changes 
constituting "Americanization" were 
entirely inadequate to affect the hered- 
itary tendencies of generations; and 
that a mixture of conflicting types and 
opinions seriously affected the capacity 

1 Vol. 24, p. 163 (July, 1904). 



Immigration and the World War 



3 



of the nation to think and to act as a 
unit. 

Take first the hostile attitude of 
many of the immigrants from the Cen- 
tral Powers. Probably a large majority 
of those of German descent, especially 
of those descended from Germans com- 
ing before 1870, were loyal. But the 
term "German" as used in statistical 
publications is quite ambiguous. Dr. 
W. S. Sadler has pointed out 1 that in 
1600 Germany was almost entirely 
Nordic. Then, owing to the Thirty 
Years' War and other wars, the Nordic 
element was largely killed off and its 
place taken by Slavic Alpines, so that 
in 1914, Germany was 90 per cent Al- 
pine and only 10 per cent Nordic. 
This, in his opinion, accounts largely 
for the fact that the World War was 
fought on the German side so much 
more lawlessly and cruelly than was the 
War of 1870. The characteristics of 
the Nordic race are individual initia- 
tive, love of personal liberty, and a 
certain chivalry and sportsmanship. 
The Alpine and Mediterranean races 
on the other hand tend to centraliza- 
tion of authority, reliance upon the 
state, and in war to subservience and 
e of moral quality. Another 
t, the Semitic, is largely inter- 
il or racial in its interests, 
xiic resistance to the draft law, 
whether from cowardice, indifference 
or conscientious objection revealed 
the difference in attitude between the 
earlier and the later immigration, and 
this again showed that apparent 
"Americanization" was built in many 
cases upon quicksand. The unani- 
mous opinion of American and French 
observers was to the effect that those 
American regiments composed chiefly 
of Nordic stock or led by Nordic offi- 
cers were by far the most valuable. 

It is estimated that at the present 
time from 40 to 55 per cent of our pop- 

1 Sadler, W. S. Long Heads and Round Heads. 



ulation are still Nordic. It is also 

stated that at least ten mi'Hi — 

of non-N 

come her 

kept up f» 

easy to se 

to forty n. 

races mig 

the balanc eks in mis coun- 
try. And, as everything depends upon 
the people who are here to do things, 
especially under universal suffrage, 
this would mean at the worst a pro- 
found change in our institutions and 
ideals, and at the best an ineffective- 
ness born of the mixture of diverse 
elements. 

And still we do not 
We forget that Egy 

Rome, as well as Ch. , ~ — — 

and Carthage, perished from the peace- 
ful invasion of alien races. 2 Still we 
are led away from facing matters 
squarely by the red herrings of distribu- 
tion of aliens and "Americanization." 
Neither distribution nor Americaniza- 
tion is possible while one or two mil- 
lions of alien types are being poured 
into the country. I do not say that 
the aims and efforts of those engaged 
in the Americanization movement are 
wrong, but I maintain that the energy 
of many good men and a vast amount 
of money are being diverted from the 
only path by which success can be at- 
tained. I have no doubt also that they 
are encouraged by those who wish 
immigration left practically unre- 
stricted. It has always been so in the 
past. Any important change in habits 
of thought and racial tendencies re- 
quires at least several generations. As 
I have said elsewhere, 3 "you can not 
make bad stock into good by changing 
its meridian, any more than you can 

2 See an excellent historical survey by Charles 
W. Gould, America, a Family Matter (Scrib- 
ners, 1920); see also, Alfred P. Schultz, Race oj 
Mongrel (Be 1908). 

* journal of Heredity ZL, No. 3, March, 1919, 



4 



The Annals of the American Academy 



turn a cart horse into a hunter by put- 
ting it into a fine stable, or make a 
r~ongrel into a fine dog by teaching it 
tricks." We must get away from the 
one-dimension, sentimental point of 
view that all men and all races are 
potentially equal, and from the two- 
dimensional economic view which con- 
siders man as merely a producing and 
a consuming animal, and face the 
truths of history and anthropology. 

How much has " Americanization " 
changed the revolutionary communists 
in our large cities? How many more 
agitators are being allowed to come in 
today to make trouble in the future? 
They can not be detected by ordinary 
methods of inspection. 

"\ Virile immigration was at a low ebb 
and patriotic fervor was at its height 
during the war, there was a splendid 
chance to pass a stringent immigration 
law, even over a probable veto. We 
did nothing, as usual. It took twenty- 
six years to get the reading test into 
the law, although it is the most valu- 
able restrictive clause we have. We 
are dallying with our future safety just 
at the time when, as Lothrop Stoddard 
so clearly shows, 1 there is a probability 
that the brown and yellow races of 
Asia will soon resume that western 
movement which was checked for a 
time by Charlemagne. Bolshevism is 
essentially such a movement of orien- 
tal Tartar tribes led by Asiatic Semites 
against Nordic bourgeoisie. Japan is 
arming. Before the war she was poor; 
now she is rich. 2 The next big war 

1 The Rising Tide of Color. (New York. 
Scribners, 1920.) 

2 See Thomas F. Millard, The New Far East, 
pp. 33-35; Our Eastern Question, p. 217. 




may be in the Pacific. To prepare 
for that, indeed merely to maintain 
our present development, we need 
to become and to remain a strong, 
self-reliant, united country, with the 
only unity that counts, viz., that of 
race. 

What, then, shall we do? Exclude 
the black, the brown and the yellow 
altogether; as to the white, favor the 
immigration of Nordic and Nordicized 
stocks. This will best be attained by 
limiting immigration from any country 
annually to a certain per cent of those 
from that country already naturalized 
here. 3 Naturalization, when not arti- 
ficially fostered, is one of the best tests 
of assimilability, and experience shows 
that it is the Nordic races that become 
naturalized. The effect in a year 
like 1914 under a 50 per cent limitation, 
would have been as follows : 

Actually Admissible 

admitted under bill 

Northern and Western 

Europe 189,177 1,090,500 
Southern and Eastern 

Europe 945,288 279,288 

In other words, the total European 
immigration would have been reduced 
47 per cent by reducing that from 
southern and eastern Europe 71 per 
cent. 

Some such measures as these are 
essential to the perpetuation of what 
the United States stands for, not only 
within its boundaries, but to the world 
at large. 

8 This proposition is embodied in H. R. 10837 
of the 66th Congress and in § 9 of H. R. 12320 
introduced by the Chairman of the House Com- 
mittee on Immigration Feb. 4, 1920. 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

3-JWIB1M1II 

o 9999 06920 055 6 




m 



m